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DICTIONARY OF 
HARD WORDS 



Dictionary 



of 



Hard Words 



By 
Robert Morris Pier ce 

Editor of International French-English and 
English-French Dictionary ; Ideofonic Texts 
for Acquiring Languages ; author of Problems 
of Number and Mesure; Dictionary of Aviation 




lore m^ ^eiks"' ^^.^^**'* ': ^ *' 
ithe Vc^eral cpiJbiic< mu^ 

New YO&t^'.6itKe booi-' Breper 



Dodd, Mead & Company 



1910 



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Copyright, 1910 

by Robert Morns Pierce 

Pubhsht October. 1910 



PREFACE 



Soope. This book contains an alfabetic list of about 
nineteen thousand words which present special difficulties or 
variations of pronunciation or spelling. Many of the words 
in the list are difficult or variable in both pronunciation and 
spelling. 

The statement is often made that many English words* 
especially monosyllables, are alredy spelt f onetically and 
therefore present no difficulties of either spelling or pro- 
nunciation; but this statement is really not true, unless the 
fonetic alfabet in mind be one • which in its structure is 
especially confermd to the existing erthegrafy of the En- 
fllish language only, and unless those who Use it are supposed 
to be alredy familiar with the English language. From a 
cwmopelitan point of view there is hardly a word in the 
language, excepting a few weak or unstrest forms, which is 
spelt fonetically. Every present-day English dictionary 
^ may thus be said to be a dictionary of hard words, and it 
becomes evident that the book ^t^ef ore ni^ .being' liiftii^^d^irii 
\ Its scope, and made for the use; of ithe '^eheral tpiiUic? iniist 
necessarily be restricted to a compar^csvly swirjiiil vg>c«bulary. 

Among the words treated are many ir|B€ygtj!ar, ivlo^als and 
other derivativs; but no attempt has beesuHiade^-tojaud^e the 
inclusion of such forms a special feq;turfc^6t the i?dofe.V Breper 
nouns have been excluded. I am preparing a separate list of 
these, with definitions, which I hope to publish before long 
under the title of Dictionary of Proper Names. 

The present volume combines in one vocabulary ptaclicaWv 
alJ the words treated in similar lists hitherto publisbl m die- 



! 



2 PREFACE 

tionarics and manuals, and contains, besides, many words 
never before treated in such lists. Especial reliance has been 
placed upon data containd in the English-French part of my 
International French-English and English-French Dictionary, 
in Murray's New English Dictionary en Historical Princi- 
ples so far as available {A to sauce), and in Whitney's Cen- 
tury Dictionary (1889-1891). 

I have been fortunate in securing certain very valuable 
suggestions, and also certain specific criticisms, especially 
in the letter A^ and in this Preface, from George Hempl, 
professor of Germanic filelogy in Stanford University, 
California, whom I consider one of the most accurate of 
foneticians. 

Spellxngs. The word-forms or spellings given in title- 
place are in the main those which are most likely to be lookt 
for by the general reader. Under each title- word are given 
in brackets the other current spellings of the word. In some 
cases mention is also made of spellings no longer in current 
use. These are confined mainly to obsolescent forms and 
forms valuable because more nearly fonetic than those in 
current use. 

Cegnate forms having the same meaning as the title- 
word but differing from it in pronunciation, are classified 
as 'synonymous cognates.' Among the variant spellings no 
at tr nipt has been made to give all the apestrofized or 
sprcially accented forms. A few of the more common ones 
IwivC' l»Q^T\Te< b'feefl i7ieh]()e<: as. 'bus, tho\ zoology, helovbd. 
PialfOrc 'Spelling;^ Vre.^ijj* ;pccasionally given. 

Whrjv.a* tit4evWQrdij& of two or more parts of speech, ar 
when twp^or ShoiSgC t^I^lwords are spelt just alike but are of 
diffu'ojit.j^att vf.^^gch,, or of different origin, or ore for 
any tvh^^rjrfji^oNjicijtJ'd separately, the oldest part of speech, 
or the oldest Iftlo-wdr'J.'ls placed first, the others following 
sonirwhat in the order of their first known appearance in the 
Entjlish lanijuage. 
I>mfxnxtionM, To enable the reader easily to identify the 
wonl whose sprUzng or pronuncialion \ve is seekitv^, sVi^tt dcf- 



/ 



PREFACE 3 

initions have been inserted immediately after most of the 
title-words. In many cases the definitions have been reduced 
to a mere synonym or classificatory word. When several 
definitions are given, their order is in the main historical, 
the oldest sense being placed first, with the more recent 
senses following in the sequence of their temporal develop- 
ment. Fortunately this sequence is often closely identical 
with the sequence of their logical development. 

Prommciation. The pronunciation is in every case in- 
dicated by a foil re-spclling. Under each title-word are 
given, in somewhat normalized or universalized form, its 
most acceptable or proper natural pronunciation or pronuncia- 
tions current to-day in the English-speaking world at large. 

Where several pronunciations are given without classifi- 
cation, the forms following the first form are usually to be 
considerd as individual or local variants in good usage. Little 
heed is taken of the modifications which words undergo 
when used in types of discourse different from the normal 
type. On the other hand,, much attention has been given to 
functional variants concomitant with changes of meaning or 
stress, variants which each individual uses according as he 
uses a word with this or that meaning, in this or that manner 
or position, or with this or that degree or position of stress. 

An important class of variants is that of words such as 
abstrcict which, when used posteriorly (that is, after a 
word or syllable having chief stress), are normally strest on 
the last syllable, as in the sentence : the science of logic is 
,aeb'stjaekt, but when used anteriorly (that is, before a 
word or syllable having chief stress, are normally strest on 
the first syllable, as m the sentence : logic is an 'aeb^stjaekt 
science. By no means all variants of this class have been 
included. Those oftenest given are adjectivs, whose pred- 
icativ forms differ in this way from their assumptiv (or, 
IS they are often cald, attributiv) forms. Compound words, 
such as well-bred, which are characterized by this same mode 
of variation, are given here and there merely as exampVes oi 
ffrcfepg of cases of like kind, many of which are omiluA. 



4 PREFACE 

The cases of words with the prefix un- are so very numerous 
that It has seemd worth while to include a considerable num- 
ber of the more common or more interesting of them. The 
purpose of including these and other derivativs and com- 
pounds has usually been to call attention to this special 
variation or to some other special feature. In treating the 
derivativs, therefore, I have avoided repeating minor varia- 
tions which are alredy given under the original words else- 
where in the vocabularj-. 

The recognition and careful treatment of these fenemena 
I believe to be, as I said in my French-English and English- 
French Dictionary (Preface, page 5), an important innova- 
tion in Icxicegrafy. Speech, as actually utterd, is far richer 
in such variants than the conventionalities and limitations of 
the current erthografy would lead most people to believe. 
This fact I hope to make still clearer in a book which I in- 
tend soon to publish; namely, a Fonetic Dictionary of the 
English Language. 

There is certainly abundant opportunity for antagonizing 
the intolerable practises of the old-school lexicografers in 
this field. The word-books in common use are weighted 
down with antiquated fonetic notations, and fild with ertho- 
grafic, fictitious, and systematically erroneous pronuncia- 
tions. These books are in large mesure the creatures of a 
cominercialism whose policy is to conserv and perpetuate 
fonetic error and iniquity. This policy has been adhered to 
for so long a period, and is still being applied en so vast a 
scale, that the peculiar species of pseudofonetic word-forms 
characterizing these books have taken on a sacredness com- 
parable with that of the current spelling itself. The anti- 
(luated notation used, the fanciful qualities and quantities as- 
siKiH'd the sounds represented, and the avowedly false syllabi- 
cation and stress depicted arc preservd with such an ignorant, 
obstinate, and sanctimonious spirit, as to appear truly ridic- 
ulous to modern foneticians. 
A'o :ittriupt has been made to ring all the changes en 
normul vowel quality and lengt\i, sUtss, ^ti^ ^-^^TJ^svai&iQi^ 



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PREFACE 5 

which consistency would require; much less to fellow up ab- 
normal forms of speech, such as those found in oratory, dic- 
tation, singing, dialect, or child-speech, or in the blunders 
of foreigners learning English, or to consider in detail the 
assimilation and elision of sounds in contiguous words. 

The pronunciation given of semi-fereign words is their 
pronunciation in the sound-system of the English language, 
net their pronunciation in the sound-system of the language 
whence they were adopted into English. For example, menu 
IS given as ^e'njou, or 'mee^nju, and net as ms'ny (as it is 
pronounced in French). Probably no case is known of a 
new elementary (foreign) sound being directly adopted into 
a language. Sounds such as [y], represented by the (u) of 
the French word menu, or as [x], represented by the (ch) of 
the Scotch word loch and the German word ach, or as [0] 
represented by the (oe) of the German word Goethe and by 
the (eu) of the French word peu, which are often said to oc- 
cur in these words as adopted and used in the English lan- 
guage, do net, in reality, so occur. These sounds do net form 
a part of the sound-system of the English language. Simi- 
larly, but to a less degree, is this true of certain combinations 
of sounds, as initial [ks], [ts], [ps]. Tho it is perhaps pos- 
sible for most English-speaking persons, without training, to 
utter these sequences of sounds initially, and tho these se- 
quences are sometimes actually so used, as in certain rare or 
bookish words, their adoption is in most cases resisted. 
Note the rebellion against the use of initial [ts] in tsar, czar 
(«i:e, tsaiz) in spite of the fact that [ts] often occurs in En- 
glish both medial and final. 

Among the many classes of words in the pronunciation of 
which there zs a distinct difference in usage, there are some 
classes of vast extent. Of some of these extensiv classes 
many examples are given in this dictionary; but of others 
only an occasional example is given. Of still other of these 
classes no mention at all is made. Words ending in [t^s?] or 
[tea;], for example, as nature, culture, and words like bass, 
launch, etc, are often noted as having two or more disUticX 



6 PREFACE 

pn?auxicuicion& So with words having [iou, jou, ^ou], etc., 
or [uuj. etc.. as rcoimtion, endure, news, Tuesday. But xn 
oth«r cases, as of words ending xn [San] or [Sn], like nation, 
mssccuiti^*n. or in [izam. szam], etc., or [izm, xzm], etc., like 
frism. s*striKism. sf^um, etc.. or having [ak, ag] or [ik, xg], 
as c4«jru*:t^T. tfi'stiicU,, Alexandrine, little or no prominence xs 
)ftv«n to ih« matter. 

In classifvin^ the prontmciations of a word as British, 
Irish. Sct»tch. American. less proper, improper, vulgar, etc, 
It IS nti't meet that the reader should interpret these terms 
m t\V ttarrv^w or exact a manner. As a general rule, Amerx- 
CJiit usA^ IS s^iven the preference and is placed first, without 
Vcin^ ttMrkt. Usage morkt as British may be common or 
«4kr^v.Jll aIs«> itt New England or m other ports of the English- 
SfK^Wicvn: wv^rid. Vsage morkt as dialectal, vulgar, or xm- 
rr^p<r wiy sometimes be heard in the speech of a cultured 
isrr^^tt M^ny sarcv^ndary f^rros which are left unclassified or 
>fchwh Anc c!jk»it:<xi as *less proper." etc., might upon further 
%ttw»ti^A:u^it AS to the prv^prietT and extent of their past and 
r^vsv-tr: xHsXjjX pro\X' k» he either o^ equally proper, but less 
tx\\;wv'rt, v-^ r»0Te pr^r^r. tho less frequent. (3) both more 
V*^iv« At^xl •.roTf tWN;«cr,t. v4^ dialectal variants, or (5) func- 
xtOf'sA'. \At%Ar:s. v^t trisyllables like beautiful, duplicate, 
,v*^* ^ ^•\* /v# f^'^ty^ etc.. It may be said to be probable 
»X*{ tV *ec\*^.xl r?v*r.ur.ciation given (namely, that with a 
xS^\-, XN^xfcv: ^r»:?rxl of a d:tth^ng in the first syllable) repre- 
'i^i-.x A !",Mv tr.xxwrt ar.d a better usage than the first pro- 
-. vs. *•-,-» v>*>w>, \s tbe only ferm met with in existing 

V-o:*4i ■.^o ?\^v.^'-as icd shades of sound which in this dic- 
u,N>*ti\ ,uv o\;Vi r*; •.'.virkt at «H. or but rarely markt, may 
N* ■ ' ■ . ■• t o js\ ; >.o •, ^*. 'o w I ni: : 

*'*'>' />iJA' 5rx*r i"1 t^ «;Ti::e common in English. It 
v^'n' xnv;^«.x \:':t:A' >srtor<' jtrrst \owcl$. and sometimes oc- 
X -x • ..*: ^- xV^^Av.' ?>r:r5 x"*: the word yes. It is rarely 

- t >,• %v »M* t* ?s{x^?' ;0. ** xvv \>,e word gig (gig) is a some- 



PREFACE 7 

In this book, however, the fonetxc letter (g) is net used, the 
letter (g) being empleyd for the central stop [g] as well as 
for the back step [gj. (See the Universal Gammakap, page 
9, below.) 

3. The sibilant represented by the letter (s), etc., in words 
like question, exchange, etc., fellowd by the sound [tj], may 
be considerd to be a sound intermediate betiueen [s] and [$]. 
As no special symbol is used in this book for this interme- 
diate vowel, such words are often markt as being pronounced 
with [s] only, or with either [s] or [$], two re-spellings being 
given in the latter case. 

4. In the words act (sekt), attacked (a'txkt), and the like, 
we have the first half of a [k] and the second half of a [t], 
the tongue flapping from the [k]-position to the [t]-position 
without a [k]-explosion. This [t], theoretically, is syllabic. 
(See page 14.) No special symbols are used in this book to 
distinguish these sounds from ordinary [k] and [t]. 

5. The aspirate [h] after strest voiceless stops, tho the 
rule in English, and especially strong in Ireland (where it 
often develops into a fricativ cognate with the step), as in 
the word cake (kge:kQ, insted of kheekh or keekh), is net 
markt at all in this book. A detaild treatment of this fe- 
nemenen would be interesting. 

6. The initial sound of the word humph is identified in 
this book with the voiceless nasal [ic]. The sound might 
as well, or perhaps better, have been identified with the va- 
riety of nasal-[h] sound in the production of which the oral 
passage is closed by the tip of the tongue. 

7. The resonants may be voiceless as well as voiced 
(vowels). In some languages voiceless resonants occur 
nennally with great frequency. In English they occur some- 
times in unstrest syllables, as in the word practically, as often 
pronounced, in which we have a voiceless [i] and possibly, 
sometimes, a voiceless [a]. These voiceless resonants have 
net been markt in this book. 

8. The high-central vowel [i], as in the word axis ('aeksis), 
IS quite a different sound from the front vowel [i] in the 
word pin (pin). This central vowel is a very important 
sound in English fonelogy, and I was desirous of using this 
special representation of it thruout this dictionary; but I was 
tmable to procure the type at the time of beginning the com- 
position of the vocabulary. I have been able, however, to 
mark the sound properly in this Preface, except in the bold- 
face paragraf-hedings. Thruout the body of the book iV^c 
letter (i) xs empleyd for the central vowel [i] as well as io^ 
lAc froat vowel [ij. 



8 PREFACE 

9. The several varieties of mid-central vowel sounds, as in 
the words govern ('gAvarn), lengthen (IcqGan), tackle ('takal), 
Anna ('aena), obey (a'bee), are net definitly differentiated in 
English, and perhaps never will be. They are, therefore, all 
represented with sufficient accuracy for the purposes of this 
book by the single letter (a). 

10. Half-leng vowels. The vowel [a] before M fellowd by 
a voiceless step, as [k], and a weak syllable, as in the word 
market ('ma^kit, 'ma:?-kit), may be said to be nermally half- 
leng. Similarly with the vowel [b] before [r] fellowd by a 
voiceless step, or by [n], [1], or [ds], and a weak syllabic, as 
in the words curtain ('kertn), learned ('iBrnid), early ('sell), 
clergy ('ki-B^dsi), respectivly. As no symbol is used in this 
book for half-length, the vowels [a] and [b], when really half- 
leng, are often markt as short only, or as either short or long; 
two re-spellings being given in the latter case. 

11. Weak voiceless consonants have for convenience been 
clast as voiced or voiceless according as the preceding sound 
IS voiced or voiceless, as in his (hiz, rather than his), edged 
(edsd, rather than edjt), but scratched (slnaetSt). Such sounds 
are susceptible of a more accurate treatment. 

Fonetzo Notation. The sounds of speech are noted in 
this dictionary by means of a system of letters which, for con- 
venience, are arranged in the order g, k, etc. This system 
of letters, so arranged, I have named gammakap (from gam- 
ma and kappa), by analogy to the word alfahet, which 
denotes a system of letters arranged in the order a, b (or 
alfa, beta), etc. The system is essentially identical with 
the international alfabet assembled about the year •1886 by 
Paul Passy of Pans (partly from elements containd in the 
previous fonetic alfabets of Henry Sujeet and others), and 
fosterd since that time by the International Fonetic As- 
sociation (20 rue de la Madeleine, Bour-la-Reine, Seine, 
France). In this dictionary and in previous publications I 
have further amplified and modified this system of fonetic 
notation, molding it into a still more delicate and useful in- 
strument of precision. 

Below are two tables. The first table shows the more nn- 

pertani letters of the universal gammakap, arranged so as to 

ffTvt^ some idea of the place and manner oi articulation of the 

aound or group of sounds whicli eac\i S7rft\io\ r^^t.%<&TLW "^ 



PREFACE 9 

udes the synibok (IcU™) for mdicauas the basic sound- 

Tersal srstem mctndes. of coane, otba- irmbots (modifiers). 
for ladtcatms TOicelessiieas, nasaln;, and whisper, and the 
Tarioos degreca of Icaftli, nrcss, and pitch. The second table 
shows the lEtlns of the Eogluh oanimakap, with ezamplea of 
words contaimiig the aoaada which the letters represent. In 
a few cases, examples from foreign langnages have been 
added, to ifaaw ite occ oi r ei ice of practically the wme sounds 







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10 PREFACE 



ENGLISH GAMMAKAP 

Stridenis 

Shut 

g ^ood (god), linger (liijga?), wri^^le ('nga!), gig (gig). 
k cook (kok), kick (kik), bunib (bAijk), tickle i'tikal), keep 
(klip). 

d deed (diid), wind (wind), widen ('wai-dn), meddle 

Cmcdl), bold (boold). 
t ^aughf (tc:t), hint (hint), whiten ('loai-tn), beU (belt), 

whiWle CiDiti). 

b bib (bib), thimble ('eimbal). 
P peep (piip), limp (hmp). 

Fricativ 
who (hcra), Aouse (haos), hit (hit). 



th 



ye (jii), you (jou), dew (djou); German /ung (jot}). 
cure (kgo:?), pure (pqoiz); German ich (ig). 

i dry (drai), laundry (1c:n-dn). 
try (tXQi), pastry ('pee-stji). 



0* 
tj 
( this (dis), hesithen Chii-ddn), with (wid); Spanish todos 

CtDdos). 
/ thin (6in), myth (miO), wid^li (widO); Spanish graciaa 

CgcaBias). 

S asure ('aesar), judge (dsxds) ; French je (33) ; Italian 

gid (dsa). 
J shoe (Sou), chew (tjou); French cAic (Sik); German 

Schuh ($u:); Italian cinque ('tSii):-kwe) ; Spanish mu- 

cho CmutSD). 

R jvcal (iiin. rose (rooz), his (hiz). 
M sister ('sxstdr). 

V fifltl Cvtvid), 0/ (ev). 
f f\h (f«if). 

*v rein (wiu), c/wlndlr ('dwindlV 
'** W'^r/j (wtn), (|Mick (ku>ik), twne (^oitC^- 



PREFACE II 

Sonoraais 

Nasal 

Q long (}e:g), longer (teiQ-gaz), bank (baegk). 

n nun (nAn), gardener (^gaiz-da-^e), cardtnal Ckaiz-dnA), 

hint (hint). 
N snare (snc:;). 

m maim (meem), triumph ('tiai-dmf), limp (hmp). 
ic AMmph (Mm), smear (suiiz). 

Oral 

I lull (1a1), cardino/ Ckaij-dn-l), tatt/e ('taetl). 
L p/ay (pz.ce), s/ow (si-oo). 

? red (zzd), ear (i:«), earth (b:76), very ('vc^i). 
5 free (f^ii), throw (Osoo). 



High-close 

u whoever (^hu'cvsr), shoe (Sou), unit ('jou-nit), cower 
(Tcou-ar); French toKt (tu), to«r (tuiR); German Zu- 
fall ('tsu:,fal). 

i react (ei'aekt), eat (lit), sconW ('sko:-?i,i:), buoyant ('bei- 
snt); French ni (ni), ptre (pi:^); German hied (li:t). 

High-open 

full (fol), poor (po:?), shoe (Sou), unite (jo'nait) ; Ger- 

man Muff (mof). 

1 pity Cpiti), hated ('hee-tid), axts ('aeksis), foret^n 

('feein), carrtage ('kae^ids), senote ('senit). 
I It (it), ear (i:r), eat (lit), high (hai), why (looi), boy 
(boi) ; German btn (bin). 

Mid-close 

poetic (po'etik), note (noot); French pot (po), cote 
(ko:t) ; German So/tn ('2o:n), Italian leone (le'o:-ne). 

' over ('oo-v3?), sofo ('soo-fa), again (a'gcn), truism ('tjou- 
^izam), taken ('tee-kan), chocolate ('tjeka-lat), chest- 
nut ('tSesN3t), tackle ('taekaO- 

e aereal (e'li-ri-sJ)/ gate (geet); French M (e'te)*, Qtx- 
man lUA (te:) ; Italian pere ('pe;-re). 



PREFACE 

Mid-open 

but (bAt), tender ('Aiidar). 

doot (d3:7), obey (o'bee), note (noot); French note 
(not), tort (t3:K); German Gott (got). 

hed (bed), b^or (be:r), gate (geet), example (eg'za:m- 
pal) ; French fatt (fc), t^e (tc:t) ; Orman Bar (be:^), 
Bett (bet); Italian tempo ('tem:-p3), bene Cbei-ne). 

Low^lose 

autumnal (c'tAmnl), low (tc:); Italian poco ('pc:-k3). 
iur (fe:?), turtle (tB^tl), hurry Chsn). 
e cat (kaet). 

Low-opeH 

a far (fa:r), barter (Ixirta?), cow (kao), why (idqi), 
French pas (pa), pate (pa:t); Cierman Mai (ma:l), ab 
(ap), bei (bai); Italian amare (a'ma:-re). 

e hot (hot), horn (he:rn), bay (bei). 

a ask (a:sk), high (hai); French patte (pat), part (para). 

Names and Sorzpt Forms of the Xetters. English 
names for the letters and other s3rmbols of the universal 
gammakap, together with their script forms, and examples of 
printed and written texts in English and other languages, a; 
well as a short exposition and bibliegrafy of the system, ma: 
be found in a booklet (of about 32 pages), entitled Reforma 
tion of Spelling, which I am preparing. 

Oompound Sound*. Among the consonants attentic 
may be cald to the affricate ds, as in judg^ (dsAds), and i 
vexceless mate tS, as in chvLtch (tSB:?t$). 

Among the vowels may be noted eight normal risi 
difthongi, as fellows : ou, as xn faal (foul), li, as in 
(mi); DO, as xn note (noot); ce, as in gate (gcet); go, as 
l\0W (nao); ai, as xn wtse (waiz); 01, as in bay (boi); 
AH in kite (kait). The last four difthongs (ao, oi, 01, 
whon Mlowd by a syllable beginning with a vowel, usi 
bi»eon)t> «w, «J, t»i, oi, as xn tairer ('tau-ar), qutet (Tcuja 
tmo,vant Clml-ont). buyer Cbai-ar). 

Th(*rp nrp Aho four normal falling difthongs, after [1] 
A/, f/J, M Mhwi itw as xn purlieu Cp^iVm), diffl 



PREFACE 13 

Cdifziu-dns), feveriew ('f li-va^^f iu) ; io, as in emolument 
(i^melio-msnt) ; io:, as xn lure (Ho:;); is, as in behavior 
(biTiee-visr). 

Besides these sixteen normal difthengs, there is the one 
normal triftheng, iou, after [I], [v], and [f], as xn Ueu (Hou), 
view (viou), and few (fiou). 

Besides the sixteen normal difthengs and the normal tnf- 
theng mentiond above, there also occur, either in wide-spred 
usage or xn well-known local usage, the difthengs ci, as in hoy 
(bci); ed, as xn care (kea); Od, as xn mom (mean); os, as in 
door (dod); id, as xn here (hia); o9, as in poor (pod), etc.; 
and the trifthengs lia, as xn queerest ('kwiia-rist) ; oud, as 
in flour ('fz.au37); aid, as in inqutring (in^kwaid-rxi]), and 
aid, as in destring (dx'zaid-irxg). 

Duration. Extra length, or duration, of elementary 
sounds, especially xn the case of vowel sounds, is indicated 
by the length-mark (:) placed just after the letter represent- 
ing the sound xn question, as xn palm (pa:m), laud (lc:d), air 
(cz), zygospore {'zig9,spo:z), and in the interjection sh ($:). 

Syllabzcation and Stress* The various elementary 
sounds of speech, when utterd xn any series or sequence, 
without increase or diminution xn the strength of the breth- 
nnpulse, possess various degrees of (inherent) relativ so- 
nerity. The voiced sounds are more sonorous than the voice- 
less sounds; the sonorants are more sonorous than the stri- 
dents; the resonants are more sonorous than the sonorants. 
And just as this xs true among the larger classes of sounds, 
80 also xs xt true among the smaller groups of sounds and 
among the individual sounds. (See the Universal Gamma- 
bp, page 9, above.) 

A syllable xs a prominence of sonorousness or loudness : 
a wave, as xt were, of sonority, rising above the general level 
of speech. 

Any elementary speech-sound utterd by itself, in a single 
breth-impulse of uniform or only gradually changing strength, 
CBustrtutes a single syllable, A group consisting oi tN»0 Ot 



14 PREFACE 

more elementary sounds utterd zn sequence constitutes either 
one syllable, or more than one syllable, according as it con- 
tains one wave of sonority, or more than one wave of 
sonority, rising above the general level of sonority. 

If a syllable or soneric wave contains more than one sound. 
Its crest or point of maximum sonority lies, of course, within 
Its most sonorous sound. For example, in the monosyllable 
bet (bet), which contains the three sounds [b], [e], and [t], 
the syllabic crest lies within the sound [e], the most sonorous 
sound in the syllable. If one syllable or sononc wave follows 
another, in the same breth-impulse, the intersyllabic trough, 
or point of minimum sonority, lies within the least sonorous 
sound between the two wave-crests. For example, in the di- 
syllabic better Cbetd?) the two syllables are utterd in a single 
breth-impulse, and the trough lies within the sound [t], the 
least sonorous sound between the two crests [e] and [a]. 

A sound forms the crest, of a sononc wave (that is, is syl- 
labic) if separated from adjacent sonorous sounds by sounds 
less sonorous than it or the adjacent sonorous sounds. Net 
resonants only, but also consonants (stridents and sonorants) 
may be syllabic. In English we have an example of a syllabic 
strident in the [t] of practically, as sometimes pronounced; 
of syllabic sonorants in the [1] of kettle ('ketl), the [n] of 
sudden ('sxdn), the [$:] of psht (pS:t). The sononc undula- 
tions due to the presence of the [s] in star (star?) or cats 
(kaets), the [$] in catch (kaetS). or the [6] in wealth (when 
pronounced weltO), and the like, are comparable to mere 
ripples, rather than waves of sonority, and to most ears are 
not perceptible as syllables. (Compare paragraf 4, page 7.) 

Syllables are the result of the independent or conjoint ac- 
tion of two factors: (i) the above-mentiond relativ inherent 
sonorities of the elementary sounds, and (2) the changes 
wrought among the relationships of these inherent sonen- 
ties by sudden changes in the force of breth-impulse or stress. 
If a new brcth-impulse is introduced into any utterance, a 
fjew sonenc wave or syllable begins just where this new 
breth'impuhe begins. 



PREFACE 15 

A syllable may be cald static when at its inception the 
force of the breth-impulse remains the same as it was just be- 
fore, or changes only at the same rate at which it was before 
changing. Static syllables exist solely (or primarily) in vir- 
tue of the relativ inherent sonorities of the eleme|^tary 
sounds. 

A syllable may be cald dynamic when at its inception the 
force of the breth-impulse is suddenly increast. The first or 
initial syllable of any utterance is of course a dyanmic syl- 
lable. 

Between a dynamic syllable and a static syllable, as in the 
word better Cbetsz), mentiond above, or between two con- 
tiguous static syllables, as in the word logically (lodsikd-li), 
there is no point of division lying between two sounds of 
different quality. In so far as there exists any definit point 
of syllabic division in such cases, it must always be located 
within the* limits of a sound of minimum sonority. In the 
word better, this sound zs the [t] ; in logically, the [d] or the 
[k]. These sounds belong to neither syllable more than to the 
other, but each one of them constitutes a nexus in which the 
two syllables meet. 

These nexuses joining static syllables with preceding sylla- 
bles ore, in English, normally consonants (stridents or so- 
norants), but in abnormal utterances, and in certain types of 
normal utteraces, in English and in other languages, they 
niay be resonants. Furthermore, in certain Swiss dialects, a 
long strest syllable may be foUowd by a static syllable, the 
two syllables joining in an intervening voiced resonant 
(vowel), or voiceless resonant, common to both syllables. 

Every dynamic syllable, on the other hand, must always 
have a definit starting-point, located either (i) at the begin- 
ning of the word or utterance, as, in the word better ('betar), 
at the beginning of the [b]; (2) between two medial sounds 
of different quality, as, in the word baker ('bee-kar), at the 
beginning of the [k], and, in the word coolie Ckou-li), at the 
beginning of the [I] ; or (3) within the limits of some medial 
sound which, were there no new breth-impulse, would \ic ^ 



16 PREFACE 

single sound, as, zn the word rat-trap ('zxt^tsxp), at the be- 
ginning of the second [t], and, in the word coolly (Tcoul-li), 
at the beginning of the second [!]. When a (second) new dy- 
namic syllable or breth-impulse thus begins within a sound, 
the sound is cald double or geminated, and is, thruout this 
dictionary, represented (as here) by two separate letters. 

When, as is always the case at the inception of a static 
syllable, the intersyllabic trough lies within the limits of a 
single sound (of minimum sonenty), as, in the word better 
Cbetaz), within the [t], the letter representing this sound of 
minimum sonority sufficiently indicates the position of the 
intersyllabic trough. It is neither necessary nor beneficial 
further to indicate its position, for unless in uttering the 
word a new breth-impulse is gratuitously introduced, or 
some error made zn the sounds themselvs, the correct pro- 
nunciation will necessarily result. 

When, en the other hand, as is always the case at the in- 
ception of a dynamzc syllable, the intersyllabic trough lies just 
before a certain sound, as before the [b] zn better or before 
the [b] or the [k] in baker, it is often most necessary and 
beneficial to indicate its position. 

Stress, or dynamic accent, is the relativ emfasis with 
which a sound, syllable, or sequence of syllables is utterd. It 
IS the intensity or degree of energy characterizing a breth- 
impulse used in speech. It is the force or vigor imparted to 
any given utterance by the breth. 

In the body of this dictionary, accordingly, the startzng- 
peint of every syllable having chief stress (that is, having the 
primary degree of force of a new or reinforced breth-impulse) 
IS always indicated by means of a special symbol, the chief 
stress-mark ('), placed just before the strest syllable; and the 
starting-peint of every syllable having subordinate stress (that 
IS, having the secondary, tertiary, or quarternary degree of 
force of a new or reinforced breth-impulse) is always (except 
initially, where it is left unmarkt) indicated by means of a 
general symhoi, the hyfen (-), placed just before the strest 
syllable. 



PREFACE 17 

In this Preface, however, a special symbol for secondary 
stress, the secondary stress-mark (,)» l^^s also been tised (me- 
dially xnsted of the hyfen, and also initially), whenever the 
syllable actually has secondary stress. This secondary stress- 
mark (,) will probably be used thruout the dictionary if a 
second edition is publisht. It is alredy empleyd thruout my 
Dictionary of Aviation which is about to appear. 

In normal English any syllable immediately following a 
syllable containing a long strest vowel, a rising diftheng or 
triftheng, or a syllabic consonant or a vowel, is a dynamic 
syllable; and any weakly strest syllable immediately follow- 
ing a syllable containing a short strest vowel plus one or 
more consonants is only a static syllable. Dynamic syllables 
are often found, however, in compounds, adopted words, as 
bivouac Cbiv^waek), etc., even after syllables containing short 
strest vowels. A given disyllabic word or combination, as 
ego ('ego, 'e,go, etc.) may consist either (i) of a dynamic 
plus a static syllable, or (2) of two dynamic syllables. 
Whether or not a new breth-impulse occurs in a given com- 
bination of sounds depends on various factors: (i) the char- 
acter of the consonants intervening between the syllabic 
crests; (2) their number; (3) the independence of the word; 
(4) Its freedom from the influence of related more familiar 
words; and (5) the commonness of the word itself. 

Until recent years, the nature of syllabication was not clear- 
ly understood. Some division of a word was, however, often 
necessary in writing and printing and some oral division was 
desirable in dictating. So the thing took shape in spelling- 
books and dictionaries. But the distinction between grafic 
word-dzvision and fonetic syllabication only gradually became 
clear in the minds of men. Up to the present hour, altho the 
distinction between dynamic and static syllables has now for 
some years been quite well understood, and altho it is of the 
greatest importance in correctly indicating pronunciation, no 
dictionary has ever introduced it into its vocabulary. One 
reason for this may lie in the customary but fontticaAVv 
\mous practis of placing the stress-mark at the end (,ot svxv 



18 PREFACE 

posed end), rather than at the beginning, of syllables. This 
practis has nothing but custom to recommend it. The stress- 
mark IS commonly used thus by dictionary-makers and others, 
and this usage is often defended by misguided or unthinking 
persons, in apparent disregard or ignorance of the good to be 
derived from the use of a more scientific method. In reading. 
It IS more convenient to have the stress-mark placed before, 
rather than after, the strest syllable, for, altho the reader 
doutless sees words and syllables for the most part as wholes, 
his eye nevertheless usually approaches them from the left, 
rather than from the right, and it is better that he should be 
apprised of the facts as to where a syllable begins, and how 
It IS strest, during the incipient, rather thian during the 
final stage of his visual or vocal action upon it. One prefers 
to see a guidepost before he gets to his destination or has 
past It. 

Furthermore, in mjrriads of cases, it is impossible correctly 
to place a stress-mark after a strest syllable; for, whenever a 
a dynamic syllable is fellowd by a static syllable, the dynamic 
syllable, ending as it does within the limits of some (rela- 
txvly unsonorous) sound within which also the static syllable 
begins, cannot accurately be represented as ending after that 
sound. For example, the word sister is pronounced neither 
'si-star, nor 'sis-tdr, nor 'sist-ar, but 'sistar. The boundary 
between its two syllables lies neither before nor after the [s], 
nor after the [t], but within the [t]. The first (dimamic) 
syllable merges into the second (static) syllable thru the sound 
of minimum sonority [t], which is common to both syllables. 

The use of stress-marks in posterior position, just alluded 
to, confounds the whole subject of grafic word-divisions of 
curreat or fonetic orthegrafy (to be used at the ends of lines 
by writers and printers) with the quite different subject 
of real fonetic syllabication. This, together with the com- 
mon practxs of trying to show current spelling and etymology 
M wpll AS pronunciation, all in one respelling of a word, re^ 
0tf/f9 rn the multitudinous fonetic errors with which the 
ordinary dtcthnaricB and text-booVs %tc ^<^ Itwsv <^qm«c \ft 



PREFACE 19 

cover. The merest tyro in fonetzcs, every child, indeed, who 
uses these books, zs apt to be clearly or dimly conscious of 
many of these errors and systematic perversions of pronun- 
ciation. The troubles caused by the practis of using the 
stress-mark after the strest syllable cannot be overcome by 
placing the stress-mark above or below the vowel or con- 
sonant of maximum sonority which forms the crest of the 
strest syllable; for such a procedure net only multiplies enor- 
mously the number and complication of the symbols and types 
required, but fails to indicate either the beginning or end of 
the strest syllable. 

In this dictionary, the stress indicated is, in general, the 
stress which the word has when isolated. Certain systematic 
shiftings of stress are indicated, notably in the case of words 
whose stress shifts according as these words are used poste- 
riorly or anteriorly in a sentence, the posterior form being 
given first. (See page 3 of this Preface, under Pronuncia- 
tion.) 

Word-dxTxsion. In dividing words at the ends of lines, 
we have (i) the case of current spellings, and (2) the case of 
fonetic spellings. In this dictionary the current spellings 
have been divided in an ordinary conventional manner which 
requires no special description. The fonetic spellings have 
been divided, wherever practicable, at the beginning of a 
dynamic syllable, that is, where there would alredy be a hyfen 
or a stress-mark in any event. Where it has been necessary 
or convenient to divide a fonetic spelling arbitrarily, where 
no new breth-impulse really begins, it is divided in a man- 
ner similar to the manner in which it would be divided were 
there really a new breth-impulse introduced (that is, were 
a new dynamic syllable begun there). For example, if the fo- 
netic spelling C'pae^ant] of the word parent is divided at the 
end of a line, it is divided ['px-rsnt] in the same manner as 
the fonetic spelling ['pe:-?3nt], a variant of the same word, 
would be divided : that is, just before the letter (z), the hyfen 
being used as the mark of division at the end of the \me. 
This ase of the by fen, now for real syllabic division, no^ 



20 



PREFACE 



for mere arbitrary word-divisioii, and again for joining the 
elements of compound words, renders it often an ambiguous 
symboL (See page 29 of this Preface, tmder Clarified Spell- 
ing.) 



AMbattrwiaMamm 



Abbreviations are used only 



for the names of the ports of speech. 

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS 



adj. 


adjectiv 


Pl- 


ploral 


adj.'pron. 


adjectiv-pronoun 


pron. 


pronoun 


adv. 


adverb 


n. 


noun 


conj. 


conjunction 


noun-^on. 


noun-pronoun 


interj. 


interjection 


V. 


verb 



In illustrativ frases, as under the title-word aged^ the title- 
word» where it occurs in the sense illustrated, is markt by 
means of a star or asterisk {*) just preceding the word, in 
order to aid the reader in seeing it or in identifying it. 

Spellms Beform. The reformation of spelling presents 
Itself under three modes : simplified spelling, clarified spell- 
ing, and fonetic spelling. Simplified spelling and clarified 
spelling are alike in being but amendments of the current 
ertbegrafy, while fonetic spelling is a relativly independent 
lyitem of erthegrafy based upon pronunciation. All three of 
theie model of refermd spelling are used to a certain extent 
sn this dictionary. 

Szmplsfied Spcllziic* The current spelling may be 
•smplified to some extent by omission of silent letters, by the 
amendment of certain glaring irregularities, and so en. This 
IS the method used by the Simplified Spelling Board (i Mad- 
ison Avenue, New York) and the Simplified Spelling Society 
(44 Great Runsell Street, London, W. C, England). 

Theits erganijations have, up to the present time, devoted 

theslr energies net to fonetic spelling but only to minor simpli- 

fiOf^tions of certain words and classes of words. While using 

araumfintB based mainly upon the advantages of fonetic spell- 

^^S ^/»*»/ /»«ve praoti^lly ignortd tKc ^oiW, ^ xJaiti c^ttainly 



PREFACE 21 

are neglecting to employ the methods, of those who have al- 
redy successfully constructed and introduced the most perfect 
fonetic alfabets and forms of fonetic spelling as yet devised. 

While simplified spelling has a certain value, directly in 
rectifying certain minor defects in the ctirrent erthografy, and 
indirectly in calling attention to the advantages of fonetic 
spelling, It IS entirely inadequate to the task of bringing into 
existence (in no matter how long a time) the fonetic spelling 
upon whose virtues are based the common run of arguments 
for simplified spelling. 

Regarding the indirect value of simplified spelling, it may, 
however, be argued that it is perhaps more than offset by the 
implied misdirection of energy and the diverting of public 
attention from the main issue. Herbert Spencer, for example, 
held the opinion that simplified spelling retards the progress 
of fonetic spelling, insted of accelerating its paogress as it 
purports to do. 

To try to simplify, clarify, or fonetize any radically bad 
system of spelling, such as the English, in any interesting or 
useful degree, and in any reasonable period of time, without 
using some thorogoing, popular fonetic alfabet, is vain. It 
IS like trying to cifer without figures, print without types, 
or typewrite without keys. 

While real international fonetic spelling of English, French, 
German, and other languages is thus alredy an accemplisht 
fact, and hundreds of thousands of copies of text-books and 
dictionaries containing it are in actual use in the leading 
schools and universities thruout the world (includtng the 
United States), the Simplified Spelling Board labors under 
the impression that the public, tho now being operated upon 
by the Board, is as yet mentally too weak, fonetically speak- 
ing, to bear any official mention of fonetic spelling being 
made by the surgeon. To many persons it would seem to be 
the operator, rather than the patient, who is in need of treat- 
ment for fonofobia. 

The fallacy of the simplified spellers « lies in their assutw?- 
tioa that the oaly method, or at least the best mc^od, iot 



22 PREFACE 

bringing into use a new instrumentality, such as a new system 
of erthegrafy for the English language, is the proselyting 
method of arguing the public into a plastic or receptiv con- 
dition, so as to create widespred agreement or tendency si- 
multaneously to begin believing in, or using, the new instru- 
mentality. The fact is that the Board is composed of some 
men who know a great deal, and some others who know 
next to nothing, about fonetics, fonetic notation, and spell- 
ing reform. Being constituted en the maximum-pepular-in- 
fluence idea, and working en the dubious proselyting theory 
mentiond above, the recommendations of the Board need net 
be, and actually are net, taken very seriously by the public, 
who in vast numbers are receiving information from reliable 
independent sources. Moreover, the decisions of the Board 
as a whole do net necessarily reflect credit upon those of its 
more filolegically enlightend members, some of whom, dout- 
less, disapprove of the action of the Board as a whole. Sim- 
plified spelling may be regarded as a form of amusement, 
possibly more or less harmless, if indulged in with modera- 
tion. It takes en a more sinister aspect only when it pre- 
tends to be what it is net : when, for example, it pretends 
to be especially useful in itself, which it is net; or when it 
pretends to be a means, or the means, to a system of real 
fonetic spelling, which it is net. 

Real inventions are made in the workshops of genius. In 
these mints where golden thoughts are ceind, executiv boards 
are unknown. Boards and committees and congresses are 
compromisers, net originators. They make agreements, net 
inventions. If a suitable device has been invented alredy, it 
IS wiser for them to use it than to try to invent it over again. 
Great inventions, whether they be mechanical, like the print- 
ing-press, the tclegraf , the fonograf, the typewriter, or the 
telefone; or grafic, like the alfabet, the Hindu system of no- 
tation of numbers, or fonegrafy (fonetic shorthand), are, in 
reality, introduced largely by other methods. Each real fb- 
vention is devehpt, to be sure, and often developt gradually; 
Aue developt, nevertheless, on its own accoMD\., axv^ -ltl ^ Vss^e 



PREFACE 23 

mesure independently, both of its applications or products, 
and of Its competitors. 

Handwriting was net in itself developt into print or into 
typewriting. The important thing was the conception and de- 
velopment of an entirely separate instrumentality, the print- 
ing-press or the typewriter, by which to create the printed 
page or the typewritten sheet. Printing-presses and type- 
writers were simply invented outright and placed en the mar- 
ket in open competition with pen and ink, instruments for 
producing similar products. Demonstrations were given of 
their relatrv value for this specific purpose, and, with direct 
profit as prime mover, the new inventions and the new prod- 
ucts won their way. 

And so It IS apt to be, too, with systems of erthegrafy. 
A good useful erthegrafy may be considerd to be a product, 
for the making of which an invention was required. This re- 
quired invention was a good fonetic alfabet. Half a century 
ago Isaac Pitman invented a fonografic alfabet and a system 
of fonetic shorthand. The alfabet was demonstrated to be of 
greater value than the ordinary alfabet for certain specific 
purposes, and this invention (the fonografic alfabet) and its 
product (the system of shorthand writing) came into common 
use for reportorial purposes. 
I A quarter of a century ago Paul Passy invented a universal 
fonetic alfabet and a universal system of fonetypy and fo- 
netic handwriting. This alfabet has been demonstrated to 
be of greater value than any of the alfabets of the world for 
general purposes, and this invention (the universal alfabet) 
and Its products (the new systems of erthegrafy for all lan- 
guages) have been widely adopted. 

Simplified spellings are used in the definitions of this dic- 
tionary largely en their merits as media thru which to htlp 
the reader easily to grasp the pronunciation of the words. 
Where their use would, on account of the conciseness of the 
definitions, or on any other account, fail of this object and 
render the text more obscure, their use has eiteu been 



24 PREFACE 

In the vocabulary of this book are given all the main words 
(except some zn -ive) and many of the derrvativs, of which 
more simple forms are advocated by the Simplified Spelling 
Board. The rules of the Board are also applied to some words 
which do not happen to be included in the list publisht by the 
Board, as Alexandrin, carlin, carmin, deprivativ, desiccativ, 
partil, passerin, etc. 

I insert the simpler fqrms among the variant spellings in 
this dictionary net solely because they are advocated by the 
Board and others, but because many of them either have long 
existed er do now exist to a considerable extent in current 
use in literature; and also because almost all of them are 
either in accord with what I consider to be a scientifically 
practicable system of standardized fonetic erthegrafy, such as 
IS used in the re-spellings given in this book to indicate pro- 
nunciations and IS, in my opinion, destind eventually to 
supersede the current English cacegrafy. 

The following are the rules governing the simplifications 
containd in the list of about 3300 words publisht by the Sim- 
plified Spelling Board on March 6, 1909 (Circular No. 23). 
Aside from a few slight changes in the wording, some minor 
ndjuHtments necessitated by a more accurate marking of the 
pronunciations, etc., and one additional example under Rules 
17 and 18, the rules and examples are given exactly as pub- 
Unht by the Board. 

To facilitate acceptance zt was deemd expedient by the 
Hoard in some cases to restrict the rule to a limited number 
of t\\v words in a given class. In these cases the expression 
*Ut*iitrictcd Rule* has been used. Any one who chooses to ex- 
it* lul thr rule at once to all the words of a given class zs of 
luiurHt* free to do to. After each rule zs given a list, either of 
all \\u^ wonli affrctcd (if they are not many), or of a few 
tiMMinplni of the lufKc number of words coverd by the rule. 
Ill \\\%' lattrr casr 'Examples' is prefixt, and 'etc' zs added. 
// fhei UimnVn official rrcommendation applies to all words 
ffttntfthmiM tht* IrtttTt sequence oi Itttets, or suffix, affected, 
/// //ir jirniminittthti indicated* tVie cxpitssvon 'Q^ifts;T^ "^^^^ 



PREFACE 25 

Z8 used. For some small classes and for isolated amendments 
no rule xs given. 

BUIiES OF SIMPLIFIED SPELUHG 

1. ae* SB or •» net final. General Rule : Choose e. Exam- 
ples : anesthetic, chimera, era, esthetic, ether, medieval, paleon- 
tology, etc. 

2. -bt, with b silent. General Rule : Omit b* det, dettor, 
dout, indetted, redout, redout ed, redoutable, 

3. ea, pronounced [e]. General Rule : Drep a« Exam- 
ples: hed, spredt sted, tred, thret, helth, welth, dremt, meni, 
plesant, etc. 

4. ea, pronounced [a], before r* General Rule : Drep e. 
karken, hart, harth. 

5. -ed or 'df pronounced [d]. ""General Rule : Use simple d 
in all cases (reducing a double consonant). Examples : aimd, 
armd, bumd, deemd, dimd, feld, fild, hangd, raind, stird, 
veUd, etc. 

6. -ed or -t, pronounced [t], the preceding single conso- 
nant being doubled before -ed (-pped, -ssed) and left single 
before -t (-pt, -st). General Rule : Choose -t in all cases. 
Examples : dipt, dript, dropt, slept, slept, blest, prest, mist, 
blusht, zvasht, wisht, lockt, packt, etc. 

7. *enee or -ense (Latin -ensd). Restricted Rule : Choose 
"•use* defense, offense, pretense", also license (Latin -entia). 

8. *ette or -et* General Rule : Choose -et. Examples : 
coquet, epaulet, etiquet, omelet, quartet, quintet, septet, sextet, 
etc 

9. gb or f» pronounced [f]. Restricted Rule : Choose f. 
draft, net draught. 

10. -sby silent: (i) -ongb or -oir, pronounced [au, au]. 
Restricted Rule: Choose -oir. plow. (2) -ougb or -o, 
pronoimced [oo, o, o]. Restricted Rule : Choose -o. altho, 
tho, thoro, boro, -boro (in place-names), furlo. (3) -ougb 
or -o, pronounced [ou, u, o]. through, thro*, thro. Restricted 
Rule : Choose tbroy but advance it now to tbru. 

11. -ioe, unstrest, pronounced [is]. General Rule: Spell 
-i«. Examples : artifis, coppis, cornis, crevis, edifis, justis, 
notis, servis, etc. 

12. -ile, unstrest, pronounced [il, 1]. General Rule : Omit 
e. Examples : agil, futil, servil, juvenil, etc. When other- 
wise pronounced, as [ail, il], retain -lie. 

13. -ine, unstrest, pronounced Tin J. General Rule*. Omit 
eu Examples: deUrmin, doctrin, engin, examin, genuitVi 



26 PREFACE 

imagin, pristi», etc. When otherwise pronounced, as [am, 
in], retain -ine. 

14. -ise, unstrest, pronounced [is]. General Rule : Omit e. 
ants, mortis, practis, premis, promts, treatis. 

15. -ise or -ise (from Greek), pronounced [aiz], suffix of 
verbs. General Rule : Choose -ise. Examples : civilise, 
criticise, exorcise, legalise, organise, etc. 

16. -ite* unstrest; pronounced [it]. General Rule: Omit e. 
Examples : apposit, definit, infinit, preterit, requisit, etc. 
When otherwise pronounced, as [ait, it], retain -lie* 

17. -iTOy unstrest or with only subordinate stress, pro- 
nounced [iv, iv]. General Rule : Omit e. Examples : activ, 
adjectiv, detectiv, executiv, motiv, nativ, progressiv, adjec- 
tivly, etc. 

18. -U or -1 (-ill or -11). General Rule: Choose -L 
distil, fulfil, instil; like until, compel, impel, etc. 

19. *11* or -1- (-ill- or -il-y -nil- or -iil-)^ before 
*fiil or -nesB. General Rule : Choose -L skilful, wilful, 
dulness, fulness. 

ao. -mb) with b silent. Restricted Rule : Omit b. crum, 
dum, lam, lim, num, thum, 

21, -am, with n silent. Restricted Rule : Omit n* Au- 
tum, colum, solem, 

22. oe, CB, or e, net final. General Rule : Choose e« 
Examples : ecumenical, esophagus, phenix, subpena, etc. ; like 
economy, solecism, etc 

33. -onr or -or. General Rule : Choose -or. Examples : 
ardor, candor, clamor, color, favor, flavor, honor, humor, 
labor, rumor, tumor, valor, vigor, etc.; also, arbor, harbor, 
neighbor, etc. 

24. pb or ft pronounced [f]. Restricted Rule : Choose f. 
fantasm, fantasy, fantom, sulfate, sulfur; like fancy, frantic, 
frensy, coffer, coffin, etc.. which originally had ph. 

2$, pbt pronounced [f]. General Rule : Use f. camfor, 
cif^: atfabet, diafram, pamflet; autograf, bibliografy, biog- 
rafy, fonograf, fotograf, paragraf, telegraf, telefone. 

a6. -rr or -r. General Rule : Choose -r. bur, pur; like 
cur, fur, blur, slur, spur, car, far, fir, stir, etc. 

j>7. -ro or -er, pronounced [dr]. General Rule : Choose 
••r. Kxnmples : accouter, center, fiber, meter, miter, niter, 
saltpi^t^, scepter, sepulcher, somber, specter, theater, etc.; 
likr diameter, number, etc. 

jfi. B or m (m the root). Restricted Rule : Choose s* ap- 
^rt>*^, ff,fjtff4?, com^ruft, tnttrprizt, roie, surprise, teasel. (See 
«/io Ruh ISO 



PREFACE 27 

29. ■ medial, silent. Restricted Rule : Drop ■• aile, ile^ 
ilet. Hand. 

30. ue, silent, after -g* Restricted Rule : Omit ne« cata- 
log, decalog, demagog, pedagog, prolog, colleag, leag, harang, 
tung. 

31. Te^ after -1 or -r, pronounced [v]. General Rule: 
Omit e* Examples : delv, shelv, twelv, selvi, carv, curv, nerv, 
serv, deserv, reserv, starv, etc. 

Clarzfied Spelling* The current spelling may be clari- 
fied or made considerably clearer by the substitution of cer- 
tain letters of definit fonetic value for the ordinary letters 
closely resembling • them or associated with them in the 
popular mind, wherever these ordinary letters, in the partic- 
ular context in which they occur, have the exact value of the 
fonetic letters. This mode of spelling reform has been in 
vogue for thousands of years. It has recently been used m 
English in the works of Dr. Francis A. March and others, 
but in a crude and inaccurate manner and to a very limited 
extent. It has been used in Italian with considerable accu- 
racy thruout the dictionaries and grammars of P. Petrocchi. 

In English *(g) may thus be substituted for (g), (gh) for 
(gh); (S) for (s), (Sh) for (sh); (5) for (z); (z) for (s); ♦(u)) 
for (w), (ujh) for (wh); (q) for (n) ; (n) for (n); (m) for 
(m); (1), (z.) for (1); (r), (e), {z\ (3) for (r); ♦(o) for (u); 
♦d). (i), for (i); (3), ♦(e) for (e); (o), (c), ♦(©) for (o); 
(au), (go) for (ou), (ow) for (ow); (ae), *(a), *(a), (a) 
for (a), etc. 

In the present volume only the letters here nicrkt with a 
star (♦) have been used in this way. Further clarification 
or at least simplification, has been effected, thruout this 
book, by always using (ff) for (ff). (ffi) for (ffi). (fi) for (fi), 
(ffl) for (ffl), (fl) for (fi), (oe) for (oe), except in certain 
words adopted from French, and (ae) for (ae). 

To this extent clarified spelling has also been used thru- 
out this Preface, except in the table of the English gammakap 
and in certain other places where the exact current spellings 
of certain words have to be given for lUustrativ pMt^os^ss. 
Qanfied spelling is thus used net only becaase o£ xts xnltit^^- 



28 PREFACE 

8ZC merits but also zn order to familiarise die reader with the 
f onetic value of certain letters. It has also been used thruout 
the book m certain explanatory words and frases such as 
synonymous cognate, singular, ploral, expressing. In the 
definitions clarified spelling has been used occasionally to 
differentiate words which are spelt alike but pronounced dif- 
ferently, as desert (adjectiv and noun) and desert {verb and 
noun); present (noun and adjectiv) and present (verb) tzi- 
tise (noun) and refuse (verb). 

In Italic type, (g) has been used in this Preface for (g) 
when net having the sound Eg], Eg]. Various other modifica- 
tions or clarifications are desirable in connection with the 
Italic letters a, <b, e, i, I, m, n, o, r, s, u, v, w, and y. They 
admit of being confermd to and differentiated along with the 
corresponding roman letters. 

The length-mark (:), the chief stress-mark ('), and the 
secondary stress-mark (,) may also sometimes be introduced 
with advantage into the current erthegrafy. 

The use of the hyfen (-) might well be restricted to what, 
in this dictionary, is its chief function : namely, the mark- 
ing of new breth-impulses, or new dynamic syllables. It is 
now used for other purposes, (i) as a link between the frag- 
ments of words due to arbitrary word-division often found 
necessary or convenient by writers and printers at the ends of 
lines, especially in narrow mesures (short lines), or (2) as a 
link joining the elements of compound words. A special 
symbol, to be used as a dividing-mark in other cases, or as a 
connecting-mark or link, is therefore cald for. An inferior 
breve O, such as is often used in text-books of French to 
■how liaison, would serv the purpose and might still be used 
also to mark liaison between words in the midst of a line. 
Liaiien occurs net only in French, but also in English, 
Italian, etc. 

Some ferm of double hyfen, as (?) may conveniently be 
uted aa a aubatitute for the ordinary hyfen for joining the 
eJemeata of cempommd words, etc. 



PREFACE 29 

Net only is each sound which was previously represented 
by an ordinary letter (for which a new fonetxc letter zs thus 
substituted), made clear, but the very clanfyzng of this one 
sound often makes clearer (i) the value of other letters in 
the same word and in neighboring words, and (2) the posi- 
tion of the stress. This is due to the fact that the establish- 
ment of a definit value for one letter is apt (i), negatrvly, 
to eliminate one or more probabilities or vague conjectures 
regarding the value of neighboring letters; or (2), pesitzvly, 
to establish definitly, or at least create a strong probability 
regarding, the value of neighboring letters; or (3), en account 
of the relationships which exist between sound-quality and 
stress, to create probability or certainty as to the position of 
the stress. 

Some idea of the value of clarified spelling as contrasted 
with the value of simplified spelling may be fermd by re- 
flecting upon the fact that in this Preface, for example, 
where both modes of spelling are used (and the two never 
conflict with each other), the changes due to clarified spell- 
ing number about 4326 while the changes due to simplified 
spelling number only about 375. That is, in a text chosen at 
random, clarified spelling produces about 12 times as many 
direct changes as simplified spelling does; and if, as hinted 
at above, these directly markt clarifications themselvs give 
rise to a large number of additional clarifications (under- 
stood, tho unmarkt) among the neighboring sounds, and in 
the matter of stress, the numerical contrast becomes greater 
still. 

Thus clarified spelling, besides clearing up a very much 
larger number of dubious points in spelling and pronuncia- 
tion than does simplified spelling, all without changing the 
general form of the words as ordinarily spelt, or altering a 
single spelling in any conspicuous, distracting, or shocking 
manner, has the merit of being, so far as it goes, pesitiv and 
exact. It always helps, and never hinders, the reader and tVie 
student. It clothes many words in an exact f onetic ott\iOQ- 
ra^r, and is, therefore, of very great cultural and pcdagogx^ 



so PREFACE 

value. It IS capable of prodocing considerable results for 
everybody. Any given mdjrvidnal is apt to Hnd it of great 
value, both direct and indirect, to himself and to others. 

Clarification, as here described, consists of a scientifically 
simple set of universal rules applicable net only to English 
but to a multitude of other languages and dialects. Simpli- 
fied spelling, on the other hand, as usually carried en, con- 
sists of a complicated congeries of special rules applicable to 
one language only. In so for as it operates merely by omit- 
ting useless letters, or choosing the lesser of two or more 
cacografic evils, it is negativ in method. It often changes 
the general form of words. On this account, and because tl\e 
simplified ferms are but rarely encounterd, and then only in 
conventional surroundings, they are apt to be conspicuous, and 
the reader xs often subjected to hindrances, distractions, and 
shocks. It almost always leaves the few words which zt af- 
fects at all in an inexact, pseudo-erthografic condition. It 
therefore teaches little or nothing. This fact is clear to 
many filelogzsts. Something of the sort is also dimly felt to 
be true by the public. Simplified spelling seems relativly 
superficial, and hardly capable of producing great results for 
anybody. No given individual is apt to consider it of any 
immediate value, en the whole, to himself or to others. 

Plionctio Spellzng. The current spelling may, as im- 
plied m the above paragrafs, be replaced by one or more 
systems of fonetic spelling, each system being adapted to cer- 
tain specific purposes. As remarkt, fonetic shorthand or 
fotiogrnfy has alrcdy replaced or supplemented the current 
gptlling for reportorial and other purposes. Various syste'his 
of foman-lctter fonetic spelling have alredy supplemented the 
current spelling m the respellings given in dictionaries. 

The fonetic alf abets of the recent past have certainly been 

ttittkenhift affairs. They are usually devised for temporary or 

nprcUl purposes, for use in one particular book, or in only 

title tntiguage. The men who devise alfabets often seem to 

take a fitttuff gattafaction in doing nothing more than what 

^a nhficfftitcty twccBBary, Alfabets such as l\iost oi N^t\i^\«, 



PREFACE 31 

Lepsius, Ellis, Pitman, Bell, and March are manifestly de- 
fectiv, clumsy, and incapable of development, and thus in- 
adequate for general use. 

The amplified form of the roman alfabet used in the re- 
spellings of the title-words thruout this dictionary has been 
undergoing a most remarkable development during the last 
quarter of a century. It is by far the most diversely used 
and highly perfected means as yet developt for indicating, 
simply and accurately, the pronunciation of all languages in 
any popular world-wide system. It will doutless undergo 
further modification of detail as time goes on, but the prin- 
ciples which have guided the selection of its letters from the 
alfabets of the world, its flexibility, and the extent and man- 
ner of Its present use, bespeak its capacity for development 
and foretell its universality. It has alredy been applied to 
several hundred languages and dialects and is now in activ 
competition with local and old-fashiond systems of fonetic 
spelling, net only in dictionaries and grammars, and text- 
books en fonetics, but also in general literature. 

Behind the scenes of every-day life, in the laboratories of 
filelogists, the vocabularies and literatures of the languages 
are being costumed anew. Thus freshly appareld in true 
cesmofenic style, they are issuing forth upon the world arena. 
The triple curtain of conservatism, ignorance, and patriotism, 
which hides them, is lifting. "Thru the perspectiv of clear 
wits they are looming both great and near." Their unmatcht 
power to reecho articulate speech, and thus to facilitate the 
communication of emotions and ideas, is becoming more and 
more apparent to the multitudes who arc alredy using them. 
In due time, I fancy, their votaries will include all the peoples 
en the globe. 

Robert Morris Pierce 
1019 Flatiron Bilding 
New York, September 20, igio 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



a «. letter [ploral a*s, as, aes] ee. 

a adj. 9, (when more strest) e, ee. 

aaroa's-beard n. (shrub) 'e:-z9nz-bi:zd, 'asz^nz-hiizd, 

abaoa n. plant [also spelt abaka} 'aeba-ks. 

abaci n. (ploral of abacus) 'asbd-sai. 

abaotinal adj, (aboral) x'bxkti-nl, aebsek'tai-nl. 

abaens n, [ploral abaci'] 'sbs-kds; (improperly) d'bekds. 

abaft adv., prep. 9'ba:ft, (rapidly) 9l>eft. 

abandon v. leave [past participle and preterit abandoned, 

abandondj d'baenddn. 
abandon »• (ease) s'bsnddn, xbdn'dei). 
abasbed adj. disconcerted [also spelt abashtl d'baeSt. 
abater n» one who or that which abates [also spelt abator'] 

d'bee-td?. 
abatis »• barricade [also spelt abattis, abbatis] 'xbs-tis, aebd- 

'tii. 
abatjonr n^ (skylight, etc.) d'bai-so;. 
abator n. [also, sometimes, spelt abater] ^'bee-tse, (also, 

especially in law) s'bee-tee. 
abattoir n. (slaughter-house) sbd'tweiz, 'xbs-twez. 
abat-Tont n. (wind-regulating device) a'bar-veg. 

abbasi n. coin [also spelt abassi, abassis] s'baesi. 

abbatial adj, (of an abbot or abbey) d'bee-Sat. 

abb6 n, (abbot) ae'bee. 

abbey n, monastery [ploral abbeys] 'ashi. 

abdomen n. (belly) aeb'doo-msn, 'sbdd-msn. 

abdacens n, nerve [ploral abducentes] sb'djou-senz. 

abdnoentee n. (ploral of abducens) aebdjo'sen-tiz. 

abele n. (abel-tree) a'biil, 'ee-bal. 

jye, 5 cure; bthe, 9 //tin; saxrure, d$joy; ^shoe, tjc/iew; 
vowhen; q sin^; u whoever, i react, o full, ou fool, i it, lis^^; 
poetic; a over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, oo no, e bed, eegote*, 
c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiVilt\ 
IcD^tb-jOTorXr (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \«>ti%; 
stre99-mark P indiQMe9 Qhi^f ^fr^^^ Qn the fallowing syWaU^, 



2 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Abelian n. (Abelite) a'beli-an; (less properly) a'bii-ti-sn. 

abel-tree n. 'ee-bsi-tsii. 

aberrant adj. (straying; abnormal) s'be^dnt. 

abetter n. one who abets or aids [also spelt abettor'] s'betdz. 

abettor n. [also, sometimes, spelt abetter} s'betd?, (also, 

especially in law) s'be-teie. 
abeyance n. (expebtation) d'bee-dns; (improperly) d'bii-dns. 
Abies n. (the fir-tree) 'aebi-i:z. 

abietin n. [also spelt a&f>/m^] /a^bi-i-tin, s'bai-i-tin. 
Abietineae n. pi. (suborder of Coniferae) xbi-i'tini-i: . 
abiogeneeie n. (genesis of living matter from non-living 

matter) abi-a'dseni-sis. 
abject adj. (cast down, low) aeb'dsekt, (assumptivly) 'xb- 

dsekt. 
abjection n. xb'dsekSdn. 
abjectly adv. 'xb-dsektz.!, sb'dsektz.!. 
abjeotneee n. 'xb-dsektNis, xb'dsektNis. 
ablative adj., n. [also spelt ablativl 'xbld-tiv, (anteriorly) 

'aeblativ; (vulgarly) 'abal-tiv. 
ablant n. (vowel-change) 'ar-Moot; (less properly) 'a-Mc:t. 
able-bodied adj. ee-bdl'bedid, (assumptivly) 'ee-bsl-bedid. 
aborigin n. [also spelt aborigen; ploral aborigines! ae'beei- 

dsin. same meaning as aborigine, 
aborigine n. [synonymous cognate aborigin; ploral abort- 

gines} aeba'zridsi-ni. 
aboriginee n,pl, [singular aborigine, aborigin, aboriginaf} 

aebd'ridsi-niz. 
abracadabra n, (cabalistic word) sbzdks'dxbsd. 
abrasive adj. [also spelt abrasiv] aljeee-siv, a'bzee-ziv. 
abreast adj, side by side [also spelt abrestl 9l)zest. 
abrenToir n. watering-trough; joint [also spelt abbreuvoirl 

'oihro-xoiz, aebza'vweiz. 
abridgment n, [also spelt abridgement'] d'bzidsmdnt. 
abecese n. (boil, etc.) 'aebsis, 'xb-ses. 
abeciee n. something cut off; abscissa [also spelt abscisse; 

ploral abscisses] 'xbsis. 
abeoisea n. [plural abscissas, abscissae] xb'siss. 
abeoieeae n. (plural of abscissa) xb'si-si. 
absoiseion n. (a cutting off or away) xb'sissn. 
absent adj, (not present) 'aebsant. 
absent t*. (keep away) aeb'sent. 
absintb n. liqueur [also spelt absinthe] 'ab-sin9. 
absolutely adv, (separately; comp letely) 'aebsa-liutLi ; (often, 

J ye. ccurt: dMe, O/Ziin; saxnire, ds/oy; S j/ioe, tjc^iew; 
wrt'fyfn; t)sing\ u whoever, i react, oiuW, dmIooV, \\\., \\sec; 
QpovUQ; oowtfTt c aerial, Abut, o; door, ;)Oiio, ^\ie^, «.t^o\ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 3 

when more strest) «bs9liou-tz.i ; (also, dialectally) 'aebso- 

lutLi, xbsd'lou-tLi. 
ab8olntis]i& n. 'aebs9-}iu-tizdm ; (erroneously) sb'setio-tizsm. 
absolntist n., adj, 'aebsd-liutist. 
absolutory adj. (absolving) aeb'seHo-ton ; (improperly) ^xh- 

seVw'tozi, (vulgarly) aebsdliuu-td-zi. 
abaoWe v, set free [also spelt ahsolv; past participle and 

preterit absolved, absolvdl ab'selv; (less properly) aeb'zelv. 
abstemicaa adj. £b'stii-mi-ds ; (less properly) »b'stemi-9s. 
abstersion n. (a wiping clean) aeb'ste^Sdny xh'stBiz-S^n, 
abstinence n. (forbearance) 'aebsti-nsns. 
abstract n. (compendium, epitome) 'aeb-stsaekt. 
abstract adj. (opposed to concrete; also, ideal) xb'stsxkt, 

(assumptivly) 'ab-stjaekt. 
abstract v. (take away; abridge) dsh'stjsx^kt, 
abstracted adj. xb'stsaektid. 
abstraction n. seb'stsskSsn. 
abstractly adv. xb'stsaektLi, 'xb-st]Eaektz.i. 
abtbainry n. abbacy [also spelt abthanrie'] 'aebOdn-^i. 
abnse v, (misuse; maltreat) s'bjouz. 
abnse n. (wrong use ; abusiv language) s'bjaus. 
abnsiTe adj. [also spelt abusivl d'bjou-siv; (less properly) 

a'bjou-ziv. 
abntilon n. (plant) dH^jou-ti-len. 
abysm n. (gulf; abyss) b'bizam, s'bizm. 
abysmal adj. sHbizmd); (less properly) d'biSMd}. 
acacia n. (shrub; gum arabic) s'kee-Sa; (sometimes, as 

finally, or when isolated) aTcee-Si-a. 
aoaoin n. pure gum arabic [also spelt acacinel 'xkd-sin. 
academe n. (academy) 'sekd-dim, aekd'diim. 
academian n. aekd'dii-mi-sn ; (improperly) aekd'demi-3n. 
academic adj., n. sekd'demik. 

academician n. s-kaedi'miSsn ; (improperly) d'ksedi-miSdn. 
aeajon n. (fruit; gum) 'sekd-5U. 
acalepb n. sea-nettle [synonymous cognate acalephe"} 'aeks- 

Icf. 
acalepbe n. 'xk9-}if. same meaning as acaleph. 
acalycine adj. having no calyx [also, sometimes, spelt acaly- 

cm] d'kaeli-sin, d'kaeli-sain. 
aoalycinons adj. »k9lisi-n3s. 
acanlose adj. aekd'loos, (assumptivly) 9'kc:-los. 
accede v, (attain; yield) aek'siid. 
accent n. (prominence of a speech-sound due to higher pitch 

c: law, b: fur, a cot, » hot, ei boy; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai Vi\.e\ 

hngtb-tnark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syWaJoV^. 



4 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

or greater stress; diacritic mark; pectiliarity o£ pronuncia- 
tion) 'aek-sent, 'aekssnt. 

aeeent v. 'xk-sent, xk'sent 

aeoented adj. 'xk-sentid, xk'sentid. 

aeoepter n. (one who accepts) xk'septs?. 

aeeeptor n. (in law, one who accepts a bill of exchange, 
etc.) scWseptdz, xk'sep-te?. 

aeeess n. (approach; accession) 'xk-ses; (improperly) xk'ses. 

aoeessary adj., n, xWsts^zi, 'xksi-se^i. same meaning as 
accessory, 

aeeessible adj. (easy of access) xk'sesd-bdl. 

aooessory adj.,n. extra [synonymous cognate accessaryl xk- 
'ses3-zi, 'xksi-sosi. 

aoolimate v. (habituate to a new climate; acclimatize) 
3'kLai-m3t, 'xkL9-met. 

aoolimatisation n. [also spelt acclimatisationl d-kLai-ms- 
ti'zee-San, s-kLai-ms-tai'zee-San. 

aoolimatise v, [also spelt acclimatisel e'kLai-md-taiz. 

aeolinate adj. (sloping upward) 'xkLi-net. 

aoelivons adj, (rising : the epposit of declivous) 9'kz.ai-v3S. 

aooolade n. (embrace; brace) xkaleed. 

aoeompaniment n. s'kAmpdni-msnt ; {rapidly) slcAmpNi- 
msnt, d'kAMNi-msnt. 

aooompanist n. one who or that which accompanies [syn- 
onymous cognate accompanyist'\ s'kAmps-nist. 

aooomplioe n. [also spelt accomplish sicempz^is. 

aooomplisl&ed adj. [also spelt accomplishf[ dHcempz^iSt 

aooomptant n. (an archaic spelling of accountant some- 
times still used in law) d'kaon-tsnt. 

aooonohe v. (assist women in child-birth) dHcouS; {illiterate- 
ly) aTcaotJ. 

aooonol&eiir n. (man midwife) xko'Ss:?. . 

aooonohinent n. (delivery in child-bed) xkuj'meq, sHcouS- 
inot), a'kouS-mant ; {illiterately) sHcautS-mdnt. 

aooonter r. [also spelt accoutre ; present participle accouter- 
ing, accoutring', past participle and preterit accoutered, 
accoutcrd, accoutred} s'kou-tsz; {improperly) dHcao-tds. 

aooontermeAt n. [also spelt accoutrement"! dlcou-td^-mant. 

aoonrate adj. 'xkqo-z^t; {vulgarly) 'xks-^dt, 'xk-^at, 'xksdt. 

aoonrsed v, past participle of accurse [also spelt accurst} 
9'ko:rst. 

aoonned adj, [also, sometimes, spelt accurstl slcBirst, 
a'kurstd. a'koir-sid. 

jj'r. ccure: b the, thin; 5 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^cltew; 
lifrcAcn; fj^inff; u whoever, i react, ofull, outool, i »t, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, edcrial, Abut, D;doot, ^ouo, tVje^, ^.^%qNa\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 5 

Acemeti n. pi. [also spelt Acoetneti; feminin synonymous 

cognates Acemetae, Acoemetae} a'semi-tai. 
aceplialoiui adj, (headless) s'sefd-lds. 
acerate n, (salt of aceric acid) 'sess-zet. 
acerb adj, (sour; bitter) 9'sB:?b. 

acerbate adj. (embitterd, severe) 9'sB:z-bet, 'sesss-bet. 
acerbate v. (make sour; embitter) 3'sB:z-bet, 'xsd?-bet. 
acere n. (mollusk of the genus Acera) 'xssz. 
acerio adj. (of the maple) s'sezik. 
acerose adj. (chaffy; needle-shaped) xsq*zoos, {assumptivlyi) 

'aesd-?os. 
acerrate v. (heap up) 'as3r-vet, a'sBie-vet. 
acerrate adj. (heapt) 9'sB:z-vet. 
acetable n. (acetabulum) 'aesitd-bdJ. 
acetabulum n. [ploral acetahula'\ sesi'txbjo-}dm. 
acetal n. (liquid) 'aesi-ts), 'xsi-tsel, d'sii-t}. 
acetamide n. [also, sometimes, spelt acetamidl d'setd-mid, 

d'seta-maid, 'xsits-maid, xsi'taemid. 
acetary n. (pulp) 'sesi-tezi, 'xsits-si. 
acetate n. (salt of acetic acid) 'xsi-tet. 
acetenyl n. (chemic group) 'xsiti-ni). 
acetio adj. (like vinegar; sour) a'setik, d'sii-tik, 
aeetificatioA n. d-setifi'kee-Ssn. 

acetify v, (convert into vinegar; become sour) a'seti-fai. 
acetin n. 'asi-tin; (less properly) a'sii-tin. 
aceto-gelatin adj. aesi-to'dsels-tn. 
acetonamine n. [also, sometimes, spejt acetonamini 'atsi- 

tond-min, 'xsi-tona-main. 
acetonate n, 'aesitd-net. 
acetone n. (dimethyl ketone) 'aesi-ton. 
acetose adj, sesi'toos, (assumptivly) 'xsi-tos. 
acetone adj» (sour; vinegary) s'sii-tss, 'sesi-tds. 
acetnm n. (vinegar) s'sii-tsm. 
acetnrio adj. (acetyl-glycocin) aesi'tQo:-zik. 
acetyl n. (radical) 'xsi-ti). ' 
acetylene n. (ethine) s'seti-Hn, 'sesiti-Hn. 
aoetylio adj. (of acetyl) xsi'tihk. 
acetylisatlon n. sesi-tih'zee-Ssn. 

acb n. (plant of the genus Morinda; Indian mulberry) setj. 
acbaene n. dHciin. see achene. 
aobaenocarp n. dlcii-na-kcrp. 
acbate n. (agate) 'xkat. 
acbe n. pain [also spelt ake"] eek. 

c: low, b: iur, ae cat, ebot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aikite; 

]Bogth-mark(:) indicates that the preceding sound is leti^; 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f ellomng syWable. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



aol&e V. be in pain [also spelt ake'\ eek. 

ache n. (parsley) eetS. 

Aobean adj,, n. [also spelt Achaean ; synonymous cognate 

Achaiani a'kii-an. 
acl&ene n. [also spelt achaene, akene\ slciin. 
aolieniniii n. [also spelt achaenium, akenium; ploral ache- 

nio] a'kii-ni-am. 
aoUeve v. finish; attain, gain [past participle and preterit 

achieved J achievdl a'tjiiv. 
Achillea^ adj. (of Achilles) aekilii-sn. 
aoMng adj,, n. [also spelt aking'\ 'ee-kig. 
adiromatic adj, (without color) aelcsd'mxtik. 
aohromatin n. d'ksoo-md-tin. 
aoiole n. (spine, prickle) 'xsi-kal. 
aoionla n. [ploral aciculae^ s'sikgo-ld* 
aoionliform a(/y. d'sikguh-feizm. 
acidie adj, (acid) s'sidik. 
aoinaoes n. (dagger) s'sins-siz. 
aoinaciform adj, (simitar-shaped) aesi'naesi-fe:7m, a'sinssi- 

fe:rm. 
aoinetiform adj, xsi'neti-fo:?m. 
aoini n. (plural of acinus) 'xsi-nai. 
aoiniform adj, se'sini-fer^m, 'xsini-fe:7m. 
aoinoie adj, aesi'noos, (assumptivly) 'xsi-nos. 
aoinni n. berry; lobule [ploral acini] 'xsi-nas. • 

aoknomrledsment n. [also spelt acknowledgement^ aek'ne- 

hds-mant, (also, in Britain) sek'noo-hds-msnt. 
aome n. (top; crisis) 'aekMi. 

aomite n, [also spelt akmite, achmitel 'xk-mait. 
aoneitii n. [ploral acnestidesi sek'nestis. 
aooelomatoni adj. (without body-cavity) aesi'lemd-tds. 
aoolyte n. (attendant) 'sekd-tait. 
aoonitine n. [also, sometimes, spelt aconitin"! dnceni-tm, 

a'keni-tain. 
aoora n. (fruit of the oak) 'ee-k)9:?n, (older) 'ce-karn. 
aootyledon n. [ploral acotyledones, acotyledonsi a-ketilii-dn. 
aootyledonei n. (ploral of acotyledon) a-ketilii-dn-iz. 
aoonoliy n. rodent [also spelt acouchi, acucht] alcou-Si. 
aoonitio adj. (of hearing) a'koo-stik, dlcou-stik; (improper" 

ly) a'kguu-stik. 
aoqnieioe t'. (agree; submit) akwi'es, 
aore n. (field ; measure of land) 'ee-ka?. 
aorlmony n. (sharpness) 'ak^i-moni, 'aek^ims-ni. 

/.Vf, gcurc: Me. 0(fiin; sasute, d^/oy; ^shoe, tjc/iew; 
wrt'At'p: ijsinpi u whoever, i react, Qiu\\, omIooV 'vxV T\^ee\ 
opovtic; oover, e oerial. Abut, o;dooT, oouo, ^\>c^» t^%o!vfc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 7 

aoroan&a n. declamation [ploral acroamata} xk3o'ee-md. 
aoroan&ata n. (ploral o£ acroama) xkso'xmd-td. 
aoroan&atic adj. (abstruse) xkso-d'mxtik. 
acroaais n. [ploral acroases'\ xk^o'ee-sis. 
aorobatiam n. 'xk^d-bxt-izsm, 'xlcss-bae-tizdm. 
acronyolial adj. (occurring at sunset) d^k^eni-ks). 
acropolia n. (citadel) slcseps-hs. 
aoroaa prep, [synonymous cognate cross; vulgar synonymous 

cognates acrossed, acrost^ 9'k^e:s; {dialectally) slc^cis. 
acroter n. [also spelt acroterej d'k^oo-tdz, 'xkss-tdz. 
actiiLiform adj. (radiate) xk'tini-fo:zm, 'xktini-fexm. 
active adj. characterized by action [also spelt activ'\ 'xktiv. 
aetor n. (one who acts) 'xktsz; (rarely, in law) xWteiz. 
actual adj, 'sektSu-al, (rapidly) 'xktSal; (also) 'aekt^u-dl. 
actualixe v» [also spelt actualise"} 'xktSu-9-laiz. 
actually adv. '^xktSu-^-ti, (rapidly) 'xktSd-li. 
aenmLen. n. (acuteness) d'kgou-msn; (illiterately) 'sekgo-mdn. 
acyclic adj. (not cyclic) 3'sikz.ik. 
adage n. (pithy saying; brief proverb) 'xdids. 
adagial adj. d'dee-dsi-dl. 
adagio adv„adj. (slow) s'dai-dso, 9'da:-d3i-o; (less properly) 

3'dee-50. 
adamant n. (hard mineral) 'xda-maent, 'aeds-mant. 
adamantean. adj. xda-mxn'tii-sn. 
adamantine n. [also spelt adamantin'\ xda'mxntin; (less 

often) aedd'mxn-tain, (rarely) xds'mxn-tin. 
Adamic adj. (of Adam) s'dxmik. 

adaptative adj. adaptiv [also spelt adaptativ"] s'dxptd-tiv. 
Adar n. (Hebrew month) 'ee-dss. 
addable adj. [also spelt addible} 'xdd-bdl. 
additament n. (something added) d'dits-msnt, 'xdita-msnt. 
addreis n. d'dres, 'x-dres. 
address v. s'dres. 

addressed adj. [also spelt addresti d'drest. 
adduce v. (bring forward) a'djous; (improperly) s'dsous. 
addnceable adj. [also spelt adducible} d'djou-sd-bsl. 
adelopod n. [synonymous cognate adelopode} a'dels-ped, 

d'dii-ld-ped. 
adeniform. adj. 9'deni-fe:zm, 'xdini-fe:zm. 
adenitis n. xdi'nai-tis; (less properly) xdi'nii-tis. 
adenose adj. (full of glands) xdi'noos, (assumptivly) 'xdi- 

nos. 
adeps n. (animal fat; lard) 'x-deps. 

- c:l«i^ b: iuT, xcat, ebot, 01 boy; a: far, aa now, a: ask, aikiVe*, 
' hngtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \ong\ 
f stress-marlr () indicates chief stress on the f ellowing syWabU, 



8 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

adept adj. (skild; verst) s'dept. 

adept n. (one who is proficient) d'dept, 'x-dept. 

adequate adj, (sufficient, fitting) 'aedi-kwat. 

adlieiion n. (sticking, union) xdliii-ssn. 

adlLeiive adj,, n. [also spelt adhesivl xd'hii-siv, aed'hii-ziv. 

adiapl&orons adj. (neutral) aedi'xfd-rds. 

adien n. (good-by, farewell) a'djou. 

ad infinitum adv. (to infinity) aed-inf I'nai-tam ; {improi 

erly) ad-in'fini-tam. 
adipooere n. [also spelt adipocirel 'aedip9-si:7. 
adipose adj, (of adeps, fatty) aedi'poos, (assutnptivly) 'xd: 

pos. 
adjectival adj. (of the adjectiv) aedsak'tai-val, 'xdsdkti-vs 
adjectiTally adv. aedssk'tai-vs-li. 
adjeetive adj,, n. [also spelt adjectivl 'xdssk-tiv. 
adjeotively adv, [also spelt adjecHvlyl 'aedsak-tivl 

'adsaktiv-li. 
adjutage n. [also spelt ajuiagel d'dsou-tids, 'xdsjo-tids. 
adjutant n. (assistant) 'xdso-tnt, 'xdsjo-tnt. 
adjntor n. (helper) d'dsou-tsz, d'dsjou-tds. 
adjuvant n.,adj, 'aedso-vant, 'aedsjo-vdnt, (rarely) a'dsoi 

vant. 
adn&easnre v, measure out to; apportion [also spelt ai 

mesurel aed'mesar. 
adn&iniitrator n, d'dmini-stsetd?, xdmini'stsee-ts?. 
adminiitratriz n. (female administrator) aedmini'stset 

tsiks. 
admirable adj. 'aedmdsd-bdl ; (improperly) s'dmai-sd-bd}. 
admiralty n, 'aedms^dl-ti ; (improperly) xdms'^xlti. 
admirative adj. [also spelt admirativli 'xdmd-zetiv, s'dma 

ca-tiv. 
admiringly adv, 9Mmai-7ii]-h ; (dialectally) d'dmaid-^ii]-} 
admisiible adj. (allowable; also, admittable) d'dmisd-bd). 
admit v. (let in; allow; concede) d'dmit, (occasionally 

ae'dmit, ad'mit. 
admittable adj. [also spelt admittible'} d'dmitd-bsl. 
admixtion n. [also spelt admixion"} xd'mikstSsn, xd'mik; 

tjan, aed'miksti-an. 
ado n. (action ; bustle) dMotu 
adobe n. [also spelt adobi, adobie"] d'doo-bi; (sometimes, ei 

roneously, when spelt adobe) a'doob, 'ae-dob. 
adoleioenoe n. (state of growing up; growing-age) ad; 

'lesans. 



/V^/ gcure; d the, Q thm\ 5 asure, d^jov, ^sfioe, tS c/iew 

wzt//ten; t)sing; u whoever, i react, o iu\\, omIooV, \\\., \\?>e 

o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, o: doot, ooxlo, t,\icd, te^^o: 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 9 

Adonic adj, (of Adonis) d'denik. 

adoral adj. (toward the mouth) ae^doi-zal. 

adorned adj, back-to-back [also spelt addorsed, adorst; syn- 
onymous cognates adossed, adosse, adossee} s'deizst. 

adois6e adj, ae-de'see, d'desi. same meanmg as adorsed. 

adulation, n. (flattery) xdjolee-Sdn, aedsolee-S^n. 

adult n,, adj, 9'dAlt, (sometimes) 'x-dAlt. 

adulteress n. [synonymous cognate adultressi a'dAhs-^is. 

adulterine adj., n. [also, sometimes, spelt adulterin] a'dx}- 
ta-2in, a'dAha-rain. 

adultress n. a'dxltsis. same meaning as adulteress. 

ad Talorem adv. (in proportion to the value) sdva'bi-zam ; 
{improperly) aed'vaela-ram. 

advance n., v, 9d'va:ns, 9d'va:ns, dd'vaems. 

advantage n. xd'va:n-tid3, 9d'va:n-tid3, xdVaentids. 

adverse adj.^n. xdWsizs, (assumptivly) 'xd-vB:zs. 

adversely adv, aed'vBzsz.i, xd'vB:zs-h, xd'vB:7-SLi, (by con- 
trast) 'ad-VBZsi-i. 

adverseness n. xd'vBzsNis, xdVB:?s-nis. 

advertise v. [also spelt advertise"! 'xdv3?-taiz, xdvsz'taiz. 

advertisement n. sd'vBztis-mdnt, dd'vBztiz-msnt, xdvs^'taiz- 
mant. 

advertiser n. 'xdvdz-tai-zdz, sedvsz'tai-zdz. 

advice n. (counsel; notice; news) sdVais. 

advise v, (give counsel or advice; give notice) dd'vaiz. 

advocate n. (counsel, pleader) 'xdv9-ket, 'aedva-kat. 

advocate v. (plead for; defend) 'xdv9-ket. 

advcwson n. (ecclesiastical patronage) xdVao-zsn, xd'vao- 
zn. 

adynaniio adj. (without force) sedi'nsemik. 

adytum, n. sanctuary [plural adytal 'sedi-tsm. 

ads n. cutting-tool [also spelt adsel sedz. 

aedes n. edifis; chapel [plural aedesi 'li-diz. 

aedile n. 'li-daiL see edile, 

Aegean adj. I'dsii-sn. see Egean. 

aegilops ft. see egilops. 

aegis n. 'xi-dsis. see egis. 

Aeneid tt, (epic poem about Aeneas) I'nii-id, 'li-ni-id. 

aeolian adj. i'oo-H-sn. see eolian. 

Aeolidae n. pi. i'eh-di. see Eolidae. 

Aeolididae n.pl. i-s'hdi-di. see Eolididae. 

aeolipile n. see eolipile. 

aeon «. see eon, 

c: law, b: iur, 3ecat, hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiVi^^\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f ellowing syWaVAe. 



10 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Aepyoimls fi. ipi'ox-nis. sec Epyomis. 

aerate v. expose to air; charge with carbon dioxide, formerly 
called fixt air [also spelt aeratej 'ze-^-zet; {improperly) 
'c:-2et; {erroneously) 'c:-ri-et. 

aerial adj. of air'; atmospheric [also spelt aerial} e'li-zi-oi, 
(rarely) c'ei-ri-rf; (improperly) 'e:-o-9L 

aerie adj, see aery. 

aerie n. see aery, 

aerifieatiom n. [also spelt aerification} ee-d-nfi^ee-San. 

aeriform adj. having the form of air; gaseous; unreal [also 
spelt aeriform} 'ce-ari-f o:rm ; (improperly) 'ei-zi-feizm. 

aerify v. make aeriform ; aerate [also spelt aerify} 'ee-37i-f ai ; 
(improperly) 'ei-zi-fsi. 

aerog^aphy n. [also spelt aerography} ee-d'^egr^-fi. 

aerolite n. meteorite [also spelt aerolite} 'ee-3;9-lait ; (im- 
properly) 'c:-23-lait. 

aeronaut n. air-sailor; balloonist [also spelt aeronaut} 'ee- 
9Z9-nc:t; (improperly) 'e:-?3-nc:t; (erroneously) 'e:-2i-3-nc:t. 

aeroplane n. [also spelt aeroplane} 'ee-979-pz.een ; (improp- 
erly) 'e:-r3-pLcen ; (erroneously) 'e:-ri-3-pi.een. 

aeroatat n. balloon, etc. [also spelt aerostat} 'ee-979-staet ; 
(improperly) 'e:-?a-staet. 

aemg^ons adj. [synonymous cognate eruginous} e'zou-d^i- 
nDs, i'eou-dsi-nas. 

adj, airy, etherial [also spelt aerie} 'ee-a-ei, 'c:-ri. 
n, lofty nest [also spelt aerie; synonymous cognates 
airy, eyry, eyrie \ ploral aeries} 'z:-zi, *i>zi. 

aei n. (copper or bronze; money; bronzes) lis. 

Aeiir n. (ploral of As) ^et-z^z. 

aeitl&ete n, see esthete, 

aeithietic adj. see esthetic, 

aeitival adj, see estival. 

aestivation n. see estivation. 

aethLeogam n. [also spelt aetheogam} e'li-Oi-d-gaem. 

aetiology n. see etiology, 

af eard adj. afraid [also spelt af eared} d'fiisd. 

affective adj. of the affections; emotional [also spelt affec- 
tiv} a'frktiv. 

afferent adj, (conveying inward: correlativ of efferent) 

affix n. (nomething added; prefix or suffix) 'xfiks. 
affix t'. fix, fasten; attach [past participle and preterit af- 
fixfui, affixt] a'fiks. 

y t'r, i;rurr: d thv, 0//iin; 5 asute, djjov, ^sfioe, tjc/iew; 
III ft'/Hii: t)n\ft0', II whoever, i react, oiuu, ouiooV, i\\., \\^ce% 
opfirtlc; aov^r, cacrial. Abut, o:doot, ;>ono, e\>c^, t^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 11 

afflatus n. (inspiration) a'fixe-tds. 

affluent adj. (abundant) 'xfLiu-snt, 'xfLU-ant. 
' af f rajLcliiae v. (set free) 9'f3a:n-tSaiz, 9'f3a:n-tSiz; 3'f3xn- 
tSaiz, d'f^aentSiz. 

afgluuDL ft. (blanket) 'xf-gaen; {erroneously) 'xf-ksen. 

aforesaid adj, a'foir-sed; ^improperly) 'xfse-sed. 

a fortiori adv. (all the more) ce-fe^Si'oi-eai, ee-fe^ti'oi-^ai. 

after prep. 'a:i-t^z, (when less strest) 'aftae. 

aftennatli n. 'a:f-t3?-ma:0. 

aftermost (ui/. 'a:f-t3z-most, (rapidly) 'a: f -tar-mast. 

afternoon n. a:f-t3?'noun. 

afternoon adj. 'a:f-t9?-noun. 

aftenrards adv. 'a:f-t3?-w3edz; (less properly) aii-t^z- 
'wBirdz. 

again adv. [also, sometimes, spelt agen"] s'gen, s'geen. 

against prep, a'genst, a'geenst. 

agama n. (lizard) 'xga-ms. 
n. (bird) 'xg»-mi. 
Lc a(/y. (asexual) a'gxmik. 

agan&ogenesis n. (non-sexual genesis; asexual reproduction) 
xgams'dse n i-sis. 

agamy n. (non-marriage) 'xgs-mi. 

agape adv. (on the gape; with open mouth) 3'ga:p, 3'ga:p, 
a'geep. 

agape n. love-feast [ploral agapae, agapesl 'xga-pi, 'xga-pi. 

agaric n., adj. s'gxrik, 'xgs-zik. 

agariciform adj. (mushroom-shaped) a'gxrisi-feizm, xgs- 
'^isi-fe:em. 

agate n. (quartz; size of type) 'xgit. 

agate adv. (on the move, a-going) s'geet. 

agave n. (century-plant) a'gee-vi, (older) a'gee-vi ; 3'ga:-vi. 

aged adj. (of advanced age, old : as, the *aged, an *aged 
man ; characteristic of old age : as, *aged wrinkles) 'ee- 
dsid ; (erroneously) eedsd ; (of or at the age of : as, middle 
♦aged, suits for boys *aged twelve years) eedsd; (errone- 
ously) 'ee-dsid. 

aged V. (past participle and preterit of age) eedsd. 

agenesic adj. (of agenesis) xdsi'nesik, aedsi'nezik. 

.agenesis n. [also spelt agennesisl s'dseni-sis, xdsi'nii-sis. 

ager n. (field) 'ce-dsar. 

ageratum n. (plant) a'dse^a-tam, xdss'^ee-tsm. 

agger n. (an earthworm; Roman road) 'xdsa?. 

aggrandisement n. [also spelt aggrandizementi d'g^xndis- 

c: law, b: iur, aecat, hot, ei boy; a: far, qo now, a: osk, aikite; 

)engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otvg\ 

stress-marJc () indicates chief stress on the f ellowing sy\\a\Ae. 



12 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

msnt, d'grxndiz-mdnt, 'aegrdn-daiz-msnt ; (improperly) 
d'gzaen-daiz-mdnt. 

aggrandise v, [also spelt aggrandise^ 'sgssn-daiz; {less* 
properly) d'gzxn-daiz. 

agg^eve v. grieve, distress, afflict, oppress [past participle 
and preterit aggrievedl a'geiiv. 

aghast adj. [also spelt agast^ 9'ga:st. 

ag^ile adj. [also, sometimes, spelt agil] 'xdsil, 'ae-dsaiL 

ag^ilely adv, 'aedsi-h, 'adsil-h, 'a-dsaiWi. 

aging M. [also spelt ageingi 'ee-dsii]. 

agio n. (rate of exchange, etc.) 'aedso, 'adsi-o, 'ce-dsi-o, {some- 
times) 'a:-d3i-o. 

agiotage n. (spectilation ; stock- jobbing) 'xdsi-d-tids, 'ee- 
d3i-3-tid3. 

agister n. [also spelt agistor"} a'dsists;. 

aglet n. metal tag of a lace [synonymous cognates aigulet, 
aiglet} 'aeglat, 'ee-glat. 

agnise v, (acknowledge; own) seg'naiz. 

Agnoetae n.pl. [also spelt Agnoetael xgno'ii-ti. 

agnoetes n. pL 'xgno-its. same meaning as agnoites. 

agnoites n,pl. [synonymous cognate agnoetes} 'aegno-aits. 

agnomen n. additional name [ploral agnomina} aeg'noo-mdn. 

agnomina n. (ploral of agnomen) aeg'nemi-ns. 

agnosticism n. xg'nesti-sizsm ; {erroneously) xg'nesti-ki- 
zdm. 

Agnus Dei n. (Lamb of God; Christ) segnds'dii-ai. 

agonize v, [also spelt agonise} 'aegd-naiz. 

agonta n. (insectivorous mammal, Solenodon paradoxus) 
a'gou-ta. 

agonti n. rodent [also spelt aguti, agouty} d'gou-ti. 

agrarianize v. [also spelt agrarianise} 9'gre:-zi-9-naiz. 

ag^ricnltnralist n. xg?i'kAhS979-hst. same meaning as agri- 
culturist. 

ag^rionltnrist n. xgzi'kAltSd-^ist. 

agnie n. 'ee-gjo; {vulgarly) 'ee-gJ9. 

all inter j, a: . 

aha inter j, o'ha: , {less deliberately) 9'ha: • 

ahead adv. [also spelt ahed} s'hed. 

ahyn «. (the one-year fish, of Japan) 'a:-ju. 

ai n. (three-toed sloth) 'a:-i. 

ai n. (ahyu) ai. 

aiaia n. the roseate spoonbill [also spelt ayaya, ajaia, ajaja; 
synonymous cognate aiaiai} ai'ai-3. 

/jre, gcure; d the, Q thin\ 5 asure, d^joy; ^shoe, tJcAew; 
wze/Aen; 13 sing; u wh^jever, i react, oiuVV, Q\iioo\, \\\., \\^ee\ 
o poetic; & over, e aerial. Abut, o:doot, 00 no, t,\>c^, t^VLcXfc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 13 

-de-oamp n. [also spelt aid-de-camp'i 'ee-di-kaemp, 'eed- 

keq. 

Dt ft. 'ee-glat, 'aeglst. same meaning as aglet. 

et ft. egret; tuft of feathers [also spelt aigrette'^ ee-g^it, 

zzt, 

ille ft. (needle; drill) e'gwiil, 'ce-gwil. 

., n. trouble [past participle and preterit ailed, aildl ee}. 

nthiu ft. [erroneous form of ailantus'\ e'lxnOdS. 

ntiui ft. tree [erroneous synonymous cognate ailanthusl 

;nt9s, ailaentas. 

I adj,, ft. 'ai-no. 

V. dialectal (am not) eent; (formerly, and in Ireland 
I) 'amnt, a:nt, e:nt. 

V. dialectal (have not) eent; (formerly) 'he:-vnt. 
;. (gaseous substance of the atmosphere, etc.) e:z. 
/. [past participle and preterit aired, atVd] e:z. 
'Aght adj, eiz'tait, (assumptivly) 'e:r-tait. 
bight ft. (stove) 'e:z-tait. 

ft. 'ei'Zi. same meaning as aery, 
) ft. division of a church [also spelt ailel ail. 
i. islet [synonymous cognate eyoti eet. 
ii ft. letter [also, formerly, spelt achel eetj, (when less 
est) etS; (dialectally) heetj. 
age ft. see adjutage, 

ibo adv,, adj, [also spelt akimhowl a'kim-bo. 
». wing; flap [ploral alae'\ 'ee-la. 
aster ft., adj, 'ads-bat-std?, ae}9'ba:-st3?. 
carte adv, (by a bill of fare) Q-.-WVa'.zt. 
kaday interj, a-laeka'dee, a'laeka-dee. 
-greoqne ft. Greek fret [also spelt d-la-grec; synony- 
us cognate aligreek'\ a:-}^'g^ek. 
lode adj, [also spelt d-la-model aela'mood, (assumptivly: 

♦alamode beef) 'ala-mod. 

m n. call to arms; warning; state of surprise with fear 
nenymous cognates alarum, larum'\ s'laizm. 
m V, arouse to a sense of danger, etc. [past participle and 
:terit alarmed, alarmdl ^'}a;^m. 

am n. d'la:-z3m, dlaezsm, ^'lei-z^m. same meaning as 
rm. 

interj. 9la:s, a'lois, alaers. 

e adj. (winged) 'ee-let, (rarely, in poetry) elect. 
it conj. c:rbii-it. 
no ft. [ploral albinos'! ael'bai-no, ael'bii-no. 

u, b: fur, aecat, hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai\cite; 
i-mar/r OJ indicates that the preceding sound is \©tig\ 
uarlc () indicates chief stress on the fellbwing syUable, 



14 DICTIONARY OF .HARD WORDS 



K. (.white-of-egg, etc.) ae}l>jou-m9n ; {less proj 
'aetbjo-mdn. 

H. (chemic snb^ance) ad^jou-min. 
adj. aet'bjoa-mi-iios, aet-bjomi'noos. 
SI. ad-bjomi'ii3os. 
Alealde n. ollcail-de. a^Hcaddi. 

■IcayJg H. officer [also, formerly, spelt alcaidl adlcee 
•leaiT It. (fortress; palace) cUtai-zaZt adks'za:?. 
alc'fcttwiy k. 'dki-mi. 
Aleoram ». [also spelt Aikorani adka'^arn, 'xik^-zxn; 

properly) T^lnoi-r^ik. 
•!••▼• !•• (covered recess) 'ael-k30v, sencoov. 
alder n. (shrub) 'cil-dae; {erroneously) 'aeidaz. 
Alderauuiie a</y. d-dag^fnarnik. 

Aldime adj. 'cil-dni, 'cil-dain; 'addin, 'ad-dain; {improi 
'c:l-diii, 'sd-din. 

n. (sour ale) 'arfi-gar, 'adi-goz; 'ee-li-ga?, 'ce-li-c 
adj. [also, sometimes, spelt Alexandrin] 
'xa:n-dnii, adig'za:n-drain, dig'zaendcin ; {improperly) 
'saendrni, dik'iauidnii, adik'saen-drixu 
SI. seaweed [ploral algael 'dgs. 
SI. (ploral of alga) 'd-dsL 

SI. 'addsi-bra; {improperly) 'aeldsi-bre. 
als^l^n^tBt M. 'add5i-b?e-ist, addsi'teee-ist. 
Alc^aldm adj. [also spelt AlgonquinJ ad'gen-kin. 
alluuitVr«sq«e adj. d-haem'b^esk. 
alias M. assumed name [ploral aliiuesl 'ee-li-ss, 'ee-lias, 

ds, 'xtids. 
aliU M. (plea or fact of having been elsewhere) 'xh-bai 

rom^^omsly) 'ali-bi. 
alidad m« 'di-daed. same meaning as alidade. 
alidade si. [also spelt alhidade; synenymous cognate al 

'«ti-ded. 
aliem adj., n. 'ee-ti-on, 'ee-lidn. 
alien r. make averse or indifferent; alienate; estrange 

porticiple and preterit aliened, aliend"} 'ee-lisn. 
aUeme r. transfer or convey, as a title or property 

sometimes, spelt alienl 'ee-lidn, sliin. 
aliemee m. ee-lid'nii. 

aliforaA adj. (wing>shaped; pterygoid) 'asii-feizm. 
aliipt r. diain. see aline. 

alicreek m. adi'griik. same meaning as d-la-grecque. 
alimemt m. 'adi-mdnt: {erroneously) 'ee-li-msnt. 

y tT. ccure; d/Ae. Othin; jarure, ds/oy; S-^^oe, t^ c 

wwMcn: ^ sing; u whoever, \Teact» oiuu, \iMiool, itt, i 

o poetic: dov#r, e aerial, xbut, o'.doot, ^ono, «.\icd, «.« 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 15 

aline v. adjust to a line; line up [also spelt align, allineli 

diain. 
alineatlon n. [also spelt allineation'\ d-lini'ee-Ssn. 
alinement n. [also spelt alignment, alignement, allinementi 

dlain-msnt. 
aliquot adj., n. 'aAi-kw^t, 'aeh-kwet. 

alkahest n. solvent [also spelt alchahest, alcahestl 'alka- 
hest. 
alkalamide n. [synonymous cognate alkalimideli ael'kaeld-mid, 

xrkaeld-maid ; 'xlksld-maid. 
alkali n. [also spelt aJcali; ploral alkalis, alkalies] 'aelks-lai, 

'aelka-li. 
alkalify t^. 'selk^li-fai, ael'kseli-fai. 
alkaline adj. [also, sometimes, spelt alkalin"] 'a^ka-lain, 'dA- 

kd-hn. 
alkalization n. [also spelt alkalisation, alcalisationJi a^kd« 

lai'zee-Ssn, arfkali'zee-San. 
alkalizs tr. [also spelt alkalise"! 'aelks-laiz. 
all adj. c:}, (when unstrest) cl. 
all-absorbing adj. c:}-9b'se:z-bii], (assumptivly) 'c:I-db-se:7- 

birj. 
allantoic adj, (of the allantois) aelsn'too-ik. 
allantois adj. (fetal appendage) disento-is. 
allay v. put down ; repress ; quell [past participle and preterit 

allayed, allaydl slee. 
alles^iance n, dlii-dsans, s'lii-dsi-dns. 
allesoric adj, aeh'gezik. 
allegorist n. 'seh-gosist, (tn Britain) 'aehgo-sist, 'sdiga-rist; 

(improperly) alega-eist. 
allegoxiiEe t/. [also spelt allegorise'] 'xhgd-zaiz. 
allegretto adj., n. aeh'g^eto. 
allegro adj. (brisk, lively) a'lee-geo. 
alleluia inter j, seh1uu-J9. see halleluja, 
allenarly adv. (only, solely; merely) slena^-h. 
allioe n. fish [also spelt allis] 'aehs. 
allied adj. alaid, {less properly) 'ae-laid. 
alliteratiTe adj. [also spelt alliterativ] s'htd-retiv, 9*lit9Z9- 

tiv. 
allogamy n, (cross-fertilization) dlegs-mi. 
allopath n. 'sela-paeO. 
allopathic adj, aels'paedik. 

allopathist n. sleps-Oist; (less properly) 'aeld-pseOist. 
allopathy n. 9lop3-9i; (less properly) 'aela-paeOi. 

•c low, b: f«r, ae cot, © i^f, ©j boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai\^i.X.t\ 

Itngth'inark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowing syWabU. 



16 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

allophanie adj. (of changeable appearance) sld'faenik. 

allotrope n. (another mode) 'a^9-t£op. 

allotropic adj. xWtiepik» 

allotropioity n. xlstsa'pisi-ti. 

allotropiim n. 3'}et£9-piz9m. 

allotropy n. dletxs-pi. 

alloy ff. [ploral alloys! alei; (/^« properly) 'a-lei. 

alloy V. mix with a baser metal; debase [former synonymous 

cognate allay; past participle and preterit alloyed, alloy d} 

a'loi. 
ally V, (conibine, unite, join) slai. 
ally n. one united or associated with another by treaty or 

league [ploral allies'] 3'lai, 'a-lai. 
ally n. playing-marble [also spelt alley, alay; ploral allies} 

'aeh. 
allyl n. (hydrocarbon radical) 'aelil. 
allylamijie n. [also, sometimes, spelt allylaminl slild-min, 

'aehld-main. 
alma mater n. (fostering mother) slma'mee-tsz. 
almanac n. 'c:l-m3-n»k. 
almandine n. precious garnet, almandite [also, sometimes, 

spelt almandin'\ 'aelmsn-din, 'slman-dain. 
almner n. 'a:m-n92:. same meaning as almoner, 
almond n. (nut) 'a:-m9nd, 'xmsnd, 'xlmsnd. 
almoner n. dispenser of alms [synonymous cognate almnerl 

'a;Jmo-n3?. 
almost adv, 'c:}-moost, {when less strest) 'c:l-most, 'cl-most, 

'clmss. 
alms n. [pbral alms'] a:mz; (dialectally) ae:mz. 
aloe n. [ploral aloesl 'x-b, 'aelo. 

aloes n, (ploral of aloe; also used as a singular) '£-loz,/aetoz. 
aloetio adj. of the aloe [also spelt aloctic] xlo'etik. 
aloin n. (aloetin) 'selo-in. 
alone adj. d'loon; (dialectally) slon. 

along /)r<?/>. o'lorq, (when less strest) d'lor) ; {dialectally) s'lcirj. 
alonatte n. monkey [also spelt alouatel aelu'aet, 'aelu-at, 
alow adv, (afire ; in a flame) sloo. 
alow adv, (in or to a low place : opposed to aloft) aloo. 
alpaoa n. serpaekd; (erroneously) aela'paeka. 
alphabet n. [also spelt alfabetl 'aelfa-bat, 'aelfa-bet. 
alphabetic adj, of an alfabet [also spelt alfabeticl aelfd- 

'!)rtik. 
alphabetical adj, [also spelt alfa betical] aelfanDcti-kal. 

/ r^, cciin'.- (^//lo. O/Ziin; 5 azrure, ds/oy; S •^'^oe, tjc/iew; 
wft'/trp; tjswff; u whoever, i react, oiuW, ouiool, lit, lisee; 
opovtic; oover, c aerial. Abut, o:doot, 00 no, e\>c^, «.^VLa\A\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 17 

alpltabetise v. 'aelfsbd-taiz. 

alpine adj, [also, sometimes, spelt alpin'Ji 'xlpin, 'xl-pain; 

{less properly) 'a^-pin. 
already adv, [also spelt alredyli ciVzedi. 
also adv, 'c:2-s3; (jdialectally) 'eXso, 'eltso. 
alterative adj. [also spelt alterative 'c:l-t9-7etiv, 'c:2-t9ed-tiv. 
altercate v. (dispute) 'c:i-t3z-ket, 'xhsz-ket. 
altercation n. cil-tsz^kee-Sdn, a^tST'kee-Sdn. 
alter ego n. (second self; double) xhse'ii-go. 
altern adj. (alternate) 'xhazn, 'c:}-t9?n; xl'tB:zn, cVX3:zr\. 
alternate adj.,n. cirteznit, ael'ts^nit; 'c:l-t3r-nit, 'selt3z-nit. 
alternate v. ''c:2-td7-net, 'sltdsr-net. 
alternately adv, c:}'tB?nd-tz.i, xl'teznd-tLi. 
alternation n. ciUtsz^nee-l^n, xltdz^nee-Ssn. 
alternative adj.,n, [also spelt alternativ'\ c:}'tBzn9-tiv, ael- 

'tB?na-tiv. 
althougli conj, [also spelt althol cii'doo, {anteriorly, often) 

'c:l-do. 
altogetlier adv. c:l-to'geda3, {anteriorly) 'cil-to-gcdae. 
alto-relievo n. high relief [also spelt alto-rilievo ; plural 

alto-relievosi aelto-eilii-vo, alto-eilii-vo. 
alto-rilievo n. a:l-to-3il'jee-vo, a:l-to-eirjee-vo; alto-ei'hi-vo. 

arfto-eilii-vo. same meaning as alto-relievo. 
altmistie adj. aeltsu'istik. 
alndel n. (glass vessel; pot; tube) 'aelio-deL 
alumina n. sliou-mi-nd, {dialectally) sluu-mi-ns. 
alun&ininm n. xHo'mini-sm. same meaning as aluminum, 
almninnm. n. [synonymous cognate aluminium"] sliou-mi- 

n9m, {dialectally) dlou-mi-nam. 
alnnina n. a woman or girl pupil or graduate [ploral alum- 

nael slAmna. 
alumnae n. (ploral of alumna) dlAm-ni. 
alnmni n. (ploral of alumnus) slAm-nai. 
alnmnns n. pupil; graduate [ploral alumni"] alAmnss. 
alnnogen n. (nativ aluminum sulfate) d'Hou-ns-dsin. 
alveolar adj. 'advi-s-ld?, xl'vii-d-lsz. 
alveolns n. little cell or cavity [ploral alveoli] 'aelvi-a-bs, 

arf'vii-9-l3s. 
alvens n. tube or duct [ploral alvei] 'xlvi-9s. 
almrays adv. 'c:l-wez, {when less strest) 'c:l-wiz. 
am V, (first person singular present indicativ of be) xm, 

{when unstrest) sm, nu 
amadon n, (Carman tinder) 'xms-du. 

c: law, b: fwr, se cat, ebot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aiVi\.e^\ 

leBg^-mark 0) indicates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

stress-mark () xndicates chief stress on the f ellowmg avWaVAe. 



18 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

amaldar n. governor [synonymous cognate amildarl 'xmsl- 

daz, 
amalgam n. (alloy; mixture) d'mxlgsm. 
amandin n. [also spelt amandinel 'aemdn-din, s'maendin. 
amanitine n. [also, sometimes, spelt atnanitin'] d'maeni-tin, 

sms'nai-tain. 
amannenses n. (ploral of amanuensis) 9-maenju'en-siz. 
amannensii n. [ploral amanuenses'! 9-mxnju'ensis. 
amaranthine adj, [also spelt amaranthin; synonymous cog- 
nates amarantine, amarantin'] xmd'^xnOin; (improperly) 

aems'zxn-Oain. 
amarine n. [also, sometimes, spelt amarin^ aems-srin, s'me:- 

;ain. 
amaryllii n. (plant) aemd'rihs. 
amass v. gather; accumulate [past participle and preterit 

amassed, amast'] 9'ma:s, 3'ma:s, 9'mae:s. 
amateur adj, aema'te:;, (assumptivly) 'aema-tB*.?; (also) xmo- 

'tgo:r, 'amg-tgor; (less properly) 'aema-tSoz, aema'tSoir. 
amatenr n. (one who loves or has a taste for anything; a 

non-professional) xma'teiz, 'aema-te:?; aema'tgo:?, 'sma-tgos. 
amatenrisli a(/y. aemd'tB:-7iS) xm9'tgo:-?iS. 
ambage n. [ploral ambages'] 'xmbids. 
ambages n. ploral of ambage (roundabout mode of speech) 

'ecmbi-dsiz; (circuitous path; delaying practises) xml>ee- 

dsiz. 
ambassador n. [synonymous cognate embassadorl xm'baesd- 

ddr* 
ambergris n. [also spelt ambergrise, ambergreasel 'xmbas- 

griis; (less properly) 'aembds-gris. 
amblyopy n. (dim-sightedness) 'xmbli-epi, 'xmbli-opi, xm- 

'blni-3-pi. 
ambrosia n. (food or drink of the gods) xm^bzoo-ss, xm- 

'bcoo-5i-3, «m'broo-xi-3. 
ambry n. storeroom; cupboard [ploral ambries; synonymous 

cognate aumbry] 'ambei, 'a:m-b?i. 
ambs-aoe n. [also spelt ames-ace] 'xmz-ees. 
ambnlaoral adj. sembjolee-kssl, xmbjolxksdL 
ambnsoade n.,v, smbsslceed. 

ameer n, prince; lord; chief [also spelt amir] s'mi:;. 
amelia n. (absence of limbs) s'meti-d. 
ameliorate r. (make better; improve) s'mii-lid-ret. 
auielns n. limbless monster [ploral ameli] 'xmi-lss. 
auien n. re'men, (also, especially in singing) a/men. 

/rr, ^cure: d the, B thin\ jasure, d^/oy; jshoc, tS c/iew; 
wwAcn; tj ainff; u whoever, ir^act, olim, wiiooV, "i^>-V "dsee; 
o poetic; Qover, e aerial, xbiit, o:doot, ;>ono, t\ie^, t^^«ivfc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 19 



amenability n. d-mind'bih-ti. 

amenable adj. s'lmi-ns-bdl ; (less properly) d'mens-bdi. 

amend v, (correct; improve; reform) s'mend. 

amende n. (fine; reparation) 9'mend, s'mend. 

amends n.pl. (compensation) d'mendz. 

amenity n. (pleasantness) d'meni-ti; {less properly) s'mii- 

ni-ti. 
ament n. (inflorescence) 'ae-ment, s'ment. 
American adj,, n. d'mesi-ksn ; (dialectally) d'mezs-ksn, d'me:- 

z9-k9n. 
ametbystine adj. [also spelt amethystini aemi'Oistin; {im- 
properly) aemi'Ois-tain. 
amiable adj, (kindly; pleasing) 'ee-mi-s-bdl. 
amiant n. flexible asbestos [synonymous cognates amianth, 

amiantusj amianthusl 'semi-aent. 
amio adj» (of ammonia) 'aemik. 
amioe n. cloth wrap; amict [also spelt amis'} 'semis. 
amioe n. fur cap or hood [also spelt amisl 'xmis. 
amid prep, (amidst) d'mid. 
amide n. [also, sometimes, spelt amid} 'aemid, 'ae-maid, (some- 

times) d'maid. 
amidic adj. (of an amide) o'midik, 9'mai-dik. 
amidide n. 'xmi-daid. 
amidin n. [also spelt amidinel 'aemi-din. 
amidogen n. s'midd-dsin, d'mai-ds-dsin. 
amine n. [also, sometimes,* spelt aminl 'aemin, 'ae-main, 

(sometimes) a'mam. 
amir n. s'mi:?. see ameer, 
ammoniac adj,, n. d'moo-ni-aek. 

ammoniaoal adj. (of ammonia; ammoniac) aems'nai-d-kdl. 
ammonic adj. (of ammonia) d'menik. 
amoeba n. [also spelt ameba; ploral amoebas, amoebae} 

d'mii-bd. 
amortisement n. [also spelt amortizement} 9'me:z-tis-m9nt, 

3'me:2-tiz-mant. 
amortise v. make dead; alienate in mortmain; wipe out 

[also spelt amortise} 9'me:?-tiz. 
amonr n. (love-affair) d'mo:?. 
smpere n. (unit of electric current) aem'pe:z, 'sem-pe:z; (also, 

less properly) aem'pi:e, 'aem-piie. 
sinpersand n. (short and) 'aempsz-saend. 
ampbiaster n. (two-stard body, or spindle, in an ovum) 

'jemfi-aestar. 

c:latt', b: f«r, ae cat ehi?t, 01 boy; a: far, aa now, a: ask, aikiXe*, 

hngth-mark 0) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti%\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the following sv\\ab\e. 



20 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Amphibola n, (genus of gastropods) aem'fibs-ld. 

amphibole n. (hornblende) 'aemfi-boi; (erroneously) xm- 
'fib3-li. 

amphibole n. (casting-net) sem'fibd-h. 

amphictyon adj. (deputy) aem'fikti-dn. 

amplilgean adj, (around the earth) aem'fidsi-sn, aemf I'dsii-dn. 

amphigory n, (rigmarole) ^xmii-gozi. 

amphiscian n. (one of the amphiscii) aem'fiSdn, aem^fi^i^dn. 

ampliiscli n,pl, (inhabitants of the intertropic regions) xm- 
'fiSi-ai. 

ampliltlieater n, [also spelt amphitheatre^ 'aemfi-6ii-3-tdz, 
3emfi'8ii-3-t3e. 

amphitrion n. (host; entertainer) xm'fitp-sn. 

amphora n. two-handled vessel [ploral amphorae'} 'xmfd-z9. 

amnsiTe adj, [also spelt amusivj s'mjou-ziv; s'mjou-siv. 

amyl n. (radical) 'xmil. 

amylin n. [also spelt amyline"} 'aemi-hn. 

an conj, aen. 

an adj.-pron, xn, (when unstrest) 9n, n. 

ana n. (collection of sayings) 'ee-ns, 'a:-n9. 

Anabaptist n. xns'bseptist. 

anabasis n. [ploral anabasesl d'nxba-sis; (erroneously) xnd- 
'bee-sis. 

anachronism n. (error in time or date) g'naekrsd-nizdm. 

anaoolnthon n. [also spelt anakoluthon, anakolouthon ; plo- 
ral anacolutha'} xnakd^iou-Oent 

Anaoreontio adj., n, d-nxksi'entik. 

anaemia n. d'nii-mi-s. see anemia. 

anaesthesia n. see anesthesia, 

anaesthetic adj., n, see anesthetic, 

anaesthetise v, see anesthetise, 

anagoge n. a bringing up; mystic interpretation [synony- 
mous cognate anagogyl aena'goo-dsi. 

anagoge n, 'xns-godsi. same meaning as anagoge. 

analoime n. analcite [also, sometimes, spelt analcim} d'na^- • 
sim, 9'nxl-saim. 

analgesia n. (incapacity to feel pain) xn^rdsii-ss, aensl'dsii- 
si-9. 

analogous adj. d'nxld-gss; (erroneously) d'nxls-dsds. 

analogue n, [also spelt analog"] 'sens-leg; (erroneously) 'sens- 
log. 

analyses n. (ploral of analysis) 9'nseli-siz. 

analysis n. [ploral analyses'! s'nxh-sis. 

/,v(^, gcurc; d the, thin] sasure, ds/oy; ^shoe, tSc/tew; 
wwAen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, omIgoV \\\., -dsec; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o;doot, oono, ^\ie^, ^t^a\ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 21 



analyse v. [also spelt analyse! 'xn^aiz; {in Scotland) aens- 
Ibiz. 

anamorphosis ft. aend'me:z-f9-sis, aend-mez'foo-sis. 

ananas n. (pineapple) d'naenss, d'nee-nss, 9'na:-n3s. 

anapest n. [also spelt anapaest"! 'xns-pest, 'xns-pist. 

anaphora n. [ploral anaphorae} d'naefd-^s. 

anarch n. (anarchist) 'xn9zk. 

anarchic at//, (of anarchy) d'no^kik, 9'na:7-kik. 

anarchist n. 'aendz-kist. 

anarchy n. (absence of rule or authority) 'sensz-ki. 

anastomosis n. intercommunication; interlacing [ploral 
anastomoses'] d-nxsts'moo-sis. 

anastrophe n. (inversion of word-order) 9'nsest£9-fi. 

anathema n. curse [ploral anathemas, anathemata] d'nseOi- 
md. 

anathematise v, [also spelt anathematise'} d'naeOims-taiz. 

anatomise v, [also spelt anatomise} s'nsetd-maiz. 

ancestor n. 'sen-sestsz; (/^j^ properly) 'xnsi-sts;. 

ancestral adj. sen'sestsa), (rarely) 'sen-sestssl. 

anchor v. secure with an anchor; cast anchor [past parti- 
ciple and preterit anchored, anchord} 'aegks?. 

anchoret ft. hermit [synonymous cognate anchorite} 'xqkd- 
zit. 

anchorite ft. 'xgkd-zait. same meaning as anchoret. 

anchovy ft. [ploral anchovies} aen'tSoo-vi, 'aentSa-vi. 

anchylosis ft. seqki'loo-sis. see' ankylosis. 

ancient adj. 'een-Jant, 'een-tjant; {improperly) 'cen-Si-atlt. 

ancile ft. (sacred shield) aen'sai-li. 

ancillary adj. (auxiliary) 'xnsi-lezi. 

ancon ft. bend; elbow [ploral ancones} 'aegkan, 'aeg-ken. 

ancones ft. (ploral of ancon) seq'koo-niz. 

and conj, aend, {when unstrest) and, dn, n. 

andante adj. (moderate, even) aen'daenti, an'da:n-ti. 

andantino adj., ft. aendaen'tii-no. 

andesin ft. feldspar [also spelt andesine} 'aendi-zm. 

androecinm ft. (stamens, collectivly) aen'drii-$3m, aen'dni-Si- 
am, aen'drii-si-3m. 

androgyne ft. (hermaphrodite) 'aendrd-dsin. 

androsynons adj. aen'dredsi-nss. 

aaecdotase ft. (anecdotes collectivly; old age) 'aenak-dotids. 

anecdotal adj. (of anecdote) 'aenak-dotl. 

anecdote ft. (short narrativ; true story) 'aenak-dot, 'aenik-dot. 

anecdotic adj. (of anecdote) aensk'detik. 

c: low, b: f«r, x cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiki\.e\ 
. ]so£tb-tnarIc (:J indicates that the preceding sound is \&Ci%\ 
f stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f ellowmg syWaVAe. 



22 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

anecdotiit n. 'xnsk-dotist, d'nekdd-tist. 

anelytroiui a4j. (without eljrtra) 9'neh-t£3s. 

anemia n. lack of blood [also spelt anaemial d'nii-mi-d. 

anemic adj. [also spelt anaemic} d'nemik, 9'nii-mik. 

anemometer n. (wind-gage) aeni'memi-tdz. 

anemone n. plant [also, sometimes, spelt anetnonyl d'nems- 

ni, {when used as a genus-name and spelt anemone) seni- 

'nioo-ni. 
anestliesia n. [also spelt anaesthesia'} xnis'Oii-39, xnis'Oii- 

si-9. 
anestlietio adj.,n. [also spelt anaesthetic} aenis'Oetik, xnis- 

'Gii-tik. 
anestlietiie v» [also spelt anesthetise, anaesthetise, anaes- 
thetise} d'nesOi-taiz, d'niis-Oi-taiz. 
anet n. (the herb dill) 'sen it. 

anenrism n. dilatation [also spelt aneurysm} 'senjo-zizsm. 
angel n. (spiritual being) 'een-dssL 
angelology n. (doctrin as to angels) een-dsdl'eld-dsi. 
angelns n. (devotion; bell) 'aendsi-lds. 
angina n. (quinsy, etc.) aen'dsai-ns, 'aendsi-ns. 
angiolog^y n. (science of blood-vessels, etc.) sendsi'eld-dsi. 
angiosperm n. (plant having a seed-vessel : correlativ of 

gymnosperm) 'aendsi-d-speizm. 
angle n. (corner, etc.) 'xtigoi. 
anglicise v. make English [also spelt Anglicise, anglicise. 

Anglicise} 'aeqgh-saiz. 
angora adj,, n, xn'goi-z^, xt^'goi-rz^. 
anhydride n. [also, sometimes, spelt anhydrid} xn'hai-drid, 

aen'hai-draid. 
anil n. (indigo shrub or dye) 'aenil. 
anile adj. old-womanish [also, sometimes, spelt anil2 'xnil, 

'ae-nail. 
aniline adj., n. [also, sometimes, spelt anilin} 'aeni-lin, 'aeni- 

lain, 'aeni-Hn. 
animadTersion n. (criticism; reproof) aeni-maed'vBsSdn. 
animadvert v. (criticize) seni-maed'vBirt. 
animalcnla n. (ploral of animalculum) seni'maelkgo-ls. 
animalcnlae n.pl. [an incorrect substitute for animalcula, 

used on the supposition that animalcula is a singular noun 

having this ferm as its ploral] aeni'maelkgo-H. 
animalcule n. (little animal) seni'msel-kgul. 
animalculum n. an animalcule [ploral animalcula} aeni- 

'maelkgo-lam. 

/\vo, gcure; d the, 6 /A in; 5 asure, ds/oy; S <^^oe, tj cAew; 
wwAen; i§ sinff; u wh<9ever, i react, oiu\\, \iMioo\, liX, \lsee; 
o poetic; o over, eflferial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, t\ie^, ^t%aXv, 



I 



' DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 23 

animalisation n. [also spelt animalisationl xni-msh'zee- 

$9n, aenimd-lai'zee-Sdn. 
animalixe v. [also spelt animalisel 'xnims-laiz. 
anion, n. (electronegativ ingredient : distinguisht from 

cation) 'aeni-an, 'aen-ai-an. 
anise-seed n. [also spelt anisseed; synonymous cognate 

aniseed} 'aenis-siid. 
ankle n. joint [also spelt ancle"} 'aegkd). 
ankylosis n. [also spelt anchylosis! aegkiloo-sis. 
annalistic adj, aens'hstik, 'sena-listik. 
annate n. year's revenue, etc. [former synonymous cognate 

annat} 'aenat, 'ae-net. 
annatto n. a'naeta. same meaning as arnotto. 
annelid ft. worm [also spelt annelidel 'aeni-hd. 
Annelida n,pL (annelids) s'neh-dd. 

: ft. [also spelt annexe"] 'ae-neks, 'aeneks; a'neks. 

: V. add; subjoin [past participle and preterit annexed, 

annext] a'neks. 
annexation ft. aenek'see-Ssn. 
annihilate v. a'nai-i-let, a'nai-hi-let. 
annotative adj. [also spelt annotativ] 'aens-tetiv. 
annnity ft. [ploral annuities'! s'njou-i-ti; (dialectally) a'nou- 

i-ti. 
annnlose adj, aenjoloos, (assumptivly) 'aenjo-los. 
annnnoiate v. [also, formerly, spelt annuntiatel d'nAn$i-et, 

a'nAnsi-et. 
annnnoiation ft. d-nAn^i'ee-Sdn, 9-nAnsi'ee-$9n. 
anode ft. (positiv pole) 'ae-nod. 
anodyne adj,, ft. 'aena-dain. 
anonym ft. (assumed name) 'aens-nim. 
ansated adj, (having an ansa or handle) 'aen-setid. 
anserine adj, [also, sometimes, spelt anserin! 'senss-zin, 

'aenss-?ain. 
answer ft., v, [as verb, past participle and preterit answered, 

answerd] 'ain-sar, 'a:n-s3e, 'aern-sae, 'aensar, 'aentsa?. 
ant ft. (emmet, an insect) a:nt, a:nt, ae:nt. 
aa't V. dialectal (aint, are n*t, are not, am not) a:nt, a:nt, ae:nt. 
antacid ft. [synonymous cognate anti-acid! aent'aesid. 
aatasonise v, [also spelt antagonise! aen'tsega-naiz. 
antarotio adj. aent'aektik, aen'ta^ktik; (popularly) aen'tortik. 
anteoluunber ft. [also, formerly, spelt antichamher! 'aenti- 

t$eem-b37. 
anteeian adj,, ft. [also spelt antoecian! aen'tii-^3n. 

c low, b: iuT, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aikite*, 
, Xtngth-mark 0) indicates that the preceding sound is \^\sSL\ 
t stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the following syWaUe. 



24 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

antedate v., n. 'aenti-det. 

antemetio adj, allaying vomiting [synonymous cognate anti- 

emeticl aenti'metik. 
antenna n. feeler, horn [ploral antennae'} acn'tend. 
antepennlt n. (syllable before the next-to-last syllable; last 

syllable but two) anti'pii-nAlt, aentipi'nAlt. 
anthelion n. [ploral anthelial aen'Oii-H-sn, xnt'hii-li-dn, aent- 

'hii-lian. 
anthxopopliagl n,pl, man-eaters [singular anthropophagusl 

aenGsa'pefd-dsai. 
anti-acid n. senti'aesid. same meaning as antacid, 
antio adj. (grotesque; bizarre) 'sentik. 
antic n, (grotesque ornament; caper) 'aentik. 
anti-emetic adj, xnti-i'metik. same meaning as antemetic. 
antifebrile adj. [also spelt antifehrWl aenti'fii-bzil, acnti- 

'febzril. 
antimonide n, [also, sometimes, spelt antimonid'l aenti'moo- 

nid, aenti'moo-naid, 'aentima-naid. 
antimoninreted adj. [also spelt antimoniurettedl aenti- 

'moo-njo-retid, {rarely) aentimd'nai-jo-zetid. 
antimony n. (metal) 'senti-moni, 'sentimd-ni. 
antinomy n, (contradiction in law; a paradox) aen'tins-mi; 

{less properly) 'senti-nomi. 
antipatMze v. [also spelt antipathisel sen'tips^aiz. 
antipodal adj. aen'tips-dl. 
antipode n. [ploral antipodes'! 'aenti-pod. 
antipodean adj. sentips'dii-dn. 

antipodes n. (ploral of antipode) xn'tip9-diz, 'aenti-podz. 
antipyrin n. antifebril [also spelt antipyrinel aenti'pai-nn. 
antiqne adj. (ancient, olden; aged; old-fashiond, antique) 

aen'tiik, {also, in poetry, in the senses of olden and aged) 

'aentik. 
antiqne n. (relic; ancient style) aen'tiik. 
antistroplie n. (turning about; choral response) sen'tist£d-fi. 
Antitactes n. [ploral Antitactael aenti'tsek-tiz. 
antitheism n. 'aenti-Oi-izsm ; {improperly) sen'tiOi-izsm. 
antitheses n. (ploral of antithesis) aen'tiOi-siz. 
antithesis n, [ploral antitheses! sen'tiOi-sis. 
antitoxin n. [also spelt antitoxine! aenti'teksin. 
antonomasia n. sent3n9'mee-39, aentsnd'mee-zi-s. 
anvil V. fashion on an anvil; work at an anvil [present par- 
ticiple anviling, anvilling; past participle and preterit an- 

7'ihd. anvilled, anvild! 'aenvil. 

J.ve, gcure; dthe, 6 thin; 5 azure, d^/oy; jshoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, oiuW, ^u\ooV '^xV lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over ^ e aerial, a but, O'.doox, t>oxio^ ^>ac^, ^^%a\.v> 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 25 

anxiety n. seg'zcii-i-ti. 

aiudoiis adj. 'aegkSds, 'xriS^s. 

any adj, 'em, {sometimes, deliberately) 'en-ni. 

anybody noun-pron. 'cni-bedi, (when less strest) 'eni-bsdi. 

anywhere adv. 'eni-ujc:?, {when less strest) 'eni-u)c?. 

aorist n. (tense) 'ee-o-eist, 'ee-3-2ist; {erroneously) e'a:-zrist. 

aorta n. arterial trunk [ploral aortaej e'e:z-t3. 

apasoge n. (a leading away; indirect proof) seps'goo-dsi. 

apanage n. provision [also spelt appanage} 'xps-nids. 

aparitlunesis n. xpsnO'mii-sis, aepd'riOMi-sis. 

apatite n. (mineral) 'aeps-tait. 

aperient adj.,n, (laxativ) d'pi:-7i-9nt. 

aperitive adj„ n. [also spelt aperitivl d'peri-tiv. 

apetalons adj, (without petals) d'petl-ds. 

apex n. tip [ploral apices, apexes} 'ee-peks; {erroneously) 
'ae-peks. 

apliaeresis n. see apheresis. 

aphasia n. (loss of speech, etc.; o'fee-sd, d'fee-zi-s; {less 
properly) a'fee-si-s, a'fee-si-3. 

aphelion n. [ploral aphelia} d'fii-ti-dn. 

apheresis n. [also spelt aphaeresis} d'fe^i-sis, 9'fi:-zi-sis. 

aphesis n. 'sefi-sis. 

aphides n. (ploral of aphis) 'aefi-diz. 

aphis n. plant-louse [ploral aphides} 'xfis 

Aphrodisia n. (festival) xf39Mizi-d, aefss'disi-d, aef^sa'diSi-s. 

aphrodisiac adj. (venereal, erotic) sef^sMizi-xk, sef^^'disi-aek. 

aphrodisiacal adj. sfsd-di'zai-d-ksl, sefssdi'zai-d-kal. 

aphrodite n. (sea-mouse; meerschaum) xfss'dai-ti. 

aphrodite n. (mineral) 'xfsd-dait. 

aphthong n. 'sef-6e:r) ; {older) 'xp-Qeiij. 

aphyllous adj. (leafless) d'filss. 

apiary n. bee-house [ploral apiaries} 'ee-pi-e?i. 

apical adj. (of the apex) 'aepi-ksl. 

apices n. (ploral of apex) 'aepi-siz, 'ee-pi-siz. 

apicnltnre n. (bee-culture) 'aepi-kAltSa?, 'ee-pi-kAltSa?. 

apiolog^y n. (science of bees) ee-pi'ela-dsi. 

aplomb n. (self-possession; perpendicularity) a'pz-em, a- 
'pi-eq. 

apobates n. chariot-warrior [ploral apobatae} s'peba-tiz. 

apocalypse n. (revelation) g'peks-hps. 

apocope n. (cutting off of a final sound) d'peka-pi. 

apocrypha n. (writing of doubtful authenticity) a'pek^i-fa. 

apod n. footless animal [synonymous cegnate apode} 'ae-ped. 

claw, b: f«r, secat, hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai\^iVe\ 

)engtb-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sound is \etv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syWaUe, 



26 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

apodal adj. (footless, apodous) 'seps-d!. 

apode n. 'se-pod. same meaning as apod. 

apodeictio adj. demonstrativ [synonymous cognate apodic- 
ticl aeps'daik-tik. 

apodiotic adj. aeps'diktik. same meaning as apodeictic, 

apodosis n. (conclusion) d'peds-sis. 

apogee n. (greatest distance from the earth) 'aeps-dsii. 

apolog^ize v. [also spelt apologise'^ a'pels-dsaiz. 

apoloKne n. moral fable [also spelt apologi 'xpd-leg; {erro- 
neously) 'aepa-log. 

apophtlies;]!! n. 'xp9-6em. see apothegm. 

apophyge n. (scape of a column) s'pefi-dsi. 

apophysis n. process [ploral apophyses'! s'pefi-sis. 

aposiopesis n. (sudden silence) aep9-sai-9'pii-sis, s-pesi-d'pii- 
sis, 3-pezi-9'pii-sis. 

apostasy n. abandonment ; renunciation [also spelt apostacy ; 
plural apostasies'! d'pest9-si. 

apostatise v. [also spelt apostatise"] s'pestd-taiz. 

apostem n, {obsolete) abscess [synonymous cognate apo- 
stetnel 'aeps-stem. 

a posteriori adv. (from the latter; from effect to cause; 
from fact to law ; from experience : the epposit of a prio- 
ri) ee-pestizi'oi-rai. 

apostil n. comment [also spelt apostillel a'pestil. 

apostil V. [present participle apostiling, apostilling, past 
participle and preterit apostiled, apostilled, apostildl a'po- 
stil. 
• apostle n. (person sent) a'pessl. 

apostrophe n. digressiv address [also, formerly, spelt apos- 
trophyl 9'pest£3-fi. 

apostrophe n. (omission-sign) d'pest£9-fi. 

apostrophic adj. aeps'stsefik. 

apostrophise v. address by apostrophe [also spelt apostro- 
phise! 9'pestj3-faiz. 

apostrophise v. mark with an omission-sign [also spelt 
apostrophise! a'pestja-faiz. 

apothesfin n. terse saying, pithy maxim [also spelt apo- 
phthcgm, apothcm! 'aep9-8em. 

apotheKmatio adj. [also spelt apophthegmatic! seps-Oeg- 
'mxtik. 

apothem n. perpendicular line ; deposit [synonymous cog- 
nate apothevu! 'apa-Oem, 'aepa-Gam. 

apotheme n. 'lepd-Oim. same meaning as apothem. 

• 

JVC, gcurc; d the, 6^/iin; sarure, dj/oy; $shoe, tSc/tew; 
w ?('/fcn : tj sitif;; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, ouiooV, \\t, \isee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o:doot, ;>otlo, t\>e^ ^ft^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 27 

apotlieosis n. (deification) s-peOi'oo-sis, aeps'Oii-d-sis ; {less 

properly) aep3-9i'oo-sis, sepsOi'dO-sis. 
apotlieosise v, s'peOi-d-saiz, xpd'Oii-d-saiz, aepsOi'ao-sau* 
apotome n. [also spelt apotomy'} a'petd-mi. 
appal V. [also spelt appall; present participle appalling, 

past participle and preterit appalled, appcUdl a'pc:!. 
Appalaoltian adj, acpslee-tSi-sn, xpdixtSi-sn, (/^j^ often) 

aepd1a:-tSi-9n ; {erroneously) apalee-ki-an. 
appanage n. 'xpd-nids. see apanage. 
apparatus n. [ploral apparatus, apparatuses'} xps'^ee-tss, 

xp9'7a:-tds, aepd'rai-tds. 
apparel v, [present participle appareling, apparelling; past 

participle appareled, apparelled, appareld} d'pae^a). 
apparent adj. (visible) d'pae^snt, 9'pe:-z9nt. 
appellant n. (one who appeals) s'peldnt. 
appellate adj, (of appeals) 9'peht. 
appellate v. (call, name) 'spi>let. 
appellative adj,, n. [also spelt appellativ} d'pela-tiv. 
appellee n. xpelii, d-pel'ii. 
appellor n. xptleiz, ^-ptVeiz, 

appendant adj., n. [also spelt appendent} d'pendsnt. 
appendices n, (ploral of appendix) s'pendi-siz. 
appendicitis n. 9-pendi'sai-tis, d-pendi'sii-tis. 
appendix n. [ploral appendixes, appendices} s'pendiks. 
appetence n. (desire) 'aepi-tns. 
appetible adj, (exciting appetite) 'xpits-bsl. 
appetite n. (desire for food) 'sepi-tait. 

appetitive adj. [also spelt appetitiv} a'peti-tiv, 'api-tai-tiv. 
applicable adj, 'aepLiks-bal ; {improperly) a'pLiks-bdl. 
applicative adj. [also spelt applicativ} 'xpz.i-ketiv. 
applique adj, (applied, put on) sepz.i'kee. 
APPOgsiatnra n. grace-note, etc. [also spelt apogiatura} 

3-ped33'to:-ra. 
appointee n. (person appointed) 9-pein'tii. 
appointer n. (one who appoints or settles) d'pein-td?. 
appointor n. (in law, one who exercises the power of ap- 
pointment) 9'pein-tar, a-pein'te:r. 
apposite adj. placed near [also spelt apposit} 'aep3-zit. 
appraise v, (assign a money value to) s'p^eez. 
appreciate v. a'psii-Si-et ; {less properly) a'p^ii-si-et. 
appreciative adj, [also spelt appreciative a'p3ii-Si-etiv, 

3'pTsii-Si-3-tiv. 
apprehensible adj. aepsi'hensa-bal. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai V\te\ 

\zjigth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tiS'» 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fellowing sy\\ab\e 



28 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

apprentioe n.,v, [also spelt apprentis; as verb, past parti- 
ciple and preterit apprenticed, apprentisti d'psentis. 

apprentioeship n. a'psentiS-SiP* 

apprise v. impart knowledge to; inform [also spelt apprise"] 
a'psaiz. 

apprise v. appraise, value [also spelt apprise! s'psaiz. 

approbative adj, [also spelt approbativ} 'aepsd-betiv ; (er- 
roneously) a'p3oo-b9-tiv, 

approbatory adj. (sanctioning) 'xp39-bet3-7i. 

appni V, support [also spelt appuyl d'pwii. 

appnlse n. (approach) s'pAls, 'x-pAls. 

appnrtenanoe n. belonging; apparatus [also, formerly, spelt 
appertenance"] a'peztn-ans, a'perti-nans. 

appnrtenant adj., n. [also, formerly, spelt appertinenfl 
9'pB?tn-3nt, a'pB?ti-n9nt. 

apricot n. 'ee-psi-ket, 'ee-psi-kat; 'ap3i-ket, 'apsi-kat. 

a priori adv, (from the former; from cause to effect; from 
law to fact : the epposit of a posteriori) ee-p3ai'o:-?ai, ce- 
pTsi'or-rai, a:-p3i'o:-ri. 

apron n. 'ee-psan, 'ee-p3?n. 

apropos adv. (to the purpose; opportunely) xpss'poo, {an- 
teriorly) 'aepTSD-po. 

aps n. (white-poplar wood) aps. 

apse n. recess [also spelt aps\ ploral apses'] xps. 

aqua n. (water) 'akiua, 'ee-kiua. 

aquafortis n. (nitric acid) xkw9'fe:7-tis, ee-kiu9'fe:z-tfs. 

aqnamarine n. (sea-green beryl) xkiuams'ziin, ee-kwdma- 
'riin. , 

aqnapnnctnre n. 'xkws-pAqktSd?, 'ee-ku73-pAr)ktSd7. 

aqua regia n. sekws'zii-dsd, ee-kws'zii-dsd. 

aqnarelle n. (water-color painting) xkiud'rel. 

aqnarinm n. [ploral aquariums, aguarial 3'kwe:-7i-9m. 

aqnatint n. 'sekwd-tint, 'ee-ku)3-tint. 

aqnednct n. (water-condit) 'aekuji-dAkt ; (improperly) 'aekiDi- 
dAk. 

aqneons adj. (watery) 'ee-kiui-as. 

aqniform adj. 'akuji-fer^m, 'ee-ku)i-fo:?m. 

aquiline adj, of an eagle; hookt [also, sometimes, spelt aqui- 
linl 'aku)i-hn, 'aku)i-lain. 

Arab «. 'aerab; (less properly) 'e:-?aeb, 'ee-rab. 

arabesque adj,, n, ae^a'besk, (anteriorly) 'aera-besk. 

Arabic adj.,n, 'ara-bik; (erroneously) a'raebik. 

arabin n. [also spelt arabinel 'sera-bin. 

/\ve, gcure: d the, 0//iin; 5 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shot, tScfiew; 
ww/ten; 13 sing; u wh<9ever, i react, oiuVV, iJuioo\, xxt, lisee; 
o poetic; a over, e flferial, a b«t, o: door, :iOivo» tY>e^» t,^^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 29 



araolinida n,, pi. (spiders, etc.) a'zaekNi-dd. 

araeostyle adj, 9'?ii-d-staiL see areostyle, 

arbalist n. crossbow [also spelt arbalest} 'aiz-h^Aist, 

arbitraMe adj. 'aiz-hits^hsl, 

arbitrament n. decision [s3menymous cognate arhittement'\ 

a^'bitja-mant. 
arbitrarily adv, 'a:?-bi-tjc?i^i ; (m America, less properly) 

Qzhi'tgzziAi. 
arbitrement n. ar^itsi-msnt. same meaning as arbitrament, 
arbor n. (support, beam; axle; tree) 'a:z-h9z. 
arbor n. bower [also spelt arbour} 'aiz-h^, 
arboretum n. [ploral arboretums, arboreta} a^bd'rii-tsm. 
arboricnltnre n. (tree-culture) 'aiz-h^zi-kAltl^z. 
arborise v, [also spelt arborise} 'aiz-h^-zsiz. 
arbor-vitae n. (tree; arborescent part of the cerebellum) 

a:r-ba?'vai-ti, aie-ba^'vai-ti. 
arbntns n, (plant) osr^jou-tds, 'a:7-bjo-t3s. 
arcanum n. [ploral arcana} o^lcee-ndm; (improperly) az- 

Icaensm. 
arc-boutant n. aiz-hu'tet}, 
arch n. (curvd structure, etc.) aiztl. 
arcb adj, (chief, prime; clever, crafty) a:rtS. 
arcbaio adj, (old-fashiond) arlcee-ik. 
archaism n. 'azke-izsm, 'a:7-ke-iz9m. 
archangel n. 'a:?k-een-d33l, a:zWeen-d$^l ; (erroneously) 

'a:?tS-een-d33l. 
archangelio adj, a:?k-sen'd3ehk. 
archbishop n. aiztl^il^p, (anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'aiztl-hil^p, 
archdeacon n. a:7t$'dii-k3n. 
archduchy n. arztS'dAtSi. 
archduke n. ai^tS'djouk, (anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'arrtS-djouk. 
arched adj, [also, sometimes, spelt archt} arrtjt, (also, in 

poetry) 'artSid, 'a:?-tSid. 
archegonium n. [ploral archegonia} a?ki'g30-ni-3m. 
archeologry n. science of antiquities [also spelt archaeology} 

orki'ela-dsi. 
archetypal adj, 'arki-tai-psl, a^'keti-pal. 
archetype n. 'aeki-taip; (erroneously) 'a^tSi-taip. 
archeus n. vital force [also spelt archaeus; ploral archei} az- 

Icii-as. 
archidiaoonal n. orki-di'xkd-nl, a^ki-dai'seks-nl. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat e h£?t, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
Itngth-marlr (:J indicates that the preceding sound is \©ng; 
^ sirsss-mark () indicates chief stress on the fallowing syllable. 



. DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 31 

n, (clay) 'a:z-d^il. 
n. crude tartar [synenymous cognate argal} 'a:z-gel. 

n, merchant-vessel [plural argosies'^ 'a:?-g3-si. 
n. (slang of thieves; cant) 'a:2-go, 'aie-gat. 
V, (reason ; debate ; dispute) 'a:r-gjo. 
arsnte adj. (shrill; keen) az'gjout. 

n. (in music, air, etc.) 'a:-ei-9, 'e:-ei-a. 
orf;. (of Anus) 'e:-ri-9n. 
n. (adherent of Arius) 'c:-?i-an. 
ad/., n. 'a:^-jan. see Aryan, 
Arianism n. (doctrin of the Arians or adherents of Arius) 

'c:-ei-9n-izam, 'ei-ei-a-nizam. 
arid ad/, (dry; dull) 'aeeid; (/^« properly) 'e:-rid. 
Aries n. (ram; constellation) 'z'.-zi-\:z. 
arietation n. (butting) ae?i-i'tee-San, ori-i'tee-Jan. 
aril n. (seed-coat) 'seeil. 
arista n. awn [ploral aristael 9'zist9. 
aristarcli n. (severe critic) 'aeri-sta:rk. 
aristate ad/, (awnd) s'zistet. 
aristocrat n. s'^ista-ksxt, 'sezistd-k^aet. 
aristocratic adj. sezists'ksaetik. 
Aristotelian ad/., n. sezistd'tii-li-sn. 
aritlunetic n. a'nOMi-tik; (m the obsolete sense arithmeti' 

cian) ae^iG'metik. 
aritliiiietic adj. ae^iO'metik. 
aritlunetician n. se^iOMi'tiSsn, g-^iOMi'ti^sn. 
arkose n. (feldspathic sandstone) az'koos. 
armada n. (squadron) a^'mee-ds, az'ma:-d3. 
armed adj. furnisht with arms or armor [also spelt armd'\ 

a:zmd, {also, in poetry) 'a:?-mid. 
armer n. (one who arms or equips) 'aiz-msz. 
armillary adj. (of rings or circles) ^a:z-miAezi; {also) az- 

'mil3-ri. 
armistice n. truce [also spelt armistis} 'a:?-mi-stis; (improp- 
erly) ar'mistis. 
armor n. defensiv covering; mail [also spelt armourl 'a'.z- 

ms?. 
armor v, cover with armor or armor-plate [also spelt armourl 

'aiz-Tti^z. 
armored adj. [also spelt armoured, armord'j 'aiz-mszd. 
armiorer n. [also spelt armourerl ^aiz-m^-z^z. 
armory n. [also spelt armoury} 'aiz-ma-ei. 
amatto n. a^'naeto. see arnotto. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e h^t, ei boy; a: far, ao noWf a: ask, aiV,\\.e\ 

\tjigth-niark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syW^^Ae. 



22 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

anecdotist n. 'aensk-dotist, d'nekds-tist. 

anelytroiu adj. (without elytra) 9'neh-t£9S. 

anemia n. lack of blood [also spelt anaemial 9'nii-mi-9. 

anemic adj. [also spelt anaemicl d'nemik, d'nii-mik. 

anemometer n. (wind-gage) xni'memi-ts?. 

anemone n. plant [also, sometimes, spelt anemonyl s'nemd- 

ni, (when used as a genus-name and spelt anemone) xni- 

'moo-ni. 
anestliesia n. [also spelt anaesthesia! xnis'Oii-sd, senis'Oii- 

si-d. 
aneBthetio adj,, n. [also spelt anaesthetic"] snis'Oetik, xnis- 

'8ii-tik. 
anestlietixe v. [also spelt anesthetise, anaesthetise, anaes- 
thetise] a'nesGi-taiz, s'niis-Oi-taiz. 
anet n. (the herb dill) 'snit. 

aneurism n. dilatation [also spelt aneurysm] 'xnjo-^izsm. 
angel n. (spiritual being) 'een-dssl. 
angelology n. (doctrin as to angels) een-dssreld-dsi. 
angelns n. (devotion; bell) 'sendsi-lss. 
angina n. (quinsy, etc.) sen'dsai-ns, 'sendsi-ns. 
angiolog^y n. (science of blood-vessels, etc.) sendsi'eld-dsi. 
angiosperm n. (plant having a seed-vessel : correlativ of 

gymnosperm) 'aendsi-a-sperzrm. 
angle n. (corner, etc.) 'seggsl. 
anglicise v. make English [also spelt Anglicise, anglicise. 

Anglicise] 'aeqgh-saiz. 
angora adj„ n. sen'g3:-z3, ast)*go:-z9. 
anhydride n. [also, sometimes, spelt anhydrid] sn'hai-drid, 

aen'hai-draid. 
anil n. (indigo shrub or dye) 'aenil. 
anile adj. old-womanish [also, sometimes, spelt anil], 'aenil, 

'ae-nail. 
aniline adj., n, [also, sometimes, spelt anilin] 'seni-lin, 'aeni- 

lain, 'aeni-Hn. 
animadversion n. (criticism; reproof) xni-maed'vBzS^n. 
animadvert v. (criticize) seni-maed'vB:rt. 
animalcnla n. (ploral of animalculum) seni'mslkgo-ld. 
animalcnlae n,pl, [an incorrect substitute for animalcula, 

used on the supposition that animalcula is a singular noun 

having this ferm as its ploral] aeni'malkgo-H. 
animalcule n. (little animal) aeni'mxl-kgu}. 
animalculum n. an animalcule [ploral animalcula] xni- 

'mselkgo-lam. 

/\ve, gcure; d the, Q thin\ sasure, ds/oy; S ^^oe, t$rfcew; 
wwhen; igsin^; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, \5\xiooV lit, lise^; 
o poetic; o over, eflferial. Abut, o; door, oono, t\ie^, ^t^Q^fc\ 



^ DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 23 

animalisation n. [also spelt animalisation} xni-msh'zee- 

$9n, aenimd-lai'zee-Sdn. 
animalise v. [also spelt animalisel 'aenimd-laiz. 
anion, n. (electronegativ ingredient : distinguisht from 

cation) 'aeni-an, 'an-ai-an. 
anise-seed n. [also spelt anis-seed; synonymous cognate 

aniseed} 'aenis-siid. 
ankle n. joint [also spelt anclel 'sgkd). 
ankylosis n. [also spelt anchylosis! xgkiloo-sis. 
annalistic adj, aens'hstik, 'aens-listik. 
annate n. year's revenue, etc. [former synonymous cognate 

annaf] 'aenat, 'ae-net. 
annatto n. d'naeto. same meaning as arnotto. 
annelid n. worm [also spelt annelidel 'seni-hd. 
Annelida n.pl, (annelids) a'neh-dd. 

n. [also spelt annexe! 'ae-neks, 'aneks; a'neks. 
V. add; subjoin [past participle and preterit annexed, 
annext] a'neks. 
annexation n. aenek'see-Sdn. 
annihilate v. d'nai-i-let, d'nai-hi-let. 
annotative adj. [also spelt annotativl 'sens-tetiv. 
annnity n. [ploral annuitiesl d'njou-i-ti; (dialectally) s'nou- 

i-ti. 
annnlose adj, senjolaos, (assumptivly) 'senjo-los. 
annnnoiate v. [also, formerly, spelt annuntiatel d'nAnJi-et, 

3'nAnsi-et. 
annunciation n. g-nAnSi'ee-Ssn, 3-nAnsi'ee-$dn. 
anode n. (positiv pole) 'ae-nod. 
anodyne adj,,n. 'aens-dain. 
anonym n. (assumed name) 'aens-nim. 
ansated adj. (having an ansa or handle) 'aen-setid. 
anserine adj. [also, sometimes, spelt anserini 'aenss-rin, 

'xns9-7ain. 
ansxrer n.,v, [as verb, past participle and preterit answered, 

answerdl 'a:n-s3?, 'a:n-s3?, 'ae:n-s3e, 'aensa?, 'aentsazr. 
ant n. (emmet, an insect) a:nt, a:nt, aemt. 
an't V. dialectal (aint, are n't, are not, am not) a:nt, a:nt, aeint. 
I antacid n. [synonymous cognate anti-acid! aent'aesid. 
J antasonixe v. [also spelt antagonise! aen'taegs-naiz. 

antarctic adj. aent'a^ktik, aen'tarktik; (popularly) jen'tortik. 
anted&amber n. [also, formerly, spelt antichamber! 'aenti- 

tjcem-bas. 
antecian adj., n. [also spelt antoecian! aen'tii-San. 



CI 

/ 



claw, b: iuT, xcat, ehot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aik\te\ 

kngtb-marlr f'J indicates that the preceding sound is \©tvg\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the following syWaUe, 



24 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

antedate v., n. 'aenti-det. 

antemetio adj, allaying vomiting [synonymous cognate anti- 
emetic'] senti'metik. 
antenna n. feeler, horn [ploral antennae] aen'tend. 
antepennlt n. (syllable before the next-to-last syllable; last 

syllable but two) aenti'pii-UAlt, aentipi'nAlt. 
anthelion n. [ploral anthelia] aen'Oii-H-sn, aent'hii-H-dn, aent- 

'hii-Han. 
anthropopliagl n,pl, man-eaters [singular anthropophagus] 

aenGsa'pefa-dsai. 
anti-acid n. senti'aesid. same meaning as antacid, 
antic adj. (grotesque; bizarre) 'aentik. 
antic n. (grotesque ornament; caper) 'aentik. 
anti-emetic adj, senti-i'metik. same meaning as antemetic. 
antifebrile adj. [also spelt antifebril] aenti'fii-b?il, aenti- 

'febzril. 
antimonide n. [also, sometimes, spelt antimonid] aenti'moo- 

nid, aenti'moo-naid, 'aentima-naid. 
antimoninreted adj. [also spelt antimoniuretted] aenti- 

'moo-njo-?etid, {rarely) aentima'nai-jo-retid. 
antimony n. (metal) 'aenti-moni, 'sentims-ni. 
antinomy n. (contradiction in law; a paradox) aen'tind-mi; 

(Jess properly) 'aenti-nomi. 
antipathize v. [also spelt antipathise] aen'tips^Oaiz. 
antipodal adj. aen'tip9-dl. 
antipode n. [ploral antipodes] 'aenti-pod. 
antipodean adj, sentip9'dii-9n. 

antipodes n. (ploral of antipode) sen'tip3-diz, 'senti-podz. 
antipyrin n. antifebril [also spelt antipyrine] aenti'pai-sin. 
antique adj. (ancient, olden ; aged ; old-fashiond, antique) 

aen'tiik, {aiso, in poetry, in the senses of olden and aged) 

'aentik. 
antique n. (relic; ancient style) aen'tiik. 
antistrophe n. (turning about; choral response) aen'tistsd-fi. 
Antitactes n, [ploral Antitactae] aenti'taek-tiz. 
antitheism n. 'aenti-Oi-izam ; {improperly) aen'tiGi-izam. 
antitheses n. (ploral of antithesis) aen'ti9i-siz. 
antithesis n. [ploral antitheses] aen'tiOi-sis. 
antitoxin n. [also spelt antitoxine] aenti'teksin. 
antonomasia n. aentand'mee-sd, aentsnd'mee-zi-d. 
anvil V. fashion on an anvil; work at an anvil [present par- 
ticiple anviling, anvilling; past participle and preterit an- 
7'iled, anvilled, anvild] 'aenvil. 

/.ve, gcure; d the, Q thin', 5 asure, d^joy; \shoe, tScAew; 
wzv/ten; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiuW, oMtooV \\\, \\^ee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, ootvo, t>ac^, t^^a\.v> 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 25 

anxiety n. xg'zai-i-ti. 

anzioiis adj. 'aegk^ss, 'aeg^ds. 

any orf/. 'em, {sometimes, deliberately) 'en-ni. 

anybody noun-pron. 'eni-bedi, {when less strest) 'cni-badi. 

anywliere adv. 'eni-wtiz, (when less strest) 'eni-u)er. 

aorist n. (tense) 'ee-o-3ist, 'ee-9-zist; {erroneously) e'o:-zist* 

aorta n. arterial trunk [ploral aortae\ e'e:z-t3. 

apagoge n. (a leading away; indirect proof) aeps'goo-dsi. 

apanage n. provision [also spelt appanage"] 'aepa-nids. 

aparitliniesis n. aepdziO'mii-sis, xps'^iOmi-sis. 

apatite n. (mineral) 'aeps-tait. 

aperient adj., n, (laxativ) 9'pi:-7i-9nt. 

aperitive adj., n. [also spelt aperitiv'i d'pezi-tiv. 

apetalons adj, (without petals) d'petl-ds. 

apex n. tip [ploral apices, apexesl 'ee-peks; {erroneously) 

'ae-peks. 
apl&aeresis n. see apheresis. 
apliasia n. (loss of speech, etc.; 9'fee-39, a'fee-zi-s; {less 

properly) d'fee-3i-9, a'fee-si-9. 
aphelion n. [ploral aphelia} d'fii-li-dn. 
apheresis n. [also spelt aphaeresis"] d'feri-sis, 9'fi:-7i-sis. 
aphesifl n. 'aef i-sis. 
aphides n. (ploral of aphis) 'aefi-diz. 
aphis n. plant-louse [ploral aphides'] 'aefis 
Aphrodisia n. (festival) aefss'dizi-d, aef^s'disi-s, aef^a'di^i-s. 
aphrodisiac adj. (venereal, erotic) sef^a'dizi-aek, aefsa'disi-sek. 
aphrodisiaoal adj, aefsd-di'zai-d-ksl, sefsddi'zai-d-kdl. 
aphrodite n. (sea-mouse; meerschaum) aef^a'dai-ti. 
aphrodite n. (mineral) 'sef^s-dait. 
aphthong n, 'aef-6e:r) ; {older) 'aep-6e:i]. 
aphyllons adj. (leafless) d'filds. 
apiary n. bee-house [ploral apiaries] 'ce-pi-e^i. 
apical adj. (of the apex) 'aepi-kdl. 
apices n. (ploral of apex) 'sepi-siz, 'ee-pi-siz. 
apionltnre n. (bee-culture) 'aepi-kAltS9r, 'ee-pi-kAltSa?. 
apiolog^ n. (science of bees) ee-pi'eld-dsi. 
aplomb n. (self-possession; perpendicularity) a'pi-em, a- 

'pteg. 
apobates «. chariot-warrior [ploral apobatae] a'peba-tiz. 
apocalypse n. (revelation) ypek9-hps. 
apocope n. (cutting off of a final sound) a'peka-pi. 
apocrypha n. (writing of doubtful authenticity) a'pek^i-fa. 
apod n. footless animal [synonymous cognate ap ode] 'ae-ped. 

c: \aw, b: /«c £ecat, e hot, ei boy; a: for, ao now, a: ask, aiV.i'^.^"* 

length-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on the f ellONvmg syWaXAe 



26 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

apodal adj» (footless, apodous) 'xps-dl. 

apode n. 'se-pod. same meaning as apod, 

apodeiotic adj. demonstrativ [synonymous cognate apodic- 
tic'i aep9'daik-tik. 

apodictio adj. aeps'diktik. same meaning as apodeictic, 

apodosis n. (conclusion) d'pedd-sis. 

apogee n. (greatest distance from the earth) 'aepd-dsii. 

apologue V. [also spelt apologise'\ s'peta-dsaiz. 

apologne n. moral fable [also spelt apologi 'aepd-leg; {erro- 
neously) 'aep3-log. 

apophthes:!!! n. 'aepa-Oem. see apothegm, 

apophyge n. (scape of a column) s'pefi-dsi. 

apopbysis n. process [ploral apophyses! d'pefi-sis. 

aposiopesis n. (sudden silence) aep9-sai-d'pii-sis, s-pesi-d'pii- 
sis, a-pezi-a'pii-sis. 

apostasy n, abandonment ; renunciation [also spelt apostacy ; 
ploral apostasies'! a'pesta-si. 

apostatize v. [also spelt apostatise! a'pests-taiz. 

apostem n. {obsolete) abscess [synonymous cognate apo- 
steme! 'aeps-stem. 

a posteriori adv, (from the latter; from effect to cause; 
from fact to law ; from experience : the epposit of a prio- 
ri) ee-posti^i'o:-^ai. 

apostil n. comment [also spelt apostille! s'pestil. 

apostil V. [present participle apostiling, apostilling, past 
participle and preterit apostiled, apostilled, apostild! a'pe- 
stil. 
• apostle n. (person sent) a'pessl. 

apostropbe n. digressiv address [also, formerly, spelt apos- 
trophy! 3'pest£3-fi. 

apostrophe n. (omission-sign) 3'pest£3-fi. 

apostrophio adj. aeps'stsefik. 

apostrophize v. address by apostrophe [also spelt apostro- 
phise! 3'p0St£3-faiZ. 

apostrophize v, mark with an omission-sign [also spelt 
apostrophise! o'postja-faiz. 

apothes^m n. terse saying, pithy maxim [also spelt apo- 
phthegm, apothem! 'aep3-9em. 

apothegmatic adj, [also spelt apophthegmatic! aep9-6eg- 
'maetik. 

apothem n, perpendicular line ; deposit [synonymous cog- 
nate apotheme! 'aep3-9em, 'aepa-Gam. 

apotheme n. 'aepa-Oim. same meaning as apothem,. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Q thin\ 3 asure, djjoy; \shoe, tScAew; 
W7c'/icn; jjsing; u wh£>ever, i react, o iu\\» uMiooV \\\., \\^ce; 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial, Abwt, o: door, ootvo, fcXie^, ^^%oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 27 

apotlieosis n. (deification) d-peOi'oo-sis, aepd'Oii-s-sis ; {less 

properly) aepa-Gi'oo-sis, aepsOi'oo-sis. 
apotheosize v, a'peOi-d-saiz, xpd'Oii-d-saiz, aepsOi'do-sa^z. 
apotome n. [also spelt apotomyl d'petd-mi. 
appal V. [also spelt appall \ present participle appalling, 

past participle and preterit appalled, appald} d'pc:!. 
Appalacliian adj, aeps'lee-tSi-an, aepslaetSi-dn, {less often) 

ap3la:-tSi-9n ; {erroneously) apalee-ki-an. 
appanage n. 'aepa-nids. see apanage. 
apparatus n. [ploral apparatus, apparatuses! aeps'^ee-tss, 

xp9'?a:-t9s, £pd'7a:-t9S. 
apparel v. [present participle appareling, apparelling; past 

participle appareled, apparelled, appareldl 9^pxz^. 
apparent adj. (visible) a'paezsnt, 9'pe:-z9nt. 
appellant n. (one who appeals) s'pelsnt. 
appellate adj. (of appeals) d'peht. 
appellate v. (call, name) 'aepi-let. 
appellative adj., n. [also spelt appellativl s'pela-tiv. 
appellee n. xpe'hi, d-pel'ii. 
appellor n. xpe'le:z, ^-pzYe-.z, 

appendant adj., n. [also spelt appendent"] d'pendsnt. 
appendices n, (ploral of appendix) d'pendi-siz. 
appendicitis n. s-pendi'sai-tis, s-pendi'sii-tis. 
appendix n. [ploral appendixes, appendices'! a'pendiks. 
appetence n. (desire) 'xpi-tns. 
appetible adj. (exciting appetite) 'aepits-bdl. 
appetite n. (desire for food) 'xpi-tait. 

appetitive adj. [also spelt appetitiv} a'peti-tiv, 'spi-tai-tiv. 
applicable adj. 'aepLiks-bdl; {improperly) s'pMkd-bdl. 
applicative adj. [also spelt applicative 'xpM-ketiv. 
appliqne adj. (applied, put on) xpM'kee. 
appoggiatura n. grace-note, etc. [also spelt apogiatura"] 

3-ped33'to:-?9. 
appointee n. (person appointed) s-pein'tii. 
appointer n. (one who appoints or settles) a'pein-tar. 
appointor n, (in law, one who exercises the power of ap- 
pointment) s'pein-tae, a-pein'te:?. 
apposite adj. placed near [also spelt appositi 'aepa-zit. 
appraise v. (assign a money value to) d'p^cez. 
appreciate v. 9'psii-Si-et ; {less properly) a'p^ii-si-et. 
appreciative adj, [also spelt appreciative 3'p3ii-Si-etiv, 

3'psii-Si-3-tiv. 
apprehensible adj. aep^i'hensa-bgl. ^^_ 

claw, b: iuT, xcat, hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aiVtit.e\ 

}engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tvg\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syUaUe, 



28 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

apprentice n.,v, [also spelt apprentis; as verb, past parti- 
ciple and preterit apprenticed, apprentist'\ a'p^entis. 

apprenticeship n. 9'psentiS-Sip. 

apprise v, impart knowledge to; inform [also spelt apprize} 
a'p^aiz. 

apprize v. appraise, value [also spelt apprise"} d'psaiz. 

approbative adj, [also spelt approbativ} 'xp39-betiv; {er- 
roneously) 3'p300-b9-tlV. 

approbatory adj. (sanctioning) 'xp33-bet3-?i. 

appni V. support [also spelt appuy] d'pwii. 

appnise n. (approach) d'pxls, 'ae-pAls. 

appurtenance n. belonging; apparatus [also, formerly, spelt 
appertenancel d'pBztn-dns, s'pBzti-nsns. 

appurtenant adj.,n. [also, formerly, spelt appertinent} 
a'pB^tn-ant, a'ps^ti-nant. 

apricot n, 'ee-psi-ket, 'ee-psi-kat; 'ap3i-ket, 'ap^i-kat. 

a priori adv. (from the former; from cause to effect; from 
law to fact : the epposit of a posteriori) ce-p3ai'o:-3ai, ce- 
p3i'o:-?ai, a:-p3i'o:-?i. 

apron n, 'ee-psdn, 'ee-ps^n. 

apropos adv. (to the purpose; opportunely) aepss'poo, (an- 
teriorly) 'aep30-po. 

aps n. (white-poplar wood) aeps. 

apse n. recess [also spelt aps; ploral apses} £ps. 

aqna n. (water) 'aekiua, 'ee-kiua. 

aqnafortis n. (nitric acid) £kiju3'fe:7-tis, ee-kw3'fe:?-tfs. 

aqnamarine n. (sea-green beryl) xkiuamd'riin, ee-kwams- 
'eiin. 

aqnapnnctnre n. 'seku;3-pAr)ktSd?, 'ee-kuud-pA^ktSs?. 

aqna regia n. xkuus'zii-dsd, ee-kws'zii-dsa. 

aqnarelle n. (water-color painting) xkiDd'^el. 

aqnarinm n. [ploral aquariums, aquaria} 3'kwe:-d-9m. 

aqnatint n. 'aekuus-tint, 'ee-kws-tint. 

aqnednct n. (water-condit) 'aekiui-dAkt ; (improperly) 'sekvoi- 
dAk. 

aqneons adj. (watery) 'ee-kiui-as. 

aqniform adj. 'aeku)i-fe:?m, 'ee-ktDi-fe:?m. 

aqniline adj, of an eagle; hookt [also, sometimes, spelt aqui- 
lin} 'aeku)i-hn, 'aekiui-lain. 

Arab n. 'aergb; (less properly) 'e:-rsb, 'ee-^aeb. 

arabesqne adj,, n. ae^a'besk, (anteriorly) 'ae^a-besk. 

Arabic adj., n. 'ae^s-bik ; (erroneously) aVaebik. 

arabin n. [also spelt arabine} 'se^d-bin. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Q thin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; I shot, tScAew; 
wwAen; ijsing; u wh<?ever, i r^act, d iu\\» OMioo\, \\t., lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial, Ab«t, o: door, ^jotvo, e\ie^, ^t%oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 29 

araolinida n., pi. (spiders, etc.) s'raekNi-dd. 

araeostyle adj, 9'zii-9-staiL see areostyle. 

arbaliflt n. crossbow [also spelt arbalest} 'aiz-h^Aist, 

arbitraMe adj. ^aiz-hiti^-hdl. 

arbitrament n. decision [synonymous cognate arbityementi 

ae'bitja-mant. 
arbitrarily adv, 'Qiz-hi-tj^eziAi; (in America, less properly) 

ozbi'tT^eziAi. 
arbitrement n. arl)it£i-ni9nt. same meaning as arbitrament. 
arbor n. (support, beam; axle; tree) 'ar^-bar. 
arbor n. bower [also spelt arbour} 'aiz-h^z. 
arboretum n. [ploral arboretums, arboreta} arbs'^ii-tsm. 
arboriculture n. (tree-culture) 'arr-ba^i-kAltSar. 
arborise v. [also spelt arborise} 'a:z-b9-7aiz. 
arbor-vitae n. (tree; arborescent part of the cerebellum) 

a:r-b9r'vai-ti, ai^-ba^'vai-ti. 
arbutus n. (plant) oz'bjou-tds, 'a:7-bjo-t9s. 
arcanum n. [ploral arcana} oz'kee-ndm; {improperly) oz- 

Icaendm. 
arc-boutant n. a:7-bu'tei]. 
arob n. (curvd structure, etc.) a:rtS. 
arcb adj, (chief, prime; clever, crafty) a'.zt\. 
arobaic adj, (old-fashiond) a^'kee-ik. 
arobaism n. 'o^ke-izsm, 'a:r-ke-iz3m. 
arobangel n. 'airk-een-dsal, ai^k'cen-dsal ; {erroneously) 

'a:?tS-een-d33l. 
arobangelio adj. or^k-aen'dsehk. 
arobbisbop n. ai^tS'biSdp, {anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'a:etS-biS3p. 
arobdeaoon n. a:?tS'dii-k3n. 
arcbducby n. a:?tS'dAtSi. 
arcbduke n. a:?tS'djouk, {anteriorly, especially as a title) 

'airtS-djouk. 
arcbed adj. [also, sometimes, spelt archt} a:?tSt, {also, in 

poetry) 'artjid, 'a:?-tSid. 
arcbegonium n. [ploral archegonia} a^ki'goo-ni-dm. 
arcbeologry n. science of antiquities [also spelt archaeology} 

ozki'ela-dsi. 
arcbetypal adj, 'a^ki-tai-pal, a^'keti-pal. 
arcbetype n. 'a^ki-taip; {erroneously) 'artji-taip. 
arcbeua n. vital force [also spelt archaeus; ploral archei} qz- 

Tcii-3s. 
arcbidiaoonal n. a^ki-di'seks-nl, a^ki-dai'seks-nl. 

crlaw, b: fwr, aecot, eh^t, 01 boy; a: for, ao now, a: ask, aiVit^\ 

kngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \ens*i 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fellowing syWab\e, 



30 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

arohiepiscopal adj. azki-i'piskd-psl ; (erroneously) aztSi-i- 

'piska-pal. 
archil n. (dye; orchil) 'artSii, 'azkil. 
Arohimedean adj. a^ki'mii-di-dn, azkimi'dii-sn. 
archipelago n. [ploral archipelagos, archipelagoes'^ o^ki'peld- 

go; {erroneously) artSi'pela-go. 
arohitect n. 'a^ki-tckt; {vulgarly) 'artSi-tekt. 
architrave n. (epistyle, etc.) 'arki-tjeev; {erroneously) 'artji- 

tjeev. 
archival adj, (of archives) 'aeki-val, ar'kai-val. 
archive n. 'a:?-kaiv, 'a:r-kiv; {erroneously) 'a:3-tSaiv. 
archivist n. 'arki-vist, 'a:3-kai-vist. 
archivolt n. (inner contour of an arch; arch-molding) 'oz- 

ki-voh, 'a^ki-velt. 
arctic adj. 'a^ktik; {popularly) 'ortik. 
arctiid adj., n. 'azkti-id. 

ardor n. heat ; zeal [also spelt ardour"] ^aiz-d^z, 
ardnons adj, 'a:?-d3U-3s, 'a:7-dju-3s. 
are v. (ploral present indicativ of be) a:^, {when unstrest) 

9Zf z; {formerly normally, but now vulgarly) e:z. 
are n. (metric unit) a:z, e:z. 
area n. [ploral areas and also, in its anatomic senses, areae] 

'e:-?i-3 ; {vulgarly) a'^ii-a. 
arear adv. (in the rear) 9'zi:z. compare arrear. 
areca n. (tree; betel-nut) 'aezi-ka. 
areola n. small area [ploral areolae] aVii-g-la; {improperly) 

eri'oo-ls. 
areolate adj. a'^ii-3-let, 'e:-?i-3-let. 

Areopagite n. ae^i'epa-dsait ; {erroneously) aen'epa-gait. 
areopagitio adj. aeei-eps'dsitik. 
Areopagns n. (tribunal) sezi'epd-gss. 
areostyle adj. [also spelt araeostyle] d'^ii-s-stail. 
argal adv. (ergo, therefore) 'arr-gal. 
argala n. adjutant-bird [synonymous cognate argeelah] 'aiz- 

g3-l3. 
argand adj. 'a:7-gaend. 
argel n. leaves of the plant Solenostemma argel [also spelt 

argheli arguel] 'a:z-gel. 
argent n., adj. (silver) 'ci^-dsant. 
argentine adj. of silver [also, sometimes, spelt argentin] 

'a:r-d3in-tain, 'oi^-dsin-tin. 
Argentine adj. (of the Rio de la Plata ; of Argentina) 'o:?- 

dsin-tain, 'oi^-dsin-tin. 

jve, gcure; d the, 9f/iin; 3 arure, ds/oy; \ shoe, tSc/tew; 
wwJhen; ij sing; u wh<?ever, i react, o iim, uMioo\, \\1, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, ootvo, t,\ie^, te^%,o.\fc\ 



. DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 31 

argil n. (clay) 'ai^-dsil. 

argol n. crude tartar [synonymous cognate argall 'a:?-gol. 
argosy n. merchant-vessel [ploral argosies'] 'aiz-g^-su 
argot n. (slang of thieves; cant) 'a:e-gD, 'a:e-g9t. 
argne v, (reason; debate; dispute) 'a:z-gjo. 
argnte adj. (shrill; keen) az'gjuut. 
aria n, (in music, air, etc.) 'a:-ei-9, 'e:-ei-3. 
adj. (of Arius) 'e:-ei-9n. 
n. (adherent of Arius) 'e:-?i-3n. 
adj. J n. 'a:r-J3n. see Aryan. 
Arianism n. (doctrin of the Arians or adherents of Arius) 

'e:-ei-9n-iz9m, 'ei-ei-a-nizam. 
arid adj. (dry; dull) 'ae«id; (/^w properly) 'c:-?id. 
Aries n. (ram; constellation) 'e:-zi-i:z. 
arietation ». (butting) aeji-i'tce-Jan, ei-ri-i'tee-Jan. 
aril n. (seed-coat) 'aeziL 
arista n. awn [ploral aristae] a'zistd. 
aristarcli n. (severe critic) '£?i-sta:zk. 
aristate adj. (awnd) d'^istet. 
aristocrat n. d'zistd-ksaet, 'ae^istd-ksaet. 
aristocratic ad/, sezistd'kzxtik. 
Aristotelian adj., n. aezistd'tii-li-dn. 
arithjnetic n. d'riOMi-tik; (tn ^/»f obsolete sense arithmeti' 

cian) aeziO'metik. 
aritlunetic adj. aeziO'metik. 
aritbnietician n. seziOMi'tiSsn, a-ziOMi'tiSsn. 
arkose n. (feldspathic sandstone) a^'koos. 
armada n. (squadron) or'mee-dd, az'ma:-d3. 
armed adj. furnisht with arms or armor [also spelt armd] 

a:zmd, (also, in poetry) 'a:r-mid. 
armer n. (one who arms or equips) ^a:z-m^z. 
armillary adj. (of rings or circles) *a:z-mi-lezi ', (also) az- 

'mila-ei. 
armistice n. truce [also spelt armistis] 'a:?-mi-stis ; (improp- 
erly) ar'mistis. 
armor n. defensiv covering; mail [also spelt armour] 'a:z- 

m^z. 
armor v. cover with armor or armor-plate [also spelt armour] 

'aij-mae. 
armored adj. [also spelt armoured, armord] 'a.r-mo^d. 
armorer n. [also spelt armourer] 'oiz-va^'Z^z. 
armory n. [also spelt armoury] 'a-.z-m^-zi. 
amatto n. OT'naetD. see arnotto. 



c: law, b: fi#r, secat, e hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aiVi\.^\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \6ti%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following sy\\a\Ae. 



32 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



arnotto n. tree; dye [synonymous cognates anatta, anatto, 

annatto, annotta, annotto, anota, anotta, anotto, amatto} 

a^'noto. 
amnt n. {obsolete) earthnut [also spelt arnot, arnott} 'oxz- 

nst. 
aroma «. a'eoo-ma; {improperly) 'ae^a-ma. 
aromatize v, [also spelt aromatisel d'TOO-ms-taiz ; {lest 

properly) 'x?3m9-taiz, a-roma'taiz. 
arpeggio n. broken chord [synonymous cognate harpeggiol 

ae'pedso. 
arpent n. (land-measure) ar'pei}, 'a:z-p9nt. 
arqnebns n. 'a?ku}i-bds. same meaning as harquebus. 
tLTTAch n, liquor [also spelt arackl 'aezdk, d'rxk. 
arras n. (tapestry) 'x?3S. 
arrear n. state of being behindhand; overdue debt [used 

mostly in the ploral] a'riie. 
arrester n, one 'who or that which arrests [also spelt arrest- 

orl a'resta?. 
arrester n. (in law) sVestdz. same meaning as arrester, 
arret n. decision [also spelt arret"] ae'ree, ae'^et, a'eet. 
arrliizoiis adj, [also spelt arhizous] d'rai-zss. 
arris n. sharp edge [also spelt arts] 'x?is. 
arrondi adj, rounded off [also spelt arrondee, arrondiel 

areq'dii; (less properly) aVen-di. 
arrondissement n. (rounding off; administrativ subdivision 

of a French department) a-^og-dis'meq ; (less properly) 

3e?©r)'diis-mer). 
arroDV n. (pointed missil) 'ae?o ; (dialectally) 'aera. 
arse n. (buttocks; behind) a:rs, a:s; (erroneously) a:s, ae:s. 
arseniate n. [synonymous cognate arsenate] a^'sii-ni-et. 
arsenio n. (chemic element) 'a^SNik, 'aesi-nik. 
arsenio adj. (of arsenic) ar'senik. 
arsenide n. [also, sometimes, spelt arsenid] 'a^si-nid, 'qz- 

si-naid. 
arsenions adj, a^'sii-ni-ds. 
arseninret n. [synonymous cognate arsenuret] a^'sen jo-rat, 

arsi'nai-jo-?3t. 
arseninreted adj. [also, sometimes, spelt arseniuretted] az- 

'senjo-^etid, a^si'nai-jo-retid. 
arsennret n. ar'senju-^at. same meaning as arseniuret. 
arsbeen n. measure [also spelt arshine, arshin, archine] az- 

'Siin. 
artesian adj. ar'tii-san; (less properly) a^'tii-zi-an. 

JJ'^, gcure; d the, Q thin', 5 asure, d^ jov, ^ sfioe, tSc/tew; 
wzv/ten; ij sing; u wh£>ever, i react, o iu\\, \iMioo\> ^\\., T\^ce\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, ;)Otvo, tXie^, ^e^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 33 

arthritis n. (inflammation of a joint) az'6sai-tis; {less prop- 
erly) ar'83ii-tis. 
arthropoda n,pl. az'O^epd-dd. 
artiad n. 'azti-xd, 'azti-sd. 
artifice n. [also spelt artifisi 'a?ti-fis. 
artificer n. [also spelt artifiser'\ ar'tifi-sar, 'azti-fisar. 
artisan, n. [also spelt artisan} 'azti-zgn, 'ozti-zaen, ozti'zstn. 
artiste n. (esthetic or artistic performer or artizan) az'tiist. 
n. (plant) 'e:-?3m. 
ody., n. Indo-european [also spelt Arianl 'air-jan, 'c:- 



zi-sn, 'aezi-an. 

aryballns n. vase [ploral arybalWi aezi'bxlss. 

arTtenoid ad/, (funnel-shaped) a'ziti-neid, aezi'tii-neid. 

As n. one of the gods inhabiting Asgard [plural Aesir"} xs. 
conj., adv., pron, xz, (when unstrest) az, z, s. 
n. Roman copper coin [also, formerly, spelt asse, aas ; plor- 
al asses'] aes. 

aiafetida n. [also spelt asafoetida, assafoetidal sesd'f eti-da ; 
{vulgarly) aesi'feti. 

aiarabacca n. plant [also spelt asarahacal sesazd'baekd. 

aibestos n. fibrous hornblend, etc.; amiant [synonymous 
cognate asbestus] aes'bestss, aes'bes-tes. 

aibestns n. xs'bestas. same meaning as asbestos. 

ascendance n. [also spelt ascendencel s'sendans. 

ascendancy n. [also spelt ascendency"] s'senddn-si. 

ascendant adj., n. [also spelt ascendent] d'senddnt. 

ascertain v. make certain ; find out [past participle and pret- 
erit ascertained, ascertaind] aesaz'teen. 

aicetery n. dwelling-place of ascetics [ploral asceteries] 
3'set3-zi. 

ascetic adj. (abstinent; strict) a'setik. 

ascetic n. (one who practises self-disciplin by celibacy, fast- 
ing, or toil) d'setik. 

asci n. (ploral of ascus) 'se-sai. 

aician n. (shadowless person : that is, an inhabitant of the 
tropics) 'aejan. 

ascigerovs adj. (bearing asci) s'sidss-zds. 

ascitan adj, (heretic of tl|e second century) a'sai-tan, 'aesi- 
tdn. 

ascites n. (dropsy of the belly) a'sai-tiz. 

ascitic adj. (of ascites, dropsical) d'sitik. 

Asclepiad n. (verse) aes'ktii-pi-aed, aes'ktii-pi-ad. 

ascns n. spore-case [ploral asci] 'aeskas. ^^^^ 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, ehot, ei hoy; a: far, au now, a: ask, aikitt\ 

hns^-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©ns*i 

ftregs-mark () indicates chief stress on the following s^WaUe. 



34 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

aseity n, (self-existence) ae'sii-i-ti, e'sii-i-ti. 

asexual adj, (not sexual; neuter) d'sek^u-dl, d'seksgu-al. 

asli n. residue of burning [ploral ashes'] aeS- 

ashamedly adv. 9'See-mi-dli. 

asbamedness n. s'Seem-dnis, a'See-mi-dnis. 

asl&ler n. hewn stone [also spelt ashlarl 'xlt.9z. 

Asian adj, (of Asia) 'ee-Jan, 'ee-son ; {less properly) 'ee-Ji-on, 

'ee-3i-3n, 'ee-si-an. 
Asiatio adj., n, ee-Si'xtik, ee-si'aetik. 
asiniflie adj. (of an ass) 'aesi-nain, 'aesi-nin. 
ask V. a:sk, a:sk, £:sk. 
ask n. (newt) a:sk, a:sk, ae:sk. 
askanoe adv, (sidewise) a'skarns, 9'ska:ns, s'skaems; (also) 

d'skaints, etc. 
asked v, [past participle and preterit of ask ; also spelt asktl 

a:skt, (popularly, rapidly) a:st. 
asp n. (serpent) a:sp, a:sp, x:sp. 
asparasns n. plant [vulgar synonymous cognate sparrow- 

grass"] a'spaeea-gas. 
aspect n. (look; appearance) 'ae-spekt. 
aspeot V. (obsolete) s'spekt. 
aspen adj., n. 'aespan, 'a: -span. 
asperges n. (antiphon) s'spsz-dsiz, a'spsir-dsiz. 
asperse v. bespatter; slander [past participle and preterit 

aspersed, asperst] ^'spsizs. 
asphalt n. Vs-faelt, aes'faelt, 'aes-fclt; (vulgarly) 'aej-fclt. 
aspkalt V. aes'faelt, 'aes-fae!t. 
aspkaltnm n. aes'faehdm. 
asphodel n. (plant) 'aesfd-del. 
asphyxia n. (absence of pulse, etc.) aes'f iksi-9. 
aspirant n. (one who aspires) 9'spai-7dnt, 'aespd-zsnt; (also, 

often) a'spai9-73nt. 
aspirate v. (give the h-sound to) 'aesps-zet. 
aspirate adj., n. 'xsps-rat, (rapidly) 'aespsst. 
ass n. (quadruped; fool) a:s, a:s, ae:s. 
assagai n. spear [synonymous cognate assegai^ 'aes9-gai, xsd- 

'gai; (improperly) 'aesa-ge, a'see-gi. 
assai adv. (very) s'sai. 

assay n., v. attempt [as verb, past participle and preterit as- 
sayed, assaydl a'see. 
assertion n. d'ss^^dn, d'sB'.^-Ssn. 
assess v. fix the amount of; tax; fine [past participle and 

preterit assessed, assestl s'ses. 

/,ve, g cure; d Me, thin ; 5 arure, ds foy ; S shoe, tj c/»ew ; 
ivzi//ien; tjsing; u whoever, i r^act, oiu\\, ouioo\ \\V Tv^ce\ 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, d: door, 00 no, t.\ie^, t^^a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 35 

aiset n. (resource) 'ae-sct, 'aesit; {erroneously) a'set. 

Ajwidean. n. Chasidean [also spelt Assidaean, Asidaean, 
Assidianl aesi'dii-9n. 

assiduity n. diligence [ploral assiduities! aesi'djou-i-ti. 

assidvous adj. (attentiv) a'sidsu-ds. 

assign, v. allot, appoint; point out; ascribe [past participle 
and preterit assigned, assigndl 9'sain. 

assignalile adj, d'sai-ns-bsl. 

assig^nat n. (note) 'aesig-naet, asin'ja: . 

assig^nation n. (apportionment, etc.) sesig'nee-Ssn. 

assignee n. (one to whom a right is assigned; assign) xsi- 
'nii; {improperly) a'sai-ni. 

assigner n. (one who assigns or apportions) d'sai-ns?. 

assignor n. (one who assigns, or formally transfers, to an- 
other, a right or property) aesi'ne:?; (improperly) a'sai-ner. 

assiser n. juryman [also spelt assizor, assisor, assiserl s'sai- 

associate n., adj, d'soo-Si-st ; (less properly) s'soo-si-dt. 

associate jv. d'soo-Si-et ; (less properly) 9's30-si-et. 

assooiation n. a-soSi'ee-Ssn, d-sosi'ee-Ssn. 

assonant adj. (corresponding in vowel-sound) 'aess-nant. 

assumption adj. a'sAmpSsn, d'sAmSsn. 

asterisk n. (star) 'aests-risk; (improperly) 'xst^zik, 
It asthenia n. (debility) aes'6ii-ni-9, sesOi'nai-s. 

asthma n. (labored breathing, etc.) 'aezma, 'xsms, 'aestMd, 
'£s6m9. 

asthmatic adj. aez'maetik, ses'maetik, aest'maetik, xsO'mxtik. 

astig:matism n. (defect of the eye) d'stigms-tizdm. 

astrakhan n. (fur) 'aests^-ksn, 'sest£3-ksen, sest^d^kaen. 

astnte adj. (crafty) a'stgout; (dialectally) a'stout. 

asylnm n. [ploral asylums; also, in the sense of a sanctuary 
or refuge, asylal s'sai-lsm. 

asymptote n. (line which approaches a curve indefinitly) 
'aesim-tot. 

at prep, aet, (when unsfrest) at. 

atavio adj. (of atavism) d'taevik. 

atavism n. (reversion to ancestral form) 'aetd-vizdm. 

ataxia n. (lack of coordination of bodily movements) d'taek- 
si-3. 

ataxy n. (ataxia) d'taeksi, 'aetsk-si. 

ate V, preterit of eat [dialectal synonymous cognate eat"] 
cet, (when unstrest) et; (also, normally in Britain, except- 
ing Ireland, hut in America vulgarly or locally) et, (in 



• 

/ 



cloti;, b: fur, xcat, e hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aikite; 

)engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding? sound is \ong\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syWabU, 



36 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Ireland) lit, (when unstrest) it; (formerly) a:t, c:t, e:t, 

i:t. 
Athanasian adj» xOd'nee-Ssn, sOs'ne 6-3311. 
athanagy n. (deathlessness, immortality) d'Oaend-si. 
Athenemn n. [also spelt Athenaeum} xOi'nii-9m; (errone- 

ously) a'Gii-ni-am, 
Athenian adj. (of Athens) 9'6ii-ni-9n. 
atblete n. 'a9-Kt; (improperly) 'aGa-lit. 
athletio adj.,n. aeOletik; (improperly) aeOd^etik. 
Atlantean ad/, of Atlas; of Atlantis [also, sometimes, spelt 

Atlantianl xtlaenti-sn, xtLsen'tii-dn. 
atoll n. (ring-shaped coral island) d'tel, 'x-tel; (less prop- 
erly) 'ee-teL 
atom n. (indivisible particle) 'aetsm. 
atomic adj. (of atoms; atom-like) d'temik. 
atrinm n. court; hall [ploral atria"] 'ee-tsi-sm. 
atropine n. [also, sometimes, spelt atropin] 'aetss-pin, 'aetsa- 

pain. 
attaoli^ n. (one attacht) xts'See, aetae'S^e. 
attacked v. [also spelt attackt] s'taekt; (vulgarly) s'taektid. 
attar n. perfume [also spelt atar; synonymous cognate ottar, 

otto] 'aetar. 
attention n. a'tenSan. 

attitndinize v. pose [also spelt attitudinise"] aeti'tgou-dn-aiz. 
attorney n, a'tarni; (dialectally or vulgarly) a'teir-ni. 
attracter n. [also spelt attract or] d'tsaektQ?. 
attribute n. (characteristic) 'aet£i-bjut. 
attribute v. (assign; refer) a'tjibjot. 

anbergist n. innkeeper [also spelt aubergiste] 'c:-bd7-d3ist. 
anotion n. 'crk-Jan; (dialectally) 'ekSan. 
andaoions adj. (bold) c'dee-Jas; (improperly) c'daeSds. 
andible adj. (capable of being heard) 'c:-d9-b9}. 
andienoe n. 'c:-di-3ns; (vulgarly) 'ci-dsans. 
an fait adj. (up to the mark ; expert) o'f ee. 
Angean adj. (of Augeus) c'dsii-an; (erroneously) 'ci-dsi-an. 
anger n. (boring-tool) 'c:-g3?. 
angbt n. anything [also spelt ought] c:t. 
ang^ment v. (increase) cg'ment. 
ans^ment n. (prefixt vowel) 'crg-mant. 

ans^mentative adj., n. [also spelt augmentativ] cg'ments-tnr. 
angnr n. (interpreter of auspises or signs) 'c:-gar. 
angnr v. divine, forbode, anticipate; betoken [past participle 

and preterit augured] 'c-gsz. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Qthin] jaxfure, dj/oy; jshotf tlcheyr*, 
tvwhen; tjsing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuu, timIooV, i%V, "».%€«•> 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, Abut, o: doot, ;>otio, t\ic^, t^\L*fc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 37 



;t 



f 



adj, 'c:-gjo-e3l. 
avsnst adj, (majestic) c'gASt. 
August n. (month) 'c:-g9st. 

Augustan adj. (of Augustus; of Augsburg) c'gAstsn. 
Aug^ustin n., adj. [also spelt Augustinel c'gAstin, 'c:-g9-stin. 
aumbry n. 'c:m-bzi. - same meaning as ambry, 
auut n. (sister of one's father or mother) a:nt, a:nt, x:nt; 

{anteriorly, as a title) ant, ant, aent. 
auuty n. [also spelt auntie^ 'a:n-ti, 'a:n-ti, 'x:n-ti. 
aureola n, (celestial crown ; aureole) c'^xi-d-ls ; (erroneously) 

(zi'DO-la. 
aureole n. (celestial crown; aureola; gold disk; halo) 'c:-7i- 

6i. 
au revoir inter j. (until we meet again !) ora'vw©:?, oraVwc:?, 

o?a'vwa:r. 
auriat n. (ear-specialist) 'c:-7ist 
anroelis n. (wild ox) 'c:-7eks, 'ao-7eks. 
aurora borealis n. (northern lights) &zo:-z9-hozi'teAis, 

c'zo'.'Z^-hszi'ai-lis. 
auspice n. omen [also spelt auspisl 'c:-spis. 
Australasian adj. c:-st£a'}ee-S9n> c:-st£3'lee-33n. 
author n. [also, formerly, spelt authourl 'c-Q^z. 
authoress n. [also, formerly, spelt authouress"] 'c-B^-zis. 
authorise v. [also spelt authorise] 'c-Qs-zaiz. 
antobiographer n. [also spelt autobiograferl c:-td-bai'eg?9- 

hz; {less properly) ci-tabi'egra-fa^. 
autobiography n. [also spelt autobiografyl c:-t9-bai'eg73-f i ; 

{less properly) ci-tabi'egra-fi. 
autochthon n. aboriginal [ploral autochthons, autochthones] 

c'tekOan, a'tek-Oon. 
autochthones n. (ploral of autochthon) c'tekOa-niz. 
autocracy n. self-rule [ploral autocracies] c'tek^a-si. 
anto-da-f 6 n. act of faith : judicial act or sentence of the 

Inquisition [also spelt auto da fe, auto da fe, auto-de-fe, 

auto de fe; ploral autos-da-fi] ci-to-da'fee, ao-to-da'fee. 
autograph n. [also spelt autograf] 'c:-t3-g?a:f. 
automaton n. self -mover [ploral automata, automatons] 

c'tema-ten, c'tema-tan. 
automobile n. c:-t9-mo'biil, cta'moo-bil, cta'moo-bil, 'c:-t3- 

mo-bil. 
autopsy n. (a seeing for one's self; post-mortem) 'c:-topsi, 

C'tepsi. 
autnmn n. fall [also spelt autum] 'otam. 

c: law, a: fwr, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a; for, oa now, a: osk, aikite\ 

XzngCtk-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \6tv%\ 

stresB^mark O indicates chief stress on the following syWaXAe. 



38 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS ^ 

auxiliary adj., n. (assistant) cg^zili-^-zi, cg'ziH-ezi. ^ 

avalanclie n. (descent or slide of snow; land-slide) 'aev^^ ^ 
la:ntS, 'aeva-la:ntS, 'aev9-te;ntS, 'aeva-lantj; (also, especially ■ 
in Britain) 'ava-lainS, 'aev3-la:nS, 'aeva-lamj, 'aevd-laenS; ' 
(rarely) aevalamS. ^ 

avant-gnarde n. (vangard) a-veq'gar^d, a'veg-gaied. 

avarioe n. cupidity [also spelt orarw] 'aeva-^is. ^ 

avatar n. (descent of a deity to earth ; manifestation as a 
power) ava'ta:?, 'aeva-toe. ." 

avannt inter j. (move on! be off!) a'vcint, a'vamt, a'varnt. '/ 

avellan adj. of the filbert [synonymous cognate avellanel ^ 
a'velan, 'aeva-lan. .'? 

Ave Maria n. Hail Mary, a prayer [synonymous cognate- ,^i 
/iv^ Maryl ee-vi-ma'jii-a, ar-vi-ma'rii-a. \i 

aventail n. flap of a helmet [also spelt aventayle, aventaUei. \ 
'3ev9n-tel. ' *.^ 

aveninrin n. glass; quartz [also spelt aventurinel yveiN-'r'j 
tSd-^in. 

avenue n. (way) 'sevi-njo; (vugarly) 'aevi-nja, 'aeva-no. 
^j^yer n. obsolete (possession; beast of burden) 'ee-va?. 

a^er v. justify a plea; assert as a fact [past participle and 
preterit averred, averdi a've:?. 

aversion n. (turning away; antipathy) a'vs^Jan, a'veie-san. 

Ave* n.pl. (birds) 'ee-viz. ■ 

aviary n. bird-house [ploral aviaries'] 'ee-vi-eri, 'ee-vi-a-ei. 

avionltnre n, (rearing of birds) 'aevi-kAltSsr, 'ee-vi-kAltgar. ■ 

aviform adj. (bird-shaped) 'ee-vi-fe:?m. 

aviso n. advice [ploral avisosl d'vai-zo. ■ 

avoirdnpois n. (system of weight) aeva^da'poiz ; (improper- .' 
ly) aevarda'pei. 

avoset n. bird [also spelt avocetl 'aeva-set. 

aivakening n. d'week-nii]. 

aive V. inspire with dread; daunt [past participle and prete- 
rit awed, awdl c: . 

awful adj, [also, rarely, spelt aweful] 'ci-fal. 

awfnl adv. 'cr-fsl, (when less strest) 'cfgl. 

awfully adv. 'ct-fa-h, (also, rapidly, in the sense of dread- 
fully, very much, very) 'c:-fM, (when less strest) 'cfti. 

aivry adv., adj. (askew) a'eai. 

az n. cutting-tool [also spelt axe; ploral axes'] aeks. 
n. (ploral of ax) 'aksiz. 
n. (ploral of axis) 'aek-siz. 

axial adj. (forming an axis; of an axis) 'aeksi-al. 

/>e, gcure; bthe, Qthin; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tS cAew; 
wze/Aen; xjsing; u wli<?ever, i r^act, oiuW, oMiooV iKt, lise^j 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a but, o: door, 00 no, e\jc^v ^^«»<A&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 39 

«. (in botany f angle) 'aeksii. 

B adj. of the axis [also, sometimes, spelt axil\ 'aeksil, 
-«uL 

A n. armpit [ploral (ixillael sek'sil9. 

jury adj. (of the axilla or armpit ; of the axil) ^xksiAezi ; 
\properly) aek'silo-zi. 

m n. (conceded proposition; maxim) 'xksi-sm; {less 
perly) 'sks^sm, 'aekSsm. 
BLatic adj, aeksi-d'maetik. 

II. straight line about which a body rotates ; axle ; cen- 
l line; stem [ploral axesl 'aeksis. 
oil n. (amphibian) 'xkss-letl. 
iv, ever, always [also spelt ayel ee. 
\terj. ah ! O ! alas I [also, formerly, spelt aye, eighl ee. 
adv., inter]., ». yes, yea [also spelt oy] ai. 
ajre n. (sloth) 'ai-ai. 
Mb fi. [ploral asaleasi s'zee-H-d, s'zee-Hd. 
mill. n. (arc, etc.) 'xzi-maO. 

LutluUl ad/. 'aezi-mjuOal ; (a/^o, /^w properly) 'azima-Oa!, 
xteriorly) 'aezi-maOal. 
lenxol n. szo'ben-zol. 

e n. (nitrogen) a'zoot, 'ae-zot; (/^w properly) 'ee-zot. 
Ime z'. [also spelt azotise'\ 'xza-taiz. 
•e adj., n. (sky-blue ; sky) 'aesa?, 'ee-33^. 
a n. unleavend bread [synenymous cognate azymel 
:im. 
ae n. 'aezim, ^se-zaim. same meaning as azym. 



V, (cry or bleat as a sheep) ba: . 

lism n. (worship of Baal) 'bee-s-hzsm. 

Iroussa n. hornd hog [also spelt babirussa, babyroussa, 

byrussal baebi'rou-S3, babi'^ou-sa. 

salanreate adj. (of a bachelor) baek3'!c:-7i-3t. 

sara n. card-game [also spelt baccarat} baeka'^a: . 

sarat n. baeka'^o: ; (erroneously) 'baeka-^aet. same mean- 

^ as baccara. 

sbanaliaiL adj. (of Bacchus; riotous; bacchanal) baeks- 

je-li-3n. 

sl&ant adj., n. Ibaekdnt. 

Bhante n. priestess of Bacchus; female bacchant [plo?- 

bacchantesl ba'kaint, 'baekant, ba'kaenti. 

V, s: iur, ae cat, e hot, 01 hoy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aikite\ 
^-mark C:) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti^*» 
-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following syWaUe, 



40 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bacchantes n. (ploral of bacchante) bs'kaen-tiz, 'bsekdr 
baocifonu adj. (berry-shaped) 'baeksi-fe:zm. 
bachelor n. 'baetSi-lsr; (erroneously) 'baetSal-dsz. 
bacillary adj, (of bacilli; rodlike) 'baesi-lezi. 
bacilli n. (ploral of bacillus) bs'si-tai, bs'siiai. 
bacillus n. [ploral bacillil bs'silds; (erroneously) 'baes 
backbone n. baek'boon, 'baek-boon. 
backgammon n., v. 'bsek-gaemdn, baek'gaemdn. 
backhouse n. (privy) 'baek-haos, 'baek-aos. 
backsheesh n. see bakshish, 
backslide v, 'baek-sLaid, baek'sLaid. 
backslider n. 'baek-sLai-dsr, baek'sLai-dd?. 
backstairs adj. (intriguing) 'baek-ste:zz. 
backstairs n. baek'ste:?z, 'baek-ste:zz. 
bacteria n. (ploral of bacterium) hstWti:-zi-9, 
bacterium n. [ploral bacteria^ back'ti:-7i-3m. 
bad adj., n. (evil) baed, (often, when more strest) bae:d. 
bad V. [preterit of bid ; also spelt badel baed. 
bade v, baed; (erroneously) beed. see bad, 
badinase n. (banter) ^baedn-ids, 'baedi-nids, baedi'na:3. 
bagatelle n. (trifle) baega'tel; (less properly) 'baega-tel. 
baggage n. (bags, trunks, etc.; luggage) 'baegids. 
bag^o n. (bath, etc.) 'baenj3; (erroneously) 'baegni-o. 
bagn^et n. molding [also spelt baguettel bae'get. 
bah inter j, (expressing contempt, etc.) ba: • 
baignoire n. box in a theater [also spelt baignoirl ba'n^ 

'bee-nwe:r. 
baiP n. hoop, ring, basket-handle [sometimes impre] 

spelt balel beel. 
bail' n. outer fortification or wall [also spelt bayle'\ bee 
bail' V. remove (water) ; free (a boat) from water wi 

bucket or basin [also, less properly, spelt bale; past pai 

pie and preterit bailed, baildl beel. 
bailer^ n. one who delivers goods to another in bail 

[also, sometimes, spelt bailor"] 'bee-laz. 
bailer' n. one who bails out water; vessel used for ba 

[also spelt baler] 'bee-la?. 
bailiery n. bailie's jurisdiction [also spelt bailiary and, 

merly, bailliery, bailliary, baillerie] 'bee-li-e?i, 'bee-li- 

'bee-h-31. 
bailiff n. (officer ; overseer) Hbee-lif. 
bailixdlck n. (precinct of a bailiff) 'bee-h-wik. 
bailor n. (law) heeVeiz. same meaning as bailer} 

J ye, gcure; d the, G*Hin; sasure, dj/oy; K shoe, tS c 

wzt/hen; tjsing; uwhoevtr, i react, uiuu, TiuiooV, lit, li 

o poetic; oover, e aerial, Abut, o;doot, ;>0'ao« ^\ie^ ^^ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 41 



Baivmm ft. festival [also spelt Beirami baiVa:m, 'bai-zam. 
teise fK. (woolen fabric) beez. 

bajoeoo n. coin [also spelt haiocco\ ploral hajocchi] bd'jeko. 
tafcrtlali n. tip, fee [also spelt bakhshish, baksheesh, back' 

sheesh, backshish^ ^baek-SiS. 
balAaee-slieet n. 'ba^dn^-Siit. 
WQas n. ruby [also spelt balassi 'bselss, baelaes. 
balcony n. ^ba^kd-ni; (formerly) bael'koo-ni. 
Wldaehln n. canopy [also spelt baldaquini 'baelds-kin. 
balderdiuilL n. (senseless prate) 'bcil-daz-dxS. 
bftld-lLeAded adj. [also spelt bald-heded^ bc:ld'hedid, {as- 

sumptivly) Hbcld-hedid. 
Wle^ n. see bail} 
bale* V. see &a»/.' 
ballster n. (obsolete) crossbowman [synonymous cognate 

balesierl baelista;, liaeli-stdz. 
balistor n. (obsolete) arbalist, crossbow [also spelt ballister'] 

bxlist97, ^h-st3?. 
luJise ft. beacon [also spelt balisel bs'hiz. 
Kalk n. ridge ; blunder ; beam [also spelt baulk} bc:k. 
balk V. hinder; stop short [also spelt baulk; past participle 

and preterit balked, balktl bc:k. 
ImII fi. (sphere, globe, etc.) bc:l. 
hall ad n. (song; poem) 'baelad. 
liallade n. (poem in stanzas, etc.) baela:d. 
Vallast n. (weight, etc. : road-metal) ^sebst. 
iMllet n. (dance) 'bae-le, niaele, baelee, 'baeht. 
ballet n. obsolete (little ball) 'baeht. 
balHata n. military engin [also spelt balista ; ploral ballis- 

toe, ballistasl bslists. 
Iiallister n. obsolete [also spelt balister"] 'baeh-sts?. same 

meaning as baluster, 
balloon fi. (inflated ball, etc.) ba'loun. 
Iiallot n. (voting-ball; voting-paper) 'baelat. 
ballotade n. leap of a horse [also spelt ballottade, balotade"] 

hadd'teed, baela'ta'.d. 
baln& fi. (aromatic substance) ba:m; (dialectally, vulgarly) 

bae:m. 
Balmoral n. (cap; boot) bael'me^sl; (less properly) bael'mo:- 

balsam n. (balm, etc. ; plant) 'bcil-sam. 

balaaniio adj., n, bcrssemik, bacl'saemik ; (improperly) 'bc:l- 
sd-mik. 

c: law, b: fi*r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, au now, a: ask, eLik\\.e,\ 

Itngib-znark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otvs\ 

Btress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowmg syWaVAe, 



42 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

baluster n. small column; bolster [also spelt balluster; for- 
mer synenymous cognates ballister, balisterl 'baela-stae. 

balustrade n. baeb'stseed. 

bambino n. baby; Child Jesus [ploral batnbinil baem'bii-no. 

bamboo n. (grass; cane) baem'bou, (anteriorly, often) 'baem- 
bu. 

ban n. [ploral bans and, in the sense of a proclamation of 
an intended marriage in a church, often also bannsi baen. 

banal adj. of a ban; commonplace [also, formerly, spelt 
bannall 'baenal, 'bee-nal. 

banality n. bs'nasli-ti. 

banana n. (tree; fruit) bd'nsend, ba'nar-na; (rarely) ba'nee- 
na. 

bandana n. handkerchief [also spelt bandannal baen'daend. 

bandbox n. 'baend-beks, 'baen-beks. 

banderillero n. (bull-fighter) hatnd^ziVje'.-zo. 

banderol n. 'baendi-??!. same meaning as banderole, 

banderole n. small flag; band [synenymous cognates bande- 
rol, bandrol, banneroll 'baendi-zol. 

bandit n. brigand [ploral bandits, bandittil 'baendit. 

banditti n* (ploral of bandit) bacn'diti. 

bandoleer n. belt; powder-case [also spelt bandolier and, 
formerly, bandolier; former synenymous cognates bandileer, 
bandelier} baenda'h:^. 

bandoline n. substance [also spelt bandolin} 'baenda-hn. 

bandrol n. 'baendrsl. same meaning as banderole. 

bandy-legged adj. 'baendi-legid, 'baendi-legd. 

banian n. 'baenjsn. same meaning as banyan. 

banister n. small column; baluster [also spelt bannisterl 
'baeni-sta?. 

bankruptcy n. 'baeq-ksApsi, 'baeqksap-si. 

banned adj. curst; prohibited [also spelt bandl baend. 

banneret n. little banner, banderole [also spelt bannerette! 
baena'zet. 

banneret n. (bannerd knight) 'baend-rat. 

bannerol n. banderole, especially in the sense of a sculp- 
tured band adapted to receive an inscription, and also in 
the sense of a small banner or flag used in England over 
tombs [sometimes erroneously spelt banner-roll, banneraH 
'baena-rol, 'baena-ral. 

bannister n. see banister. 

banns n. pi, see under ban. 

banquet n. (feast) lixtjUwit; (less properly) 'baen-kujit. 

jve, gcure; d the, 9 ///in; 3 axrure, ds/oy; \ shot, tScliew; 
wzi/Aen; tj sing; u whoever, i r^act, oitt\\, uwiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, a b«t, o: door, ooivo, t>ae^, t,t%oXfc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 43 



bft&qwette n. (raised way, bank, bench, sidewalk) baeg'ket, 

beii'ket. 
lMUiBli.ee n. (female fairy) bsen'Sii, 'baen-Sii. 
bft&yan n. tree [also spelt banian^ 'baenjsn; {less properly) 

l>aeni-9n, baen'jaen. 
kaobab n. (tree) 'bee-s-bsb. 
baptinn. n. 'bxp-tizam, 'baep-tizm. 

baptism al adj, baep'tizmsl; {less properly) 'bsep-tizmsl. 
baptistery n. 'bxptists-si. same meaning as baptistry. 
baptistry n. [synenymous cegnate baptistery'\ 'baepti-stji. 
baptise n. [also spelt baptise'\ bsep'taiz, 'bsep-taiz. 
barbarisation n. [also spelt barbarisation} hazb^zi^ zee-Ian, 

bo^ba-^ai'zee-Ssn. 
barbarise v. [also spelt barbarisel 'bair-ba-zaiz. 
barbarous adj. (foreign; rude) 'haiz-ba-zas, 'ba:7-bz3s. 
Barbary adj, (barbarian, of the northern coast of Africa) 

'ba:z-h9'Zi, {often, assumptivly) 'ba:^-bz:i. 
barbecue n. gridiron [synenymous cegnate barbacuel 'ba:z- 

bi-kgtu 
barberry n. shrub; fruit [synenymous cegnate berberry'^ 

'ba:?-be?i, 'ha'.z-ha-zi, 'baie^bazi, 'ba:2-b^i. 
barbery n. rare (the barber's art; shaving) 'ha-.z-ha-zi, 
barcarole n. boatman; song [also spelt barcarolle'^ 'ba^ks- 

zcH, 
barefacedness n. 'beiz-feest-nis. 
barege n. (gause-like fabric) ba'^ees. 
baregin n. gelatinous substance [also spelt bareginel ba'^ee- 

5in. 
bargain n.,v. [as verb, past participle and preterit bargain- 
ed, bargaindl 'ba:r-gin; {dialectally) 'baiz-ggn. 
bargbest n. goblin [also spelt barguest, bargesti 'ba:?-gest. 
baric adj. (of barium) 'baezik, 'be:-^ik. 
baric adj, (of weight; barometric) 'baezik. 
baring n. (action of laying bare; surface detritus) 'bei-eiq. 
barite n. (nativ barium sulfate; barytes) 'be:-2ait. 
baritone n. see barytone. 
barium, n. (metallic element) 'he:-zi-am. 
barb n. vessel [also spelt barquel haizk, 
barkantine n. [also spelt barkentine, barquantine, barquen- 

tinel 'bazkan-tin. 
barley n. (grain) "ba'.z-h. 
baroco n. [also spelt baroccol ha^zoo-ko. same meaning as 

baroque. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 

length-morlf {:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv^\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fellowing sy\\a\A^. 



44 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

baroko n. mood of syllogism [also spelt harocol bs'^oo-ko. 

barometer n. (instrument for measuring atmospheric pres- 
sure) ba'semi-ta?. 

baron n. (nobleman) 'baezdn. 

baroque adj» odd [synonymous cognate haroco'\ bs'rook. 

barouobe n. (carriage) bd'zouS. 

barozyton n. (musical instrument) bx'?eksi-ten. 

barrator n. fraudulent barterer, etc. [also spelt harrater 
and, in the sense of an encourager of litigation, harretor\ 
'baez3-t32. 

barrel n. (cask, etc.) 'hatz^X. 

barrel v. [present participle barreling, barrelling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit barreled, barrelled, barreldl 'hxz^l. 

barren adj. (steril) 'hxz^n. 

barretor n. 'baezi-ta?. see under barrator, 

barricade n., v. bx^i^keed. 

barring prep, (excepting) 'bar-riq. 

barro'W n. (stretcher; wheelbarrow) 'baero; (dialectally) 
'baera. 

barml^e adj. baezolee; (improperly) bae^jolee. same mean- 
ing as barruly. 

barmlet n. little bar [also spelt barrulettel 'baero-lat; {im- 
properly) 'baezjo-lat. 

barriily adj. in heraldry, divided into little bars [synony- 
mous cognate barrulSe} 'bae^o-h, (improperly) laae^jo-h. 

bars-gemel n.pl, (in heraldry, two bars near together) 
'barez-dsemal. 

bartizan n. (turret) 'barti-zan, bazti'zaen. 

baryeooia n. (deafness) baezi-i'koi-s. 

baryta n. (barium oxide) bs'zai-ts. 

barytes n. (barite ; heavy-spar) ba'rai-tiz. 

barytone adj., n. [also spelt baritone"] 'baezi-ton. 

basal adj. (of the base ; fundamental) 'bee-sa!. 

basale n. basal part [ploral basalial bs'see-h. 

basalt n. (volcanic rock) ba'scilt, nbae-scU; (improperly) ba- 
'zc:lt, 'bee-sc:h. 

basan n. sheepskin [also spelt bazan\ synonymous cognate 
basanel 'baezan. 

basane n. ba'zeen. same meaning as basan. 

bas-bleu n. (bluestocking) ba'bls: . 

base n., adj. [also, in music, spelt bass] bees, see under bass. 

bases n. (ploral of basis) 'bee-siz. 

bases n. (ploral of base) 'bee-siz. 

J ye, Qcure; d the, 6/Mn; sarure, d.-^/oy; S shoe, tjc/iew; 
ww/ten; ijsing', u whd7ever, i r^act, o iuVV, owiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial, Abut, o: door, 00 no, t>ac^, «,^%a\fc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 45 

vw fi. (pasha; grandee) bd'Sc: . 
Iiaioiik n. (Turkish soldier) bseji-bd'zouk. 
adj, (of a kiss) 'bee-zi-at 

iNude adjm (of a base; basal) 'bee-sik. 

basil n. (plant) 'baezil. 

basil n. ^eepskin [also spelt baeill 'baezi}. 

basilar adj, (of the base of the skull, etc.) 'bssi-ld?, (as' 
sumpHvly) Inesildz; (Jess properly) 'baezi-ls?. 

bssilary tidj, (basilar) 'hstsiAzzi; (less properly) "hxziAtzi. 

basilica n. royal palace ; oblong church [ploral basilicas and, 
rarely, basilicae'\ bd'sih-ka; {less properly) ba'zih-ka. 

baslHsk n. (fabulous reptil) 'bxsi-tisk, 'bxzi-hsk. 

basin a. [also, formerly, sometimes spelt bason'\ 'bee-ssn, 
nbee-sn; {dialectally) 'bee-sin. 

basinet w. steel headpiece or cap [synonymous cognate bos- 
netl TiMesi-nit. 

basion n. (middle point of the anterior margin of the fora- 
men magnum of the cranium) 'bee-si-sn. 

basipital adj. (directed toward the base) be'sipi-tl. 

basis n. base; foundation [ploral bases'] 'bee-sis. 

bask V. bathe, etc. [past participle and preterit basked, baskt\ 
ba:sk, ba:sk, bx:sk. 

basket n. 'ba:-skit, 'bai-skit, 'baei-skit, 'baeskit. 

basnet n. 'baesNit. same meaning as basinet. 

Basque n. nativ of Biscay; language [also spelt Bask\ ba:sk, 
ba:sk, bae:sk. 

basqne n. (skirt; jacket) ba:sk, ba:sk, bae:sk. 

bas-relief n. low relief [synonymous cognate bass-relief] 
ba:-zi1iif, ba:s-ziliif; {less properly) 'ba:-^i-hif. 

bass n. fish [also spelt basse] ba:s, ba:s, baeis. 

bass 91. (linden, lime-tree) ba:s, ba:s, b£:s. 

bass adj, in music, low, deep, grave [originally and quite as 
properly, but now rarely, spelt base] bees. 

bass n. low part ; base voice ; base clef [more rarely, but 
quite as properly, spelt base] bees. 

basset n. (card-game) 'baesit, bae'set. 

basset n.,adj.,v, (outcrop) 'baesit. 

basset n. (dog) 'baesit. * 

bassinet n. (plant) 'baesi-net. 

bassinet n. hooded basket used as a cradle [also spelt bassi- 
nette] baesi'net, 'baesi-net. 

basso adj., n. (in music^ base) 'ba:-so. 

bassoon n. (musical instrument) bae'soun, bd'soun. 

c: law, b: f f*r, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
Itngtb'tnark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \«^tv%\ 
stress^mark C) indicates chief stress on the following s^Ws^Ae. 



46 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

^ ^ 1 

baaso-relieTo n. ba:-s3-7ilii-v3. same meaning as- bas-relief . 

baMO-rillevo n. hai-so-ziU'ee-vo, same meaning as bas- 
relief. 

baM-relief n. ba:s-7iliif. same meaning as bas-relief, 

bass-Tiol n. bees'vai-a}. 

baM'wood n. 'ba:s-wod. 

bastard n.,adj, 'baestdrd, 'ba:-st3zd. 

bastardize z/. [also spelt bastardise"} 'bxstdr-daiz. 

baste V, in card-playing [also spelt &a5^ ; a variant of beoj^ 
beest. 

bastile n. fortress [also spelt bastille'\ bae'stiil, baes'tiil; ba- 
'stiil, bas'tiil, ba'stiil, bas'tiil; (also) 'bae-stil, 'ba:-stil. 

bastinado n. (beating) b£sti'nee-d3. 

bastion, n. (projecting earthwork) 'baestSan, 'bx^tSdn, HbaestCdn. 

basyl n. electropositiv constituent [also spelt basylel ^e- 
sil, 'bassil. 

bat n. (pack-saddle) baet, be: , ba: , ba:t. 

batata n. (sweet potato) b3'ta:-t3, ba'tee-ta. 

batea n. (wooden vessel) 'bati-3. 

batean n. boat [also, less correctly, spelt batteau; ploral 
bateaux, batteauxl bae'too, ba'too. 

bateanz n. (plural of bateau) bx'tooz, ba'tooz. 

bath n. washing, etc. [plural bathsl ba:0, ba:0, bae:0. 

bathe v. (wash, etc.) beed. 

bathorse n. pack-horse [synonymous cognate bawhorsel 'bset- 
he:?s, 'ba:-he:zs. 

bathos n. (depth; descent from the sublime to the ridiculous; 
anticlimax) 'bee-9es. 

baths n. (ploral of bath) ba:dz. 

batiste n. (cambric) bs'tiist. 

batman n. man in charge of a bathorse [ploral batmen] 
HDaet-man, 'bar-man. 

baton n. (staff; wand; truncheon) bae'ten, 'baetan, ba'teq, 'bae- 
ten. 

baton V, strike with a baton ; cudgel [past participle and pret- 
erit batoned, batond"] 'baetan, bae'ten, ba'teq, 'bae-ten. 

batrachia n. (frog-like animals) bd'tsee-ki-d. 

battalia n. (battle array; army) bs'tar-lis. 

battalion n. (division of an army) bd'taelian. 

battel n. {usually in the plural) college account or allowance 
[plural battel, also battles, battellsl 'baetl. 

battle adj, of grass, pasture, soil, or land [also spelt battell 
'baetl. 

/j^e, gcure; d the, 8 //tin; 3 a2ure, ds/oy; S j/toe, tj c/iew; 
wze^Aen; ij sing; u whoever, i react, o iu\\, uwiooV, liX, \\^ee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e^jerial, Abwt, o: door, ootvo, e.\ie^, «,^%a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 47 



battle n. fight [also, archaically, spelt battel'\ 'bstl. 
Iiattledore n. bat; racket; game [also spelt hattledoorl 'bse- 

battue n. (beating of bushes, etc., to drive out game) bae- 
'tgou. 

battnre n. (elevated river-bed, etc.) bae'tgo:;. 

bauble n. trinket, etc. [also spelt bawblel 'bobdl. 

baudekin n. fabric [also spelt baudekyn; synonymous cog- 
nates baudkin, bawdkin] 'bci-di-kin. 

banlk v, see balk. 

bawbee n. Scotch billon coin; cash [also spelt baubee'\ bc:- 
iDii. 

h&vrl v., n. cry [as verb, past participle and preterit bawled, 
bawldl bc:i. 

bay n. of various origin and sense : as, berry ; laurel ; re- 
cess in a shore; structural division of a building; bay-win- 
dow ; barking ; position of a hunted animal ; dam ; second 
branch of a stag's horn; baize; color [ploral baysl bee. 

bayadere n. Hindu dancing-girl [also spelt bayadeer; syn- 
onymous cognate bayadere"! bce-a'di:?, bee-ja'di:?. 

bayamo n. (wind in southern 'Cuba) ba'ja:-nu>. 

bayonet «. (dagger) 'bee-a-nat; (vulgarly) iDee-nat. 

bayou n. (outlet of a lake, etc.) 'bai-o, 'bai-u. 

bazaar n. market [also spelt bazar"] bs'za:?. 

baziqne n. bs'ziik. same meaning as bezique, 

bdelUniii n. (gum-resin) 'delism, 'deli-sm. 

be V. bii, (when less sir est) bi, bi. 

beacb n. (shingle ; seashore ; strand) biitS. 

beadsman, n. man employed in praying, etc. [also spelt 
bedesman; former synonymous cognate bedeman; ploral 
beadsmen] 'biidz-man. 

bear «. (dialectal) barley [also, formerly, spelt beare, beer, 
berel bi:r. 

bear n. (quadruped; speculator for a fall) hz:z. 

bear v. carry, sustain ; push, press ; bring forth ; give birth to 
[past participle borne and, in the sense of give birth to, 
born; preterit bore] ht:z. 

beard n. (hair on the chin, etc.) bi:zd. 

beat n. (stroke; round, course) biit. 

.beatifio adj. (making blessed; blissful) bi-d'tifik. 

beatify v. bi'aeti-fai. 

beatitude w. (blessedness; felicity) bi'aeti-tgud. 

beau n. dandy; lover [ploral beaus, beaux] boo. _^___ 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a*. asV, eiiVV^^N 

)engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \^n?,\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f eWoN^inft svW^^i^^ 



48 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'beau-ideal n. (model of excellence) boo-ai'dii-at. 
bean monde ». (the fashionable world) boo'mend. 
beauteous adj. 'bjou-ti-as, 'bjou-tgas; (improperly) 'bjou-tjas. 
beautiful adj. 'bjou-ti-fal, (often) Tsjuti-fal; (also, occasion- 
ally) 'bjou-ti-fol; (dialectally) 'bjou-ta-f^l. 
beauty n. [ploral beauties'! 'bjou-ti. 
beaux n. (ploral of beau) booz. 

because conj, bi'ke:z, (when less strest) bdlcez, balcsz, kdz. 
becoafioo n. bird [also spelt becafico"] bekd'fii-ko. 
bedolotlies n. 'bed-kL3odz, 'bed-kLooz. 
bedel n. (archaic) beadle, in the sense of a subaltern official 

or servant in a university [synonymous cognate bedelll 

'bii-dl. 
bedell n. (archaic) bi'del. same meaning as bedel. 
bedizen v, deck out [also spelt bedizsen; past participle and 

preterit bedizened, bedizendl bi'dizan, bi'dizn, bi'dai-zan. 
Bedouin n. (Arab of the desert) 'bedu-in, 'bedu-in. 
bedstead n. [also spelt bedstedl 'bed-sted, 'bedstid. 
beech n. (tree) biitS. 

bee-line n. (direct or straight line) 'bii-lain. 
been v» (past participle of be) bin; (also) biin, (when un- 

strest) bin; (formerly) be:n; (dialectally) ben. 
beer n. (drink) hv.z, 
beet n. (plant) biit. 
befall V. [also spelt befall bi'fc:!. 
beg n. beg. same meaning as bey. 
beg V. ask alms, etc. [past participle and preterit begged, 

begdl beg; (dialectally) beeg. 
begonia n. (plant) bi'g30-ni-3. 
beg^rimed adj. bi'g^aimd; (improperly) bi'grimd. 
beg^iile v. bi'gail; (dialectally) bi'gjail. 
begnini n. (queen, Hindu lady of rank) 'bii-gdm. 
behalf n. bi'haif, bilia:f, bi'haerf. 
behavior n. [also spelt behaviour"] biTiee-viaz. 
behead v. [also spelt behedl bi'hed. 
behemoth n. (large animal) bi'hii-maG, bi'hii-me9, Hbii-hi- 

meG. 
behoove v. [also spelt behovel bi'houv, bi'hoov. 
behove v. bi'houv, bi'hoov. see behoove. 
belabor v. [also spelt belabour; past participle and preterit. 

belabored, belabordi bilee-bar. 
belch V. eject; eructate [past participle and preterit belched, 

belchtl belts, (also, and in Britain normally) belj. 

Jjfe, Qcure; bthe, //tin; 3 arure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
ww^en; ij sinff; tt whoever, i r^act, o f mU, oufool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, tbed, t,^%aVt\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 49 

lieldani n. granny; hag [also spelt beldame"] 'beldam. 

beieasver v. (besiege) bilii-gd?. 

belemi&ite n. (dart-shaped fossil) 'bebm-nait, bi'lem-nait. 

bei esprit n. [ploral beaux esprits] bele'spsii. 

belief n. (reliance; faith, etc.) bi'hif. 

believe v« have faith, etc. [past participle and preterit be* 

lieved, believdl biliiv, {often) Wiiv, bliv. 
belladonna n. (plant) bels'dens. 
bell-boy n, (boy who answers a bell) 'bel-bei. 
bell-bnoy n. (buoy surmounted by a bell) l>el-bou-i. 
belle n. (fair lady) bel. 
bellerio n. fruit [also spelt beleric'\ bilezik. 
belles-lettres n. hsVXzi^z, beriet£. 
belletrist n. [also spelt bellelettrist, belles-lettreist] belet£ist, 

bel1et£ist. 
bellicose adj, (warlike) beh'k30s, (assumptivly) 'beh-kos. 
belliserent adj, (waging war) balidss-zsnt, be'hdsd-zsnt. 
belloiTS n. [ploral bellows! 'beloz, 'belas. 
bellnine adj, of beasts; of the Belluae [also, sometimes, 

spelt belluiii] 'beliu-in, 'beliu-ain. 
beU-vetber n. (a leading wether or sheep on whose neck 

a bell is hung) 'bel-weds?. 
beloved adj.,n. bilAvid. 

beloved Vm [past participle of belovel bi'lAvd. 
belvedere n. open upper story; summerhouse [also spelt 

belviderel belvi'di:?, 'belvi-di:?. 
bema n. platform, etc. [plural bemata'] 'bii-ma. 
bemata n. (plural of bema) 'bema-ts. 

benob n. (long seat, etc.) bentS, {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) benS. 
beneatb adv., prep, bi'niiO, bi'niid. 
benedick n. 'beni-dik. same meaning as benedict. 
benedict n. newly married man [synonymous cognate bene- 

dickl Ijeni-dikt. 
Benedictine adj.,n. beni'dik-tin, beni'diktin. 
benefice n. [also spelt benefisi 'beni-fis. 
beneficence n. bi'nefi-sans. 
beneficial adj, (of benefit; helpful) beni'fiSsl. 
beneficiary n. beni'fi^i-ezi. 

Bengali ajy.,n. [also spelt Bengalee} ben'gc:-li, ben'ga:-U. 
benign adj, (kind; gracious) bi'nain. 
benignant adj. (kind; beneficial) bi'mgnsnt. 
benison n. (blessing) 'beni-zan, 'beni-sdn. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \€>tv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fello'wing s^WaXAt. 



52 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

biblical adj. (of the Bible) 'biUi-kd!. 

Biblioist n. 'bibli-sist. 

bibliognost n. (one verst in books) 'biUi-dg-nest, 'bibli-sg'* 

nost. 
bibliographer n. [also spelt bibliograferl bibli'egsa-fd^. 
bibliosrapbio adj. [also spelt bibliografici bibli-d'gzaefik. 
bibliog^apby n. description of books [also spelt bibliografyl 

bibli'egza-fi, 
bibliomaniaeal adj. bibli-a-md'nai-d-kd}. 
bibliopbile n. [also, sometimes, spelt bibliophil'] 'biUi-d-fai}, 

'bibli-3-fil. 
bibliothecal ». (of a library) biUi-a'Oii-ksl ; (/ejj properly) 

biWi'eGi-kal. 
bibulous adj. (spongy; bibacious) 'bibjo-lss. 
bioarbonate n. bai'ka:?-b3-net. 
biceps n. (two-headed muscle) 'bai-seps. 
bicUoride n. [also, sometimes, spelt bichloridi bai'kz.o^raid, 

(before of) bai'kLo:-eid. 
bioolored adj. [also spelt bicoloured, bicolordi 'bai-kxldzd. 
bicycle n. 'bai-si-kal, (anteriorly) 'bai-sikal; (a/jo, less prop- 
erly) 'bai-sai-kdl. 
bidet n. (small horse; bathing-vessel) bi'det, bi'dee, 'bidet, 

nbidi. 
bidon n. (army-kettle ; canteen) 'bidsn. 
bidri n. metal-work [also spelt bidry, bidreel 'bidri, 'bidri. 
biennial adj. (occurring once in two years) bai'eni-dl. 
bier n. (litter) hv.z. 

bifarious adj, (twofold; two-rowed) bai'fe:-d-3s. 
bif erous adj. (bearing twice a year) 'bifa-79s. 
bifid adj. (two-cleft; forkt) Ijifid, 'bai-fid. 
bifurcate v. (divide into two forks) bai'feir-ket. 
bigbt n. (loop ; bay) bait. 
bigot n, (intolerant dogmatist) 'bigat. 
bijou n. jewel [ploral bijoux'] bi'sou, 'bii-3u. 
bijouterie n. [also, sometimes, spelt bijouiry'] bi'sou-tsi, bi- 

'3ou-t3-ri. 
1>iJiiSAte adj. (bearing two overlapping profile heads; two- 

paird) bai'dsqu-get, 'bai-dso-get. 
bijugous adj. (two-paird) bai'dsou-gas, 'bai-dsou-gas, Hbi- 

dso-gss. 
bilabiate adj. bailee-bi-et ; (erroneously) bailaebi-et. 
bilander n. vessel [also spelt bylanderl 'bilsn-ds;, 1!)ai- 

}an-d3?. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Qth'in; 5 a^ure, d$joy; S shoe, tS cAew; 

wze//ien; ijsing; u whoever, i react, a iu\V, owiool, i it, lis^e; 

o poetic; pQver, e aerialf ^h^\.f o;dooT, 00 no, t\ic^ t.fe\y*fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 53 

Ulberry «. [also spelt billberry} 'bil-be^i. 

billet n. (note; order) 'biht. 

billet fi. (stick; bar; molding) 'biht. 

billet»doiiJC n. love-note [ploral billets-douxl bile'dou, bi}i> 
Moil. 

bUlets-doiuc n. (ploral of billet-doux) bile'douz, bih'douz. 

Binuu&a n,pL (two-handed mammals) 'bims-ns, 'bai-ma-ns. 

binutnons adj. (two-handed) 'bims-nas, 'bai-ma-nas. 

bimontlily adj. (occurring once in two months) bai'mAnOz.!, 
(by contrast, etc) bai'mAnO-li; (assumptivly) 'bai-mAnBz.i. 

Unarj' adj.,n, (twofold; double; twin) 'bai-na-ei. 

bindery n. 'bain-da-zi, 'bain-dri. 

binnacle n. compass-box [also, formerly, spelt binacle'\ 131- 
nd-kd}. 

binoole n. (field-glass or opera-glass having tubes for both 
eyes) tmd-kdl. 

binoenlar adj, hi'nekqoAsz, bai'nekgu-ld?. 

binomial adj, (two-named; two-termd) bai'noo-mi-dl. 

binonide n. [also spelt binoxyde and, sometimes, binoxidi 
bai'nek-said, (before of) bai'neksid. 

biogenesii n. (genesis of life from life) bai-s'dseni-sis. 

biog^aplier n. [also spelt biografer'\ hai'egz^-isz. 

biog^rapliio adj. [also spelt biograficl bai-s'gzaefik. 

biog^apby n. [also spelt biografy] bai'egzs-fi. 

biologio adj, bai-sledsik. 

biolog:y n. (science of life) bai'els-dsi. 

biometry n. (measurement of life) bai'emi-t£i. 

bionomics n. bai-d'nemiks. 

biparoiM adj. (bringing forth two) 'bipa-^as; {less properly) 
bai'pe:-?3s, 'bai-pa-?3s. 

bipartite adj, (in two parts) bai'paz-tait ; {less properly) 
'bip33-tait, fcai'paetit. 

biped n„ adj, 'bai-ped. 

bipedal adj. (of two feet) 'bai-pi-dl, 'bipi-dl; (less properly) 
'bai-pedl, bai'pii-dl, 'bai-pii-dl. 

biplicate adj. (twice folded) 'bipz.i-ket, nbai-pti-ket; (im- 
properly) bai'ptiket. 

bird n, bB:zd, (locally) hsid; (dialectally) bsid. 

biretta «. cap [also spelt birretta, berretta} bi'^eta. 

birtb n. (the fact of being born; nativity) hs:zQ, 

birtbday n. (anniversary of one's birth) 'bi:^9-de, (assump- 
tivly) 'be^G-di. 

birtbday n. (day on which one was born) 'batsO-dee. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei boy; a; far, ao now, a*, osk, aiV\t^\ 

\engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \«>tv%\ 

stress-mark () indi^t^§ qbi^f §tre§s op the ioUowiti^ s^\U>c\^^ 



54 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bisonit n. (cracker; cake) 'biskit. 

hink. n. odds at tennis [also spelt bisquel bisk. 

bismutli n. (metal) 'bizmsO, 'bisMsO. 

bismutliiii n. [also spelt bismuthinel 'bizma-Oin. 

bison n. (aurochs; buffalo) 'bai-san, 'bai-zsn, Hbisan, 'bizsn. 

bisque n. soup [also spelt bisk'\ bisk. 

bisque n. (variety of porcelain) bisk. 

bissextile adj, containing the bissextus or intercallary day : 

said of leap-year [also spelt bissextill bi'sekstil. 
bister n. brown pigment [also spelt bistrel 'bistaz. 
bisnlpbide n. [also, sometimes, spelt bisulphid, bisulfidi 

bai'sAl-faid, {before of) bai'sAlfid. 
bit n. boring-piece; mouthpiece, etc. [also, in some senses, 

sometimes spelt bitf] bit. 
bitt n. post on a ship's deck, for fastening cables [also, less 

often, spelt &«0 bit. 
bitumen, n. (asphaltum, etc.) bi'tgou-msn, Hbitgo-mdn. 
bituminous adj. bi'tgou-mi-nas. 
bivalent adj. 'biva-lant, 'bai-vce-lant. 
bivalve n. [also spelt bivalv'\ 'bai-valv. 
bivious adj. (having two ways) 'bivi-as, 'bai-vi-3s. 
bivouac n. [also spelt bivouackl 'bivu-ak, 'biv-waek; {less 

properly) 'bai-vu-ak, nDii-vu-aek. 
bivouac v. encamp [also spelt bivouack; present participle 

bivouacking, past participle and preterit bivouacked, bivou- 

ackt'\ 'bivu-aek, 'biv-waek. 
bivouacked v. 'bivu-aekt, 'biv-wakt. see bivouac, 
bizarre adj. (odd, fanciful) bi'za:?. 
blackamoor n. (negro) 'blaeka-mo:?, 'blaekd-mo:?. 
blackg^iard n. (rough; scoundrel) 'blx-ga^d; {erroneously) 

'hiask-gaizd. 
blamable adj, [also spelt blameable'\ 'blee-ms-bd!. 
blanc n. (silver coin) blaeqk. 
blanch v. [past participle and preterit blanched, blanchtl 

blarntS, blaintS, blaintS; {also, and in Britain normally) 

bla:nS, blatnS, blainj. 
blancmange n. (white food; white jelly) bb'mends, bla- 

'mens. 
blas6 adj. (tired of enjoyment) bla'zee, 'bla:-ze. 
blaspheme v. blas'fiim, blaes'fiim; {less properly) 'blae-sfim. 
blasphemer n. blas'f li-ms^ ; {less properly) 'blae-sfimar. 
blasphemous adj. (uttering blasphemy, etc.) 'bla:-sf i-mas ; 

{less properly) blas'fii-mas. 

JJ^e, gcure; d the, 0f/tin; 5 asure, ds/oy; S ^Aoe, tSrAew; 
wwAcn; tj sing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, oMiodV, \\\., \lace; 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, t\ic^, «.t^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 55 

Uasphemy n. (profanity) 'b}a:-sf i-mi ; (dialectally) 'bis- 
sfi-mi. 

Iilast n.,v, (blow, puff, etc.) b}a:st, b}a:st, b}se:st. 

1ilasteiii.a n. [ploral blastetnata'\ blaes'tii-ma. 

Iilasteinata n. (ploral of blastema) blaes'tema-td, blaes'tii-md- 
td. 

Maatide n. (the clear space on each segment of a fecundated 
ovum) 'bla&stid, 'Us-staid. 

Iilastocoele n. (germ-cavity) 'blaesta-siil. 

Iilastiila n. [plural blastulael 'blaest^u-la, 'blxstSu-ld. 

blatant adj. noisy [also, formerly, spelt blattant} 'blee-tnt; 
formerly, probably) 'blaetnt. 

blay n. the bleak, a fish [also spelt bleyl blee. 

blazon, v, depict; boast of [past participle and preterit bla- 
zoned, blasond'l 'Wee-zan, 'blee-zn. 

bleat V. (cry as a sheep, etc.) bhit. 

blend v, mix [past participle blended, blent; preterit blend- 
ed} blend. 

blende n. (zink-ore) blend. 

Uesbok n. antelope [also spelt blessbokl l>les-bek. 

blessed adj, holy, adorable; happy; pleasurable; endowd with 
healing virtues; cursed [also, in poetry, sometimes spelt 
blest} nWesid, {also, in poetry, as in * Blest Three in One 
and One in Three) blest. 

blessed v. past participle and preterit of bless [also spelt 
blest'l blest. 

ble^ir V, (preterit of blow) blou. 

bUssful adj. 'blisfal. 

blithe adj., adv. blaid, blaiO. 

bUthefnl adj. (joyous) 'blai5-fol, 'blaid-fal, 'blaiG-fal. 

blitbeness n. 'blaid-nis, 'blaiO-nis. 

blithesome n. 'blaid-sam, 'blaiO-ssm. 

blohe n. fellow [also spelt bloak} blook. 

Uond adj. [also, with reference to a woman, often spelt 
blonde} blend. 

blond n. (man or boy with blond hair) blend. 

blond n. lace [also spelt blonde} blend. 

blonde n. (a woman or girl with blond hair) blend. 

blotch n. (skin-eruption ; spot) bletS. 

blonse n. garment [also spelt blowse} blaoz; (less properly) 
Uaos, blouz. 

bloirze n. (a ruddy, fat-faced wench) blaoz. 

bloirzy adj. fat and ruddy [also spelt blowsy} 'blao-zi. 

c: law, b: fur, xcat, ebot, 01 boy; a: far, go now, a: ask, aiVite*, 

lengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \Qtvs\ 

9tre99-mark () indicates chief ^tre^? pu the fQUowing sy\\a\)U' 



56 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bludgeon n. (heavy stick) 'blAdssn. 

blue n. (color, etc.) biou; (dialectally) bHou. 

blnnderbuBB n. [also, formerly, spelt blunderbusl 'blAndd?- 

bAS. 

boa n. (serpent) 'boo-3. 

boar n. (wild hog) ho:z, 

boats'wain n. [synonymous cognate boson"} lx>ot-su}een, 

(colloquially and nautically) 'boo-s9n, 'boo-sn. 
bobbin n. reel [also, formerly, spelt bobini 'bobin. 
bodice n. [also spelt boddice, bodis"} 'bodis. 
Bodleian adj. (of T. Bodley) 'bedli-an, bodlii-3n. 
Boeotian adj., n. bi'oo-San, bi'DO-Ji-sn 

Boer n. [also, formerly, spelt Boor"} bo:?; {less properly) bo:?. 
bogey n. [ploral bogeys'] 'boo-gi. same meaning as bogy. 
boggle n. wagon; truck [also spelt bogy, bogey, ploral bogies'] 

'boo-gi. 
bog^y n. devil, hobgoblin, bugbear [also spelt bogie, bogey \ 

ploral bogies'] 'boo-gi. 
bohea n. (tea) bo'hii. 
boil n. furuncle [dialectal synonymous cognate bile} bei!; 

{dialectally) bcil, bail. 
boil V, reach the boiling point; bubble, seethe [dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate bile; past participle and preterit boiled, 

boild] boil; {dialectally) bcil, bail. 
boisterous adj. [also, formerly, sometimes spelt boistroiis} 

'boi-stj3s, 'b0I-St3-?3S. 
boisterously adv. 'boi-stjas-h, 'boi-st3?3S-h. 
bole n. opening in a wall [also spelt boat] bool. 
bolero n. (Spanish dance) bo'le:-zo. 
bolide n. (meteor) 'boo-hd, 'boo-laid, 'be-laid. 
boll n. (rounded pod ; knob) bool. 
boll n. (capacity-measure) boot. 
boll-'wonn n. 'boo}-WB:?m. 
bolster n. 'bool-sta?; {dialectally) 'bolstd?. 
bomb n. (explosiv shell) bom, bxm. 
bombard v, bem'barzd, bAm'ba:?d. 

bombard n. (cannon ; bomb-ketch) 'bom-bard, ^bAm-baed. 
bombardier n. (soldier, etc.) bomba^'di:?, bAmba?'di:r. 
bombardment n. bem'ba:?d-m3nt, bAm'ba:?d-m3nt. 
bombast n. (big talk) 'bom-ba:st, 'bAm-ba:st. 
bombastic adj, bem'ba:-stik, bAm'bar-stik, bom'bastik. 
bombazine n. fabric [also spelt bombasine, bombasin"] bom- 

ba'ziin, bAmba'ziin; {less properly) 'bemba-zin. 

J ye, gcure; d the, thin; 5 a^ure, dj/oy; I shoe, tScfcew; 
wzvAen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, o iu\V, oM.ioo\, \\t, Vi%ee\ 
o poetic; o over, e flferial, Abut, o: doot, ootvo, t.\ie^, tt^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 57 

bombshell n. 1)0111-$ e}, 'bAm-Seh 

bona-fide adj. b30-nd'fai-di, (assutnptivly) 'boo-nd-fai-di; 
(erroneously) 'boo-na-faid. 

bonanza n. (mine of wealth) bs'nsenzd. 

bonbon n. (sugar-plum, candy) 'ben-ben. 

bonbomie n. [also spelt bonhotnmie'] bend'mii. 

Bonifaoe n. (landlord) l>eni-fees. 

bon mot n. witticism [ploral bans motsl beg'moo. 

bonne n« (nursemaid) ben. 

bonnet n. 'benit; {dialectally) 'bAnit. 

bonnet-ronge n. (liberty-cap, etc.) be-nce'rous. 

bonny adj. (beautitul; gay) 'beni. 

bonnyolabber n. (clotted sour milk) 'beni-kz.xba?. 

bon-ton n. (high tone; good breeding; polite society) beg' 
'teg. 

bon-vivant n. (good liver; jovial chap) beQ-vi'veg. 

bony adj. (of bones) 'boo-ni. 

bonze n. (Buddhist monk) benz, (rarely) 'benzi. 

bookkeeper n. 'bok-kii-ps? ; (less properly) 'bo-kip97. 

boor n. (countryman) bo:?. 

booth n. (tent, stall, etc.) bouO, boud. 

booie V. drink deeply [also spelt boose, house, house; synon- 
ymous cegnate bowse; past participle and preterit boosed, 
boosdl bouz. 

booiy adj. [also spelt boosyl 'bou-zi. 

boraoio adj. (of borax) bo'^sesik. 

borage n. [also, formerly, spelt borrage, burr age, burridge"] 
'bATids ; (less properly) 'bo^ids, 'boi-^ids. 

borax n. ^o:-z9ks, 'ho:-zxka. 

bore n, (one who, or that which, causes ennui) ho:z. 

boreal adj. (of the north) 'bo:-?i-3l. 

boride n. 'bo:-?aid, (before of) 'bo:-rid. 

bom adj. (possessing a given quality from birth; innate) 
be:7n. 

bom V. (past participle of bear in the sense of give birth to, 
as young) heizn. 

borne v. (past participle of bear in all senses except give 
birth to, as young) hoizn. 

borongk n. [also spelt borol bo^o, (also, in England and 
eastern New England) liAzo; (dialectally) 'bora, ^az9. 

borro'W v, take on pledge [past participle and preterit bor- 
rowed, borrowdl 'boro; (dialectally) 'hez^. 

boscage n. woods [also spelt boskage"] 'boskids. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, ehot, ei boy; a: far, go now, a: osk, aiV^ite; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

gtress-mark () indicates chief stress on the tellowing s^WaXAe. 



58 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bosl&bok n. antelope [also spelt boschbokl 'be$-bek. com- 
pare bushbok, bushbuck, 

bosket n. groove [also spelt bosquet; synonymous cognate 
buskef] 'beskit. 

bosom n. (breast) 'bozdm, 'buu-zdm. 

boson n. 'boo-ssn, 'boo-sn. same meaning as boatswain. 

bot n. worm, maggot [also spelt bott} bet. 

botanio adj. bs'taenik. 

botaniie v. [also spelt botanisel 'betn-aiz. 

botany n. (science of plants) 'betn-i, 'beta-ni. 

botcb n., V. bungle [as verb, past participle and preterit 
botched, botcht} betj. 

botby n. hut [also spelt bothiel 'beOi. 

bondoir n. (lady's private room) 'bou-dwe:?, bu'dwo:?; (al- 
so) 'bou-dwc:^, 'bou-dwa:?, etc. 

bonf f e n. (comic opera) bouf. 

bongb ft, (branch of a tree) bao. 

bongie n. (waxlight) 'bou-si, 'bou-51. 

bonilli n. (boild meat) 'bou-ji, 'boul-ji, bu'jii, boul'jii. 

bonillon n. (clear soup) 'buu-jei], 'boul-jei] ; bu'jei], bul'joQ ; 
{erroneously) 'bolign. 

bonl n. bend, ring [also spelt booll bouh 

bonlder n. loose rock [also spelt bowlderl 'bool-dd?. 

bonle n. (Greek legislativ council) 'buu-h. 

bonle n. boul. same meaning as buhl, 

boulevard n. (broad street) 'bou-la-vorrd ; (less often) 'boul- 
\azd, 'boul-vQ?. 

bonlevardier n. (one who frequents a boulevard) bul-va?- 
di'ee, 'bou-la-var-de:?. 

bouleTersement n. (a turning upside down) burvB:7s-m3nt, 
bula'vBirs-mant, bul-vers'meq. 

bonndary n. [ploral boundaries! 'baoun-ds-ri, 'boon-dn. 

bonnteons adj, 'baon-ti-3s; (erroneously) 'baon-tSas. 

bonqnet n. (nosegay ; odor of wine) bo'kee ; (less properly) 
'bou-ke, bo'kee. 

bonqnetin n. (ibex) buka'taeq, buk'taeq, 'bou-ka-tin. 

Bonrbon n, ^hoiz-hsn. 

bonrdon n. organ>stop [also spelt burdoun'i 'bo:7-den, ^hoiz- 
dan. 

bonrgeois n. [also spelt burgeoisl ber'dseis. 

bourgeois n, (citizen) 'bo:?-3wa, bur'swe. 

bonrgeoisie n. (middle class) bD?3wa'zii, bo^swe'zii. 

bourn n. bound, goal [also spelt bourne"] botrn, hoizn. 

J ye, gcure; bike, 8 */tin; 3 arure, d3/oy; S j/ioe, tjc/iew; 
wzc'/ien; Qsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, oMiool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, ootvo, t\ie^, ^^^a\.t\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 59 

bonm. n. stream, brook [also spelt bournel hoizn, 

bonmons n. boz'nous. same meaning as bumoose. 

bourse n. (stock-exchange) hoizs. 

bovse z/. baoz, bouz. same meaning as boose. 

bouse V, haul with tackle [also spelt bowsel baos. 

bonse n. (ore mixt with veinstone) baos, bous. 

bonstropliedoii. n. (a turning back and forth as of an ox 
in plowing: a mode of Greek writing) bustja'fii-dn. 

boTii&e adj. (ox-like) 'boo-vain, 'boo-vin; 'boo-vin. 

bo'W n. (inclination of the head) bao. 

boir V, bend, as the body or neck; make a bow [past partici- 
ple and preterit bowed, bowd"] bao. 

bo'W n. (weapon) b30. 

boir V, make into the form of a bow ; curve : as, *bow a rib- 
bon; perform by means of a bow upon a stringd instru- 
ment : as, '^bow a passage well [past participle and prete- 
rit bowed, bowdl boo. 

bo'W n. (forward part of a ship) bao. 

hovr n. (local) herd of cattle [also spelt bu\ bou. 

bowle-luiifo n. 'boo-i-naif; (dialectally) 'bou-i-naif. 

bo'W-knot n. 'boo-net. 

bowl n. (large concave dish) boot. 

bowl n. (ball used in playing bowls or skittles) bool; (dia- 
lectally) baol, boul. 

bourl V, play at bowls; move horizontally, as a ball [past par- 
ticiple and preterit bowled, bowld} boot 

bo^rlder n. see boulder, 

bow-legs®d adj, 'boo-legid, 'boo-legd. 

bowline n. rope [also, sometimes, spelt bowlinl 'boo-hn, 'boo- 
lain; (less properly) Tjao-hn, 'bao-lain. 

bourse n. baoz. same meaning as boose. 

boursprit n. spar projecting from a ship's stem [synony- 
mous cognate boltsprW] 'boo-spsit, 'bao-spsit. 

bow-'window n. boo'windo. 

boy ». male child ; youth [ploral boysl bei ; (dialectally) bci. 

boyar n. title [synonymous cognate bayard^ bei'a:?, 'boi-ar. 

boyard n. 'bei-ard, 'bei-ar. same meaning as boyar. 

boycott n,, v. 'bei-ket. 

bracoiale n. (torch-bracket, etc.) b?aeksi'ee-h. 

braoli n, (hound ; bitch-hound) brsetS, hzxk. 

braol&ial adj. (of the arm) 'b^aeki-^l, 'b^aekgal, 'bree-ki-al. 

braoliiale n. brachial; reliquary in the shape of a hand or 
forearm [ploral brachialial b^3eki'ee-h. 

c: law, b: iur, secat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: osk, aiV.tX.e*, 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

atress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowmc svWaXAe 



60 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

braoUate adj. 'b?ee-ki-et, 'bree-ki-3t, lizee-kq^t; 1)23610-61, 

'b?aeki-3t, 'braekgat. 
Brachiata n„pl, (order of crinoids) b^seki'ee-td. 
brachiopod n. [ploral hrachiopods, brachiopoda; synony- 
mous cognate brachiopodel 'bzaeki-d-ped. 
Brachiopoda n. pL bzaeki'eps-dd. 

bracbiopode n. 'braeki-d-pod. same meaning as hrachiopod, 
bracbimn n. [ploral brachial 'beree-ki-dm, 'brxki-am. 
bracbyural adj, (short-taild) b?xki'jo:-?d}. 
braoteifomi adj, (bract-shaped) 'bzxkti-i-fe:?m. 
braoteolate adj. 1>zaekti-d-}et, brxk'tii-d-let. 
braggadocio n. (braggart; boasting) brxgd'doo-So- 
braggart n. [former synonymous cognate braggardi 'bzaegdzt. 
brabma n. (hen) 'b^oma. 

Brabman n. [synonymous cognate Brahmin} 1>;a:-m3n. 
Brabmanee n. [synonymous cognate Brahmineel 'b;a:-m9- 

ni. 
brabminy adj. (devoted to Siva by the Brahmans) ^bza:- 

mi-ni. 
braize v, stew in gravy [also spelt braise; past participle and 

preterit braized, braisdl breez. 
brake n. (motion-arrester; large fern) breek. 
Bramab adj, (in *Bramah lock, *Bramah press) 'b^aema, 

'bra:-ma. 
brancb n. (bough, etc.) b?a:ntS, b;a:ntS, b?£:ntS ; {also, and in 

Britain normally) brarnj, beainj, b^aeinj. 
brancbia n. gill [rarely used in the singular; ploral bran- 

chiael 'beaegki-a. 
branobiae n. (ploral of branchia) 'b?aei]ki-i: . 
brand-ne'W adj, [also, sometimes, spelt bran-new} b?sen- 

'njou, (assumptivly) 'braen-njou; (also, less often) bzaend- 

'njou, (assumptivly) 'braend-njou. 
brass n. (metal) b?a:s, b?a:s, hzxis. 
brass n. (European measure of length) hzxa. 
brassage n. (tax for coining) 'bra.'-sids, 'b?aesid3. 
brassard n. arm-cover [synonymous cognate brassart} lazst- 

S9?d, b?3'sa:?d. 
brassart v» ^zxs^zt, hz^'saizt. same meaning as brassard. 
brasse n. (European bass, a fish) braes. 
brassio adj, (of Brassica) 'braesik. 
brassy adj, (of brass ; brazen) 'b?a:-si. 
brattice n. partition, etc. [also spelt brattis; synonymous 

cognates brettice, brettisl Is^aetis. 

/j/e, gcure; d the, /Ain; saxrure, ds/oy; S jAoe, tjc/iew; 
wwAen; tjsing; u whoever, ir^act, o iu\\, ouiooV, i\\., \\see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Ab«t, o: door, oono, t\ied, ^^\^a\fc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 61 

liratticiiLg n. openwork cresting, etc. [also spelt brattising; 

synonymous cognate brattishingi 'brxti-sii]. 
Iiravado n. (boastful menace) hzs'vai-do, brs'vee-do. 
bravo n. bandit [ploral bravos, bravoes} 'bzai-vo, 'beee-vo. 
bravo inter j. (well done! good!) 'b^a:-vo; (rarely) 'bree-vo. 
bravnra n. (dash; florid or brilliant air) hz9\o:-z9, 
braze v, (cover or ornament with brass; solder) bzeez. 
bramen adj, of brass; strong; impudent [also spelt brasen\ 

nbeee-zdn, 'bece-zn. 
brazier n. pan [also spelt brasier"] 'hzee-zi-sz, (older) 'b?ee- 

S9z; (erroneously) Tjree-zar. 
brazil In n. red coloring-matter of Brazil-wood [also spelt 
braeiline, brasilin, brasiline; synonymous cognate brezilinel 
txTsezi-lin. 
breaoh n. (break ; rupture) briitS. 
bread n. food [also spelt br^d] hzed, 
breadth n. width ; broadness [also spelt bredthl hzedQ ; (less 

properly) beetG. 
break v.,n, (fracture) b^eek, (when unstrest) hzek. 
breakfast n. first meal [also spelt brek fasti 'b^ek-fsst, 

'b^ekfsst. 
breast n. mamma, etc. [also spelt brestl b^est. 
breatk n. exhalation, etc. [also spelt brethi hzeQ. 
breatke v. respire [past participle and preterit breathed, 

breathd} hziid. 
breccia h. (conglomerate with angular fragments) 'hzetl^. 
breecH n. (hinder part) bziit$. 
breeck v. (put into breeches, etc.) b^iitS, hzit^. 
breeckes n,pl. (garment) 'bntjiz, (rarely) 'brii-tjiz. 
breeckins n. (in all senses) 'bntjii], 'bni-tSiq. 
breeks n.pl. (breeches, trousers) briiks. 
brere n. bzv.z. same meaning as brier, 
bretesse n. (tower; projecting structure) bre'tes. 
bretkren n. (ploral of brother) 'b^ed^an; (improperly) 'bre- 

b9zn. 
bretzel n. 'bretsal. same meaning as pretzel. 
breve n. (letter; note; short-mark) briiv. 
brevet n. (letter; license) b^i'vet, 'b^evit. 
breviary n. (brief statement; church book) 'b^Ii-vi-e^I, 'b^ii- 

vi-3-ri, 'hzii'Vi^-zi, 'b^evi-e^i. 
brevier n. (type) b^i'vi:?. 

breir v, prepare from malt; mix [past participle and preterit 
brewed, breivd} hzou. 

c: law, b: ft*r, a^cat, hot, 01 boy; a: far, go now;, a: osk, ai\^\t.e\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f ellowing s^WaUt. 



62 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

brewer n. (one who brews) 'hzau-^z. 

briar n. 'beai-3z. see brier, 

brio-a-brao n. [also spelt bric-d-bracl ^hzik^-bzxk. 

brioole n. (catapult; side-stroke; harness) bziHoo}, 'hzik9\ 

bridal adj. (of a bride) 'b?ai-dl, Tjeai-dal. 

bridle n. (head-gear of a harness) 'bzai-dl. 

bridoon n. snaffle, bit [synonymous cognate bradooni hzi 

'doun. 
brief adj. (short, etc.) beiif. 
brier n. bush [also spelt briar \ synonymous cognate brere 

'b?ai-3?. 
brigadier n. (commander of a brigade) bnga'di:?. 
brigand n. (freebooter) 'brigand, laei-gaend. 
. brigandine n. coat of fence [synonymous cognate brigan 

tinel 'bzigan-din, 'bzigan-din. 
brigantine n. 'bzigsn-tin, 'b?igdn-tin. same meaning a 

brigandine. 
brigantine n. (two-masted vessel) 'bzigan-tin, 'b^igsn-tii 

'beigan-tain. 
brillante adv, (in music, brilliant, dashing) bri'la:n-ti, b?i] 

la:n-te. 
brilliant adj., n. 'hziii^nt. 
brilliantine n. (cosmetic) 'bziHan-tin. 
brilliolette n. b^ilis'let. same meaning as brillolette. 
brillolette n. bzilslet. same meaning as briolette. 
brimfnl adj. [also, sometimes, spelt brimfulll bnm'ful, (aj 

sumptivly) 'beim-fol. 
brimmed adj. [also, sometimes, spelt britndl b?imd, (also, i 

poetry) 'brimid. 
brinjal n. eggplant [also spelt brinjaul, brinjall, brinjaal 

'bein-dsc:!. 
brinjarree n. pedler of grain and salt [also spelt brinjaret 

brinjarryl hzm^dyezi, b^in'dso:-?!. 
briolette n. diamond [also spelt briolet; synonymous cog 

nates brilliolette, brillolette'! bei-alet. 
briqnet n. (a steel for striking a light on flint) bn'ket. 
briqnet n. a small brick; a brick-like cake or ball of coal 

dust, for fuel [also spelt briquette'] bri'ket, 'b^ikit. 
bristle n., v. 'b?isdl, brisl. 

britska n. carriage [also spelt britzskal 'britsks. 
broacli n. awl; spindle; spire; ornamental pin or clasp [i 

the last sense spelt also brooch] bsrootS. 
brocade n. (fabric) b^o'keed. 

JJ^G, gcure; d the, Q thin; 3 ajjure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tl chevr 

wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, \5Mioo\, \\t, li s^^ 

o poetic; 9 over, e oerial. Abut, o*. dooi, ooivo, «.\ic^, ^t^aV 



I 

I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 63 

brocMitel n. imitation brocade; also, brocatello, a marble 
[also spelt brocatellel 'broo-ks-tel, 'teeko-td, bzekd'teL 

broocoli n. cabbage [also spelt brocoU} lK;ek9-h. 

brocliet n. (fish) bso'See. 

brocliiire n. (pamphlet) hzo'^oiz. 

brogan n. (shoe; boat) 'broo-gdn, bzo'gaen; (less properly) 
^hzeg^n. 

broken-liearted adj, bsroo-kanliartid, {assumptivly) "hzoo- 
kdn-hoztid. 

broinio adj. (of bromine) 'b^oo-mik; (less properly) 'b^emik. 

bromide n. [also, sometimes, spelt brotnid] 'broo-maid, {be- 
fore of) lieoo-mid. 

broniine n. element [also, sometimes, spelt bromin'} 'bzoo- 
min, Ij^oo-main, 'beoo-min. 

bromiUe v, [also spelt bromisel 'broo-maiz. 

bronolii n. (ploral of bronchus) 'bseg-kai. 

broncliia n.pl. (the bronchial tubes) 'bzeg-ki-g. 

bronoliitis n. b^enHcai-tis, bseg'kai-tis, {also) b^en'kii-tis. 

bronol&ocele n. (goiter) 'bregka-sil, bzei]kd'sii-h. 

bronolras n. [ploral bronchi} 'bzegkas. 

bronco n. [sometimes, incorrectly, spelt broncho"] 'hzet}ko, 

bronse n, (alloy) beenz, (rarely) b^oonz. 

broocli n. pin, clasp [also, sometimes, spelt broach] b^ootS, 
bzoutS. 

brook n. (stream) brok. 

brook V. bear, endure, put up with [past participle and pret- 
erit brooked, brookt] bzok; (less properly) b^ouk. 

broom n, (shrub; sweeping-implement) bruum; (dialectally) 
b^om. 

brotk n. (liquid) hzeiQ; (dialectally) hzcQ. 

brothel n. (bawdy-house) 'b^ei-Gal, 'b^e:-Ol, 'bredal. 

brother n. [ploral brothers, brethren] 'hzAd^z. 

bronsk »• [also spelt brugh, brogh, broch ; synenymous cog- 
nates burg, burrow] hzek. 

brongkam n. (carriage) 'broo-am, b?oum, 'b^uu-^m ; (rarely) 
broom. 

brongkt v, [past participle and preterit of bring] hzc.X. 

broiDTse n., v. feed [also spelt browse] brouz. 

bmcine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt brucin] 'brou- 
sin, 'b^ou-sain. ' 

bmin n. (bear) 'bzou-in. 

bmise n,, v, (hurt) bzouz. 

bmit n., V. (noise, report, rumor) brout. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: f^r, ao now, a: osk, aikite*, 

Izngth-marlr (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©ti%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowing sv^V^bU. 



64 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

brumal adj. (of winter) 'brou-m^h 

brunette n. woman with dark bair, etc. [also spelt brunetl 

bro'net. 
brusk adj, (in heraldry, tawny) brosk. 
brusk adj. abrupt; rude [also spelt brusquel b^Ask, brosk. 
bruskness n. [also spelt brusquenessl 'bzAskNis, 'bzoskNis. 
brusque adj. see brusk, 
brut n. (chronicle) bsout. 
brut V, (browse) b^At. 
brut n. obsolete (bret, a fish) be At. 
brutalize v. [also spelt brutalisel 'beou-tl-siz. 
bryouiu n. glucoside [also spelt bryonine, brionine, brionin] 

'b?ai-3-nin. 
bubal n. antelope [also spelt bubalel 'bjou-bsl. 
bubaliue adj. of the buffalo [also spelt bubalini 'bjou-ba-im. 
bubo n. swelling [ploral buboesl 'bjou-b3. 
buccal adj. (of the bucca or cheek) 'bAkdl. 
buccau n. meat-roasting frame [also spelt bucan; ssmeny- 

mous cognates boucan, bocani ^bAkan. 
buccaneer n. hunter; pirate [also spelt bucaneer, bucanier, 

buccanierl bAka'ni:?. 
buccinator n. muscle [ploral buccinator, buccinatoresl 'bAk- 

si-netae. \ ^ 

buccinatores n. (ploral of buccinator) bAksi-ne'to:-?iz. t^ 

bucentaur n. bull-like centaur ; barge [in the sense of barge, I^ 

spelt Bucentaur] bjo'sen-tc:?, 'bjou-sen-tc:r. 
bucku n. plant [also spelt bucku, bouchuel 'bjou-kgu, HbAku. > ^ 
bucolic n., adj. (pastoral ; rural) bjo'kehk. ^^ 

Buddhism n. [also spelt Budhism, Boudhism, Booddhism, ^^ 

Boodhismi 'bo-dizam, ^bou-dizam, IjA-dizam. 

buffalo n. wild ox; bison [ploral buffaloes, buffalos] 'bAfa-Io. , ; 

buffet n. (blow, cuff) 'bAfit. ' 

buffet V. strike, cuff; beat back; struggle [present participle ^^ 

buffeting; past participle and preterit buffeted} 'bAfit. 
buffet n. dialectal (buffet-stool, footstool, hassock) TjAfit. ^ 
buffet n. sideboard; cupboard; refreshment-bar [former syn- 

enymous cognates beaufet, beauffet} bo'fee, 'bAfit. .*** 

buffoon n. (clown ; jester) bA'foun. ^J^ 

bukl n. inlaid cabinet-work [synonymous cognate BoiUel r'J_ 

boul, bjoul. y^ 

build V. frame, construct [also spelt bild; past participle and '-^ 

preterit built, bilt and, sometimes, builded, bilded} brfd. ^^^ 
builder n. [also spelt bilder} 'bilda?. ^^^ 

j'jfe, gcure; d the, 9*Mn; 3 asrure, d$ joy; j shoe, tl chew; """^ 

wwAen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiuu, ^Miool, itt, li s^^; <g - 

o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, o:doot, 00 no, «.\ie^, «.^%,qJ«.\ «= 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 65 

.dins n. [also spelt bilding} 'bildii]. 

■l&i n. paymaster [also spelt bukshee, buckshee} 'bAk-Si* 

Bill n. (nightingale) 'bol-bol. 

a n. locket; seal; vesicle; gastropod [ploral bullael 'bAld, 

dose V, [also spelt bulldosel 'bo}-d30z. 
etin n. (report) 'boh-tn, 'boh-tin, Injh-tin. 
ion n. (gold or silver in mass) 'boHsn. 
mmh n. plant [also spelt bull-rush"] 'bo}-zA$. 
rark n. (barrier) 'bulwark, 'bol-work. 
ikin. n. boom, beam, outrigger [also spelt bumpkin; syn- 
nnous cognate boomkini IjAmkin. 
.pkin n. (clumsy rustic) 'bAmp-kin. 
ipkin n. I^Amkin. see bumkin. 
.ptions adj. (self-assertiv) 'bAmpJas, 'bAmJas. 
n. roll, biscuit [also spelt bunn] bAU. 
eh n., V. [as verb, past participle and preterit bunched, 
yicht] bAntS, i^also, and in Britain normally) bAnJ. 
DO n., V, see bunko. 
Dombe n. 'bAtjkam. see bunkum, 
desrat n. German senate [also spelt Bundesrath"} 'bon- 

S'ZQ'.t. 

galoiDr n. (cottage) 'bAi]g3-}3. 

Ion n. swelling [also spelt bunyon] 'bAnjan. 

ko n., V. swindle [also spelt bunco! 'bAqko. 

knm n. empty talk [also spelt buncombe] HbAijkdm. 

sen adj. 'bunsan, 'bAnssn. 

yon n. see bunion. 

f n, float [plural buoys] 'bou-i, box, bwei. 

fancy n. 'bei-an-si, 'bwei-an-si, 'bou-i-an-si, 

fant adj. (floating; hopeful) 'bei-ant, 'bou-i-ant, 'bwei- 

t. 

n, prickly seed-vessel ; knob, etc, [also spelt burr] beic. 

n. rhotacism ; whirr [also spelt burr] hw.z. 

V, speak with a bur [also spelt burr; present participle 
rring ; past participle and preterit burred, burd] be:?. 
Ban n. chest of drawers; office [ploral bureaus, bureaux] 
o:-?o; {rarely) bju'^^o, 'bo:-?o. 
Bancracy n. (rule of bureaus; officialism) bjo'zek^s-si, 

3'?00-k33-SI. 

eanz n. (ploral of bureau) 'bjo:-eoz. 

^ n, (medieval fortress or walled town) be:7g, bo:7g. 

g^eois n. (type) bB^'d3eIS. see bourgeois, 

V, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, go now, a: osk, ai Vi\.^\ 
b-mark 0) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti%\ 
'jnarlr () indicates chief stress on the following syWaUe, 



66 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

bnrgeon v. bud [synonymous cognate bourgeon; past parti- 
ciple and preterit burgeoned, burgeond"] 'bezdsdn. 

bnrgess n. (citizen; magistrate) 'berdsis. 

bnrgh n. (corporate town or boro) hsizg, liAzo, (also, in 
Scotland) 'bx^a. 

bnrgher n. (inhabitant of a burgh) 'hBiz-g^z. 

bnrglar n. (housebreaker) ^Biz-gUz, 

bnrglarioiu adj, hnz^glei-zi-^s. 

bnrglary n. [ploral burglaries} ^Biz-gl^-zi. 

burgomaster n. chief magistrate of a town; mayor; bor- 
oughmaster; gull [synonymous cognate burghermasterl 'bsiz- 
g3-ma:-st3? ; (erroneously) 'bo:?-g3-ma:-st3r. 

bnrgrave n. governor [also spelt burggravel 'bei^-g^eev. 

bnrial n. (tomb; sepulture) 'bed-s). 

bnrin n, (engraver's tool) 'bjo:-2in. 

bnriti n. (palm-tree) bjoei'tii. 

bnrlesqne adj., n, (ludicrous) berlesk ; (less properly) liBZ- 
lesk. 

bnrlesqne v, (caricature) ber^esk. 

Bnmiese adj. bez'miiz, (assumptivly) 'bB:;-miz; (also) hBZ- 
'miis, (assumptivly) 'beir-mis. 

bnm V, be on fire, etc. [past participle and preterit burned, 
burnd, burnt} bB'.en, (when unstrest) been. 

bnmoose n. garment [also spelt burnous, burnos, bemouse, 
burnouse; synonymous cognate bournous} ber'nous, hsz- 
'nouz, 'boe-nus. 

bnrro n. (donkey; alga) 'boro, ItAzo, 

bnrronr n. (rabbit-hole, etc.) 'bero. 

bnrsar n. (student; purser) 'bszsdz. 

bnrst V, (explode; rush) hsizst, (when unstrest) bB?st; (vul- 
garly) bASt. 

bnrthen n. archaic (burden) 'beir-dn, 'bor^-dan, 'boi^-dn. 

bnry v, entomb [present participle burying; past participle 
and preterit buried} 'beei. 

bns n. omnibus [also spelt 'bus, buss} bAS. 

bnsbbok n. (bushbuck) 'boS-bek. 

bnshel n. (dry measure) 'boSsl. 

bnsiness n. (occupation) 'bizniz, nbiznis. 

bnss n. (vessel) bAS. 

bnss n.,v. smack, kiss [as verb, past participle and preterit 
bussed, bust} bAs. 

bnstle n. (tumult; dress-pad) 'bAsal, IdasI. 

bnstling adj. (stirring) 'bAsz.iq. 

/jye, Qcure; d the, B thin; sajerure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chevr; 
wze/Aen; t)sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, Qwiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o*. door, ^otio, t\ic^, t^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 67 

busy adj. (activ, etc.) 'bizi. 
but conj., adv. bAt, (when unstrest) bdt. 
but prep. bAt. 

bntol&er n., v, [as verb, past participle and preterit butch- 
ered, butcherd'] 'botja?; (dialectally) 'bou-tjae. 
^ butt n., V. [also, in all senses, spelt but'\ bAt. 
bntte n. (hill) bjout. 
bntterine n. [also, sometimes, spelt butterin} 'bAts-^in, 'bAts- 

zin. 
button n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit buttoned, 

buttond"] 'bAtn. 
bntyric adj, (of butter) bjo'tirik. 
bntyriiL n. [also spelt butyrine} 'bjou-ti-zin. 
budne n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt buxin} 'bAk-sain, 

'bAksin. 
bny V. purchase [present participle buying; past participle 

and preterit bought} bai. 
buz n,,v, hum [as verb, past participle and preterit bussed, 

busd^ bAz. 
by prep, (as in *by the way, *by the by, *by rail, two *by two) 

bai, (when unstrest) bs. 
by adv, (as in near *by, *by and *by, he just went *by) bai. 
by n. as in by the *by, steal a *by [also spelt byel bai. 
by-by interj. good-by [also spelt bye-byel bai'bai. 
by-by n. sleep, bed [also spelt bye-bye"] 'bai-bai. 
bygone adj., n. [also spelt by-gone} 'bai-ge:n, 
by-la'W n. [also spelt bye-law] 'bai-lc: . 
bynni n. (fish) 'bini. 
bypatb n. [also spelt by-path and, formerly, bye-path] 'bai- 

pa:6. 
by-prodnct n. [also spelt bye-product] 'bai-p^edakt. 
by-road n. [also, formerly, spelt bye-road] 'bai-^ood. 
byitander n. [also, formerly, spelt bye-stander] 'bai-staen- 

dd?. 
by-street n. [also spelt bye-street] 'bai-stEiif. 
byway n, [also spelt by-way, bye-way] 'bai-wee. 
byword n. [also, formerly, spelt by-word, bye-word] Ibai- 

\vrB:?d. 
byzant n. (gold coin) 'bizdnt, bi'zaent. same meaning as 

bezant. 
Byzantian adj. bi'zsen^sn. same meaning as Byzantine. 
Byzantine n. [also, sometimes, spelt Byzantin] bi'zaentin, 
'bizan-tin, bi'zan-tain, 'bizan-tain, bai'zaen-tain. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae'cot, eh{?t, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: osk, aiV.x\.t\ 

length-mar/r (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the following s^WaU^. 



68 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cabaged adj. ka'beedsd. same meaning as caboshed, 

cabal n. (conjoint intrigue; junto) ks'bx}. 

cabal V, [present participle caballing; past participle and 

preterit caballed, cabaldl kd'bsel. 
cabala n. Hebrew tradition [also spelt cabbala, kabala, kab- 

bala"] Icxbd-Jd. 
cabalism n. doctrin of the cabala [also spelt cabbalisml 

'kaebd-hzsm. 
cabalism n. (tendency to form cabals) kd'bx-hzsm. 
cabalist n. one verst in the cabala [also spelt cabbalisti 

'kaeba-hst. 
caballer n. (one who cabals) ks'bsldz. 
caballine adj. (of a horse) 'kxba-hn, 'ksebd-lain. 
cabaret n. (drinking-house) 'kaebd-zet, Hcsebs-^e, ksebd'ree. 
cabob n. [also spelt kabob, cobob ; synonymous cognate ka- 

babj ka'beb. 
cabosbed adj, [also spelt caboched, cabocht; synonymous 

cognates cabossed, cabost, cabaged] kd'be^t. 
cabriolet n. (carriage) kaeb?i-3'let, kaeb^i-^'lee. 
cacao n. the seed of the chocolate-tree, from which cocoa is 

made; also, the tree itself [synonymous substitute cocoa} k3- 

'kee-o, k3'ka:-o, 'kce-ko. 
cacao-nnt n. (the fruit of the cacao or chocolate-tree) kd- 

'kee-o-nxt, k3'ka:-o-nAt. 
cacbalot n. sperm-whale [also spelt cacholot; synonymous 

cognate cachelot"] 'kaeja-lot, 'katSa-lot, 'kaeja-lo. 
cacbe n. (hiding-place, etc.) ka:$, kx$. 
cacbet n. (seal, stamp) kx'lee. 
cacbezy n. (morbid condition) kd'keksi. 
cacbinnation n. (loud laughter) kseki'nee-Ssn. 
cacbinnatory adj. kd'kind-ton, kd'kins-tsri, 'ksekind-tszi. 
cacbon n. sweetmeat for the breath [also spelt cashew"} kd- 

'Sou. 
caciqne n. prince [also, formerly, spelt cassique ; synony- 
mous cognate casique} ka'^iik. 
cacodemon n. evil spirit; nightmare [also spelt cacodae- 

mon} kaeka'dii-man. 
cacodyle n. dimethyl arsine [also spelt kakodyle and, some- 
times, cacodyl, kakodyH 'kaeka-dil, 'kaeka-dail. 
cacoepy n. mispronunciation [also spelt cacoepy} ksHoo-i- 

pi, 'kaeko-epi. 
cacoetbes n. bad habit [also spelt cacoethesl kseko'ii-6iz, 

kaeko'ii-Ois. 

/.re, gcure; d the, 0*Mn; 3 ajerure, ds/oy; I shot, tScAew; 
wwhen; t) sing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, QMiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o:doot, ;iono, t\ic^, ^^%a\fc\ 



i 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 69 

eacolet n. (pannier) 'kaekd-}e. 

eaeopliony n. (the epposit of euphony) ka'kefd-ni. 

cadaster n. register [also spelt cadastre} ks'dxstsz, ks'ds:- 
stdr. 

eadaver n, (dead body) ka'dee-va?, ka'daeva^. 

caddie n. golf-player's lad [also spelt cadie, caddy"} Icxdi. 

caddis n. ribbon [also spelt caddicel 'kxdis. 

caddy n. (tea-box; can) Icaedi. 

cadenza n. (cadence) kd'dentss, ks'denza. 

cadet n. (younger son; military student) ka'det. 

cadi n. judge [also spelt kadi, kadyl 'kee-di, 'ka:-di. 

Cadmean adj. of Cadmus [also spelt Cadmaean} ksed'mii-an. 

cadnoens n. wand [ploral caduceil ke^jou-si-as, ka'djuu-^ds. 

eadnoons adj, (falling off) kd'djou-kds. 

eaecnin n. blind-gut [also spelt cecum; plural caeca} 'sii- 
ksm. 

Caenoioic adj, [also spelt Cenozoicl sina'zoo-ik. same mean- 
ing as Cainozoic, 

Caesarean adj. of Julius Caesar [also spelt Caesarian, Ce- 
sarean, Cesarian} si'zcr-^i-an.* 

caesimn n. (metal) 'sii-zi-am. 

caesura n. see cesura. 

caf6 n. (coffee-house; restaurant) kae'fee, {anteriorly) 'kaefe, 

caffeic adj. (of coffee) ka'fii-ik, 'kaefi-ik. 

caffeine n. [also, sometimes, spelt caffein} ka'fii-in, 'kaefi-in, 
'kaefi-ain. 

oaffre n. see kafir. 

caftan n. garment [also spelt kaftan} 'kaeftan, kaf'ta:n. 

cahier n. (a section or gathering of book-leaves) kae'jce, ka- 
'jee, 'ka:-je, ka'hi:^, 

Cainozoic adj, of recent life; Tertiary [also spelt Katnocoic; 
synonymous cognates Caenozoic, Cenozoic} kai-na'zoo-ik, 
kena'zoo-ik. 

caiqne n. boat [also spelt caique, kaic and, formerly, caic} 
ka'iik ; {less properly) 'kee-ik. 

caiqne n. (parrot) 'kai-ke. 

eaim n. stone-heap [also spelt cam} ke:s^n. 

caisson n. chest; water-tight case [also, formerly, spelt cats- 
soon} 'kee-san, 'kce-sen, 'kee-seq, ke'soun. 

cajolery n. (act of cajoling) k^'d3^o-l^-^I. 

calabarin n. alkaloid [also spelt calaharine} ksel3'ba:-?in. 

calaber n. fur [also spelt calabar} 'kaeb-ba?. 

calaboose n. (jail) kaeb'bous, kaela'buuz. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, ehot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aik\U\ 

\tngtb-mark 0) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%'> 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the following s^WaUt* 



70 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oalade n. (slope) ks'teed, ks'laid, ks'lxd. 

calamine n. [also, sometimes, spelt calamine 'kxta-min, 
'kaeld-main. 

oalash n. (carriage) kglseS. 

oalcar n. spur [ploral calcarial 'ksel-koz. 

oalcar<)ons adj. of lime; chalky [also spelt calcariousi kxl- 
'ke:-2i-3S. 

oalcar ia n. (ploral of calcar) kael'ke'.-ri-d. 

calcimine n,, v, [synenymoii^ cognate kalsominel 'kselsi- 
main, 'kxlsi-min. 

calcinable adj. kxl'sai-nd-bsl, 'kselsina-bQl. 

calcinatory n. 'kxlsins-tozi, kx}'sind-t3zi. 

calcine v, (reduce to calx) 'kael-sain, kxl'sain, 'kaelsin. 

calcinm n. (metal) 'kaelsi-am; (less properly) 'kaelSi-3m, 'kael- 
Sam. 

caldron n. big kettle [also spelt cauldroni 'kc:}-dr9n. 

caledonite n. (mineral) 'kaelids-nait, kaledd-nait. 

calendar n. almanac; table of days [also spelt kalendarl 
Tcaelan-dar. 

calendar v. enter on a calendar or list; register [past par- 
ticiple and preterit calendared, calendardl 'kalan-da?. 

calender n. (rolling-machine) 'kselsn-dd?. 

calender v. pass thru a calender; press between rollers [past 
participle and preterit calendered, calenderd'\ 'kaelan-dae. 

Calender n. dervish [also spelt Kalender^ 'kselan-ds?. 

calends n. the first day *of the month ; also, any one of the 
days preceding the first day of the month and following 
the ides of the preceding month [also spelt kalends^ 'kx- 
Isndz. 

calf n. [ploral calves'] ka:f, ka:f, kx:{, 

calfs-foot n. (a plant. Arum maculatum) 'ka:fs-fot. 

caliber n. diameter [also spelt calibre] 'kaeh-ba?. 

calico n. cotton cloth [ploral calicoes, calicos] 'kaeh-ko. 

calif n. [also spelt caliph, kalif, kaliph, khalif] 'kee-hf. 

calif ate n. [also spelt caliphate, kalif ate, khalif ate; synony- 
mous cognate caliphat] 'kaeh-fet, Tcee-h-fet. 

calipash n. the part of a turtle next to the upper shield [also 
spelt callipash] 'kaeh-paej, kaeh'paeS. 

calipee n. the part of a turtle next to the lower shield [also 
spelt callipee] Hcaeh-pi, kaeh'pii. 

caliper n. instrument for measuring diameter or caliber [al- 
so spelt calliper] 'kaeh-par. 

caliz n. [ploral calices] see calyx. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Q thm\ 3 arure, ds/oy; S j/ioe, tjc/iew; 
wze/Aen; ijsing; u wh<7ever, i react, o itt\\, oMiool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, ;)Otvo, t\ie^, ^t^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 71 

ealk V. drive oakum into the seams of [also spelt caulk \ past 
participle and preterit calked, calkt} kc:k. 

ealk V, cover with chalk [also spelt caique; past participle 
and preterit calked, calkt} kxlk, kc:k. 

ealk n. spur on a horseshoe [also spelt caulk, cauk; synony- 
mous cognate cork} kc:k. 

ealkin. n. (horseshoe-calk) 'kokin, Hcxlkin. 

eall V. cry; hail [past participle and preterit called, cald} 
kc:!, {when unstrest) kcl. 

ealligrapky n. penmanship [also spelt caligraphy, kalligra- 
phy} ka'hg^d-fi. 

ealliope n. (humming-bird) kdlai-s-pi. 

eallistkenios n,pL light gymnastics [also spelt calisthenics} 
kadis'Oeniks. 

eallose adj. (having callosities) kae'bos, (assumptivly) 'kae-los. 

callor adj. (hard; unfeeling) 'kaelss. 

calloir adj. (without feathers; unfledged; inexperienced, 
raw) Icaelo. 

eallns n. callosity [ploral calli} 'kselss. 

calm n.,adj, (quiet) ka:m; (dialectally, vulgarly) k£:m. 

calomel n. (mercurous chloride) 'kxld-msl. 

ealorio adj. (of heat) k^'lezik; (less properly) k^'loi-zik, 

ealorifio adj. (producing heat) kxWziiik. 

calory n. heat-unit [also spelt calorie} 'kaela-^i. 

ealoyer n. (monk) Icaela-jae, ka'lei-a^. 

caltrop n. spiked ball [also, sometimes, spelt caltrop ; syn- 
onymous cognate calthrop} 'kseltjap, 'kael-tjep. 

ealumet n. (pipe) 'kselio-mat. 

ealve v. bring forth a calf [past participle and preterit 
calved, calvd} ka:v, ka:v, kae:v. 

calver n. (a cow that calves) 'ka:-v3r. 

calver adj, (newly caught : said of fish) 'kaelvar. 

calves-foot adj. [synonymous cognate calfs-foot} 'ka:vz-fot. 

calx ft. lime; chalk [plural calxes, calces} kseiks. 

calyces n. (ploral of calyx) 'kaeh-siz, 'kee-h-siz. 

calycifonu adj. (formd like a calyx) 'kaehsI-fo:^m, ka'hsi- 
fo:zm. 

calyoine adj, of a calyx [also, sometimes, spelt calycin} 'kae- 
h-sin, 'kaeh-sain. 

calyole n, little calyx; calice [also spelt calicle} 'kaeh-kal. 

calyx n, flower-cup; the outer envelop of the perianth; the 
sepals collectivly [also, formerly, spelt calix; ploral ca- 
lyxes, calyces} 'kee-hks, 'kaehks. 

c: law, b: fur, xcat, ehot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aikite; 

\togth-jnar/c (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \eng\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the following syUabU. 



72 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

camas n. plant [also spelt catnass, cammas, katnasl kd'maes, 

kae'mses. same meaning as quamash. 
camellia n. (flower) ka'meli-d, ks'mii-Hd. 
camelopard n. (giraffe) k9'me}9-pa:?d» 'kxmi}9-pa:?d ; {rare- 
ly) kaemil9'pa:?d. 
camel's hair n. [synenymous cognate camel-hair'\ 'kaemslz- 

he:e. 
Camembert adj, Icxmdm-be:?. 
camenes n. (mood of the fourth figure of syllogism) 'kae- 

mi-niz. 
camera n. vaulted roof; chamber; photographic apparatus 

[plural cameras, camerael 'kaema-?^, (anteriorly) 'kaems^s; 

(rapidly) 'kaem^a. 
camlet n. fabric [also spelt cantblet and, formerly, camelotl 

'kaemlat. 
camomile n. plant [also spelt chamomilel 'ksms-mail. 
campag^a n. (obsolete) plain [also spelt campagnial kam- 

'pa:-nJ9. compare champaign, 
campidg^ n. sustained military or other aggressiv opera- 

tions [also spelt campaini kxm'peen. 
campanile n. [ploral campaniles, campanili} kxmps'nii-h; 

(less properly) 'kampa-nil, 'kaempa-nail, kampa'niil. 
camphene n, terpene [also spelt camphine} 'ksem-fin, ksem- 

'fiin. 
camphine n. turpentine-oil [also, sometimes, spelt cam- 

phene} 'kaem-fain, 'kaem-fin, kaem'fiin. 
camphor n. aromatic substance [also spelt camfor; former 

synenymous cognate camphire} 'kaemfa?. 
can V. [past participle and preterit canned, candl ksen, (when 

unstrest) kan, kg. 
Canaanite n. 'kee-ns-nait. 
canaille n. (the vile populace; the rabble) kd'nee}, ka'nai, 

ka'nail, ka'nar-js. 
canaille n. feed; finisht middlings [also spelt canail; syn- 
enymous cognates canal, canelll ks'neel. 
canal v, [present participle canalling; past participle and 

preterit canalled, canaldl ka'nael. 
canalize v. furnish with canals, etc. [also spelt canalise} 

'kaenl-aiz, (rarely) ko'nael-aiz. 
canard «. (hoax) ka'naizrd, ka'nair. 
canary n. (bird) ka'ner-^i. 
cancan n. (dance) ncaen-kaen. 
cancel v. strike out, obliterate [present participle canceling, 

J ye, gcure; d the, Q th\n\ sasute, ds/oy; \shoQ, tjc/rew; 
ww/ten; 13 sing; u wh^jever, i react, o iu\\, \3m(oo\, \\X, \\^ec; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, ootvo, «.>oe^, tfi^a\t\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 73 



cancelling; past participle and preterit canceled, cancelled, 
canceldl 'kaenssi, Icaens!. 

eaaeelatioA n. [also spelt cancellation^ kaensd^ee-Ssn. 

caneeler n. one who or that which cancels [also spelt cancel- 
ler'} Icsnsd-ld?. 

eai&cer n. (tumor, carcinoma) Icaensa?. 

caaerine adj. crab-like [also, sometimes, spelt cancrin} 'kxi)- 
k3in, 'kaeg-k^ain. 

eaadelabnun n. [ploral candelabra} kxnda^ee-brdm. 

caadld culj. (honest, frank) Icaendid. 

eandled adj, (preservd with sugar) 'kxndid. 

eandlestick n. 'kaendt-stik. 

eandor n. whiteness; fairness; frankness [also spelt candour} 
Icxndd?. 

eame n. (woody stem; walking-stick) keen. 

cansrne n. (Chinese kia or portable pillory) kxr). 

eaaine culj. (of a dog) 'kee-nain, ks'nain, {rarely) 'kae-nain, 
Tcce-nin. 

eanker n. (cancerous sore or disease; grief) 'kseriks?. 

caanel-coal n. [also spelt canel-coal; synonymous cognates 
kennel-coal, candle-coal} /kxnl-kool. 

eannoA n. big gun [ploral cannons, cannon} 'kaensn. 
' eani&on v, in billiards [past participle and preterit cannoned, 
cannond} 'kxnan. 

eam&oneer n, artilleryman [also spelt cannonier} kxn^'niiz. 

cannot v. (can not) 'kae-net, 'kaenet, (when less strest) 
Icaenat, {also, sometimes, finally) kae'net. 

cannula n. surgical tube; cruet [also spelt canula^ 'ksenju-ld. 

canny adj. knowing; artful [also spelt cannie} 'kaeni. 

canoe n. (light boat) ks'nuu. 

canoeist n, [also spelt canoist} ks'nuu-ist. 

canon n, (rule, law) 'kxnsn. 

canon n. 'kxnjsn. see canyon. 

canonisation [also spelt canonisation} ksenani'zec-Sdn, 
kxn9-nai'zee-$9n. 

canonise v. [also spelt canonise} 'kaena-naiz. 

oanoTons adj. (singing, ringing) k^'noi-z^s. 
cant n. (mode of speech ; jargon) ksent. 
can't V. (can not) ka:nt, ka:nt, kaeint. 

cantabile adj. kan'ta:-bi-h ; {less properly) kaen'tee-bi-h, 
kaen'taebi-li. 

cantaliver n., adj. 'ksent3-hv9?. same meaning as canti- 
lever. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ciiVit^*, 

\eng^h-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound IS \QT\g,*, 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fellowing syWaUt. 



74 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cantaloup n. melon [also, sometimes, spelt cantaloupe, 
cantalupe, cantaleup; synonymous cognates canteloup, can- 
teloupe, cantelupe, canteleup, cantelopel 'ksentd-lup, 'kaentd- 
lop; (also) Icaentl-up, 'kaentl-op. 

cantata n. (choral composition) kxn'ta:-t9, (rarely) kxn- 
'tee-t9. 

Cantate n. (ninety-eighth psalm) kaen'tee-ti. 

eantatrice n. 'ksents-tps, kaents'tsii-tSi. 

canteen n. subtler's shop; provision-box [also spelt cantinel 
kaen'tiin. 

cantharides n. pi. (dried Spanish flies) Uxn'Qxzi-diz, 

cantharidin n. [also spelt cantharidine'\ kaen'6x?i-din. 

cantilever n., adj, [synonymous cognates cantaliver, can- 
tiliver, cantalever, canteliver'l 'kaenti-lii-var, Icaenti-levar. 

cantillate v. chant [also spelt cantilatel 'kxnti-let. 

eanto n. division of a poem; voice-part [ploral cantosi 'kaen- 
to. 

cantonment n. military quarters [synonymous cognate can- 
toonmentl 'kaentan-mant, kaen'tenmant. 

cantrip n. spell, charm [synonymous cognates cantrap, can- 
trip el 'kaentjip. 

canvas n. heavy cloth [also spelt ranvassl Icsenvds. 

canvas v, cover with canvas [also spelt canvass; past parti- 
ciple and preterit canvased, canvast'\ 'kaenvas. 

canvass v, examin ; solicit votes [also, formerly, spelt can- 
vas; past participle and preterit canvassed, canvast'\ 'kaen- 

V3S. 

canyon n. deep gorge or ravine thru which a stream runs 
[also spelt canon, cannon, canoni 'kxnjsn. 

caonane n. turtle [also spelt caouannel ka'wa:n. 

caontcUn n. volatil oil [also spelt caoutchine; synonymous 
cognate caoutchoucM 'kou-tSin. 

caontchonc n. 'kou-tSuk, 'kou-tSok, 'kao-tSok. 

caontchoncin n. [also spelt caoutchoucinel 'kou-tSo-siu, 
'kao-tSo-sin. same meaning as caoutchin, 

cap-a-pie adv. [also spelt cap-i-piel kaepa'pii. 

capelin n, (the caplin, a Newfoundland bait-fish) 'kaepi-hn. 

capeline n. skull-cap [also spelt capelline, cappeline; syn- 
onymous cognate chapelinel 'kaepi-hn. 

capercailye «. wood-grouse [also spelt capercailzie, caper- 
cailliel kaepa^'kee-Ha. 

capibara n, rodent [also spelt capyhard] kaepi'ber-ra, kaepi- 



J ye, gcure; d the, Q th'm\ 5 arure, dsjoy; \shoe, tSc/rew; 
wm/ien; ijsing] u whoever, i r^act, o iu\\, iimIgoV, \\\., \\^ec*, 
opoeUc; 9 oyer, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, t\ie^, te:^o.\^% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 75 

capillary adj, (of hair) laepiAzzi, ka'pils-ri. 

capital adj. (chief, principal; excellent) 'kaepi-tl, {anteriorly) 

loepiti. 
capital n. (the city or town in which is the seat of govern- 
ment of a country, state, or province ; also, a capital letter) 

loepi-ti. 
capital n. (wealth, productiv resources) Icaepi-tl. 
capitalisation n. [also spelt capitalisationi kaepitt-i'zee- 

San, kaepitl-ai'zce-San. 
capitalise v. [also spelt capitalisel Icaepitl-aiz. 
Capitol n. (citadel on the top of a hill, as in a Roman city; 

edifis occupied by Congress; state-house) 'kaepi-tl. 
Capitoline adj. (of a Roman Capitol) 'kaepiti-ain, ks'piti- 

ain. 
capitulate v, (surrender) ks'pitgo-let, k9'pit$9-let. 
cap&oiaor n. oily liquid [also spelt kapnomor} 'kxpNS-me?. 
capoA n. (fowl) ncce-pen, 'kee-pan, (rarely) 'kae-pen. 
caponixe v. [also spelt caponise'\ 'kee-ps-naiz. 
caponeli »• (obsolete) monk's hood or cowl [synonymous 

cognates capoch, capuchel ka'pouS, kd'puut^. 
caprieeio n. (whim; musical caprice) kd^psit^D. 
caprieeioao adv, (in musict in a free, fantastic style) kapsi- 

'tSoo-so. 
caprioe n. (freak, whim) ka'psiis. 
caprieions adj. (full of caprice; whimsical) ks'p^i^ds. 
caprine n. substance in butter [also, sometimes, spelt cap- 

rini 'kaepsin, Tcae-psain, 'kee-p^ain. 
capriole n. (caper; leap) loepsi-o}, (less often) kaepsi'ool, 

(rarely) 'kee-psi-ol. 
capaicin n. [also spelt capstcinel Icxpsi-sin. 
capsize v, kxp'saiz, (sometimes, anteriorly) 'ksep-saiz. 
capstan, n. (winding-device) 'kaepstn. 
capsnle n. (small case; sac) 'kaep-sgut. 
captain n. (head, chief) 'kaeptin; (popularly) 'kaepm. 
captive adj., n., v, [also spelt captiv ; as verb, past participle 

and preterit captived, captivdl 'kaeptiv. 
GapnoUn n. (Franciscan monk) kaep^o'Siin, 'kaepQo-tSin, 

Icaepgo-Sin, kaepgo'tSiin, 'kaepgo-Sin. 
capnt n. head [ploral capita and, rarely, caputs'} 'ksepat, 

Tcae-pAt. 
car n. ka:z, ka: ; (dialectally) kga:?. 
carabin n. (obsolete) musketeer, carabineer [synonymous 

cognate carbine"] 'kaera-bin. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, o hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aiV\\.fc\ 

\zT}gth'mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%N 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowmg syVUbYe. 



76 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oaraoal n. (quadruped) 'kaeza-kset. 

oaracara n. hawk, carrancha [synonymous cognate carcaral 

ksez^'kssz^, ka^d'ka:-?^. 
oarack n. ship [also spelt carrackl 'kseesk. 
caracole n. spiral staircase; half -turn [synonymous cognate 

caracoll 'kaez9-kol. 
carafe «. water-bottle [also spelt caraffel kaVaif. 
caramel n. burnt sugar [also spelt caromell 'kserd-m?}, 'ksers- 

mel. 
carat n. a twenty-fourth part [also spelt karatl 'kx^at. 
caravan n. (company of travelers on the desert; cart) 'kse- 

?3-van, kaesd'vxn. 
caravansary n. inn for caravans [also spelt caravansery ; 

synonymous cognates caravanserai, caravanserai kae^a'vaen- 

S9-?I. 

caravanserai n, kae^a'vsnsd-zai. same meaning as cara- 

vansary. 
carbide n. 'ka:7-baid, (before of) 'ka:?-bid. 
carbine n. firearm [former synonymous cognates carabine, 

carrabine, carabin} 'ka:z-bain; (less properly) 'ka:r-bin, ka^- 

'bain, 'ka:?-bin. 
carbon n. (element) 'kaiz-hen^ 'kaiz-h^n. 
carbnreted v. [also spelt carburetted'\ Tcai^-bjo-zretid. 
carbnreter n. [also spelt carburetter, carburetor, carburet- 

tori 'ka:r-bjo-zet9e. 
carbnrization n. [also spelt carburisation} ka:7-bju?i'zee- 

San, ka:z-bjo-?ai'zee-S9n. 
carbnrize v, [also spelt carburisel 'ka:7-bjo-?aiz. 
caroanet n. (necklace) 'karka-nst, 'kaerks-net. 
carcass n. dead body; corpse [also spelt carcasel 'ka^kss. 
card n. karrd, ka:d ; (dialectally) kqaizd. 
cardamine n. (herb) kar'dxmi-ni, 'karsr-dd-main. 
cardamon n. (seed-capsules; spice) 'ka:2:-d3-m3n. 
cardinal adj., n. (chief) 'ka:?-dn-l, 'kaizr-di-nal. 
caret n. (insertion-mark) 'ka?3t, 'ker-zrat. 
cargo n. lading [ploral cargoes, cargosl 'karzr-go. 
Caribbean adj. of the Caribs or Caribbees [also spelt Car- 

ribbean"} kaeri'bii-an. 
Caribbee n. Carib [also spelt Caribee, Carribbeel 'kaeri-bi, 

kae^i'bii. 
caribe n. (fish) 'kae^i-bi. 

caribon n. reindeer [also spelt cariboo, carribool 'kae^i-bu, 
kazrinbou. 

JJ^^f Qcure; d the, O/Mn; sa^ure, ds/oy; S shot, tSc/iew: 

wzvAen; rjsing; u wh<?ever, i react, o iuVV, QMioo\, i-il, usee 

o poetic; 3 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, ootvo, t>oc^, t,e:%o.\s 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 77 

earioatnre n. (ridiculous representation) Icxzrikd-tSu?, Icae- 
^ikd-tgoz; {less properly) kaezika'tSo:?, kaeziks'tgo-.z. 

earies n. (disease) 'ke:-?i-i:z. 

earilloA n. (set of tuned bells; air) 'kxziA^n. 

earlin n. old woman [also spelt car line} 'ka:7-iin. 

earline n. carlino, a coin [also spelt carlini 'kaizAin, 

earline n. plant [also spelt carlin'} 'ka:?-lin. 

earline n. timber [also spelt carlin ; synonymous cognate car- 
lingl 'ka:;-}in. 

carling n. (the peas eaten on Carling, Carlin Sunday, or Pas- 
sion Sunday) 'kaizAit). 

carmagnole n. (song and dance; soldier; style) kazms'tijooh 

eamLinatiTe adj, expelling [also spelt carminativl ka?'mi- 
n9-tiv; (less properly) 'ka:r-mi-netiv. 

eamLine n. cochineal red [also, sometimes, spelt carmini 
'ka:r-min, 'ka:2:-main; (less properly) kor'main, 'ka:r-min. 

eamelian n. red chalcedony [synonymous cognate corne- 
lian'} koT'nii-lian. 

eamivorona adj, (eating flesh) koz^niv^-rss. 

carol V. sing [present participle caroling, carolling; past 
participle and preterit caroled, carolled, carold} 'kae^al. 

earoler n. one who carols [also spelt caroller} 'kaera-b^. 

earolin n. one of several gold coins; earline [also spelt Caro- 
line} 'kaee9-hn. 

Caroline adj. (of Carolus or Charles) 'kae^a-lain, 'kae^o-hn. 

Carolinian adj. (of Charles the Great; of North or South 
Carolina) kae^d'hni-sn. 

carom n.. v. in billiards [also spelt carrom ; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit caromed, caromd} 'kae^am. 

carotid «. (artery of the neck) kaVetid. 

oaronaal n. (feast, noisy revel) ks'zao-zdl. 

caronael «. formerly, a tilting-match [also, in this sense, 
sometimes spelt carousal}; merry-go-round [also spelt, in 
this sense, carrousel} kaero'zel, ^kxzo-zdl. 

carrageen n. alga [also spelt carragheen} kse^a'giin, 'ksers- 
gin. 

carrageenin n. [also spelt carrageenine} kse^d'gii-nin. 

carriage n. (conveyance) 'kaerids. 

•carriole n. single-seated open carriage; light coverd cart; 
kind of sledge [also spelt cariole} 'kaeei-ol, compare carry- 
all. 

carrot n. (vegetable) 'kaerat. 
.% carte blanche n. (blank paper; full power) ka^t'blarnS, ka^t- 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, au now, a: osk, aiVLiX.^*, 

lenffth-mar/r (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \qtvv;*, 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowmg syWaUe. 



78 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'blenS, kazrt'blaernS ; (also) ka?t'bla:ntS, ka^t'blentS, kazt- 

'blae:ntS. 
oarte-de-Tisite n. small-sized photograph [plural cartes- 

de-visite'] kai^t-davi'ziit. 
cartel n. (written challenge or agreement; tablet) 'ka?-tcl, 

ka^'tel. 
Cartesian adj. (of Rene Descartes) ka^^tii-sdn, ka?'tii-zi-9n. 
Carthnsian n. (monk) kar'O^ou-sdn, ka?'6gou-zi-3n. 
cartilage «. (gristle) 'karti-hds, 'ka^tl-ids, 'ka^tii-ids. 
cartilaginons adj, (gristly) kazti'lsedsi-nds. 
cartonche n. cartridge, etc. [also spelt cartouch] ka?'tuu$ ; 

{less properly) ka^'toutS. 
cartridge n. (explosiv case) 'ka^tjids; {vulgarly) 'kaetjids. 
camcage n. plowing-tax [also spelt carrucage'\ 'kseru-kids; 

{less properly) 'kaejjo-kids. 
oamcate n. land-measure; a plow-land [also spelt carrucate'\ 

'kae^o-ket, {rarely) 'kae?jo-ket. 
eamncle n. fleshy excrescence [synonymous cognate ca- 

runcula, caruncule"] 'kae-^Aqksl, kae'jAqkal, 'kai-rAqkal, ka- 

carve v, cut [also spelt carv; past participle and preterit 

carved, carvdl kaizv. 
caryatid n. female human figure used as a column [ploral 

caryatids, caryatides'] kae^i'aetid. 
caryatides n. (ploral of caryatid) kx?i'xti-diz. 
caryocinesis n. kae^io-si'nii-sis. same meaning as karyo- 

kinesis. 
casein n. milk albuminoid [also spelt caseine} 'kee-si-in. 
casement n. (molding; window-sash) 'kees-msnt, 'keez-msnt. 
caseons adj. (of cheese) 'kee-si-as, 'kee-zi-as, 'kee-Jas. 
cashex^ n, nut; tree; also, cachu [also spelt cashoel ka'^ou. 
cashier n. (cash-keeper) kx*li:z, 
casliier v. dismiss; discard [past participle and preterit 

cashiered, cashier d] kae'Si:^, ka'Si:?. 
cashmere n. fine woolen fabric used for dress-goods [also 

spelt cashmeer, cachemire, cachemere, kashmir} 'kaej-mii^, 

kaeS'mi:?. 
eashoo n. ks'^ou. same meaning as catechu. 
casino n. club-house; card-game [also, in the sense of card- 
game, spelt cassinol ka'sii-no. 
cask n. (butt, barrel) ka:sk, ka:sk, kae:sk. 
casket «. chest, coffin, etc. [also, formerly, spelt casquetl 

'ka:-skit. 

j\ve, gcure; d the, G^/iin; 3 arure, d^/oy; \ shoe, tS c/rew; 
wze/hen; ijsing; u wh<9ever, i react, oiu\\, Quioo\, \tt, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, ootvo, t.>oe^, t^?,a\fc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 79 

casqite ». (helmet; galea) ka:sk, ka:sk, kx:sk. 

cassaxeep n. sauce [also spelt cassaripe; synonymous cog- 
nate cassireepel '\acs9-zip. 

eaisava ». plant; flour [also, formerly, spelt ccuava; synon- 
ymous cognate casscuid} kd'sai-vd; (/e^j properly) 'kaesa-vd, 
kd'see-vd, 'kaesa-ve. 

easserole ». (stew-pan) Icaesd-^o}, kaess'^ool. 

cassia »• (bark; tree; herb) tcxS?* 'kaeSi-9, Icxsi-d, 'kaeSJ^- 

eassin&ere n. twild woolen cloth used for trousers [also 
spelt caiimire; synonymous cognate kerseymerel 'kaesi-mi:?. 

eassoivarjr ». (bird) 'kaesd-weri, 'kxs9-w9?i. 

east V. (throw, etc.) ka:st, {when unstrest) kast; {also) ka:st, 
kae:st. 

Castanet n. (shell used in music) 'ka:-st9-net, 'ka:-st9-nit, 
ka:-st3'net. 

caste n. division of society [also, formerly, spelt cast"] ka:st, 
ka:st, kx:st. 

castellan n. officer of a castle [synonymous cognate castel- 
lain"} Icsstd-lan, 'kai-std-ldn. 

caster n. cruet; small wheel [also spelt castor'\ 'ka:-st9?. 

Castile adj. (in *Castile soap) ka'stiii, ks'stiil, {sometimes, 
assumptivly) 'kae-stil. 

castle n. (fortress) 'ka:-s3l, 'kaessl. 

cast-off adj. ka:st'o:f, {assumptivly) 'kaist-orf. 

castor n. (beaver; castoreum; castorite) 'kai-st^z. 

castorin n. substance [also spelt castorinel 'ksests-nn. 

castorine n. cotton-velvet fabric [also spelt castorini 'kx- 
st3-?in. 

castrate v, (geld; emasculate) 'kse-st£et. 

castrate n. singer [ploral castrati} kaes't£a:-t3, kas't£a:-t3. 

casual adj. (chance; fortuitous) 'kaesu-al, 'kaesju-al, 'kaezi-u-al. 

casualty n. (chance; accident) 'kaesu-al-ti, 'kaezi-u-al-ti. 

oasnist n. (one verst in casuistry) 'kx3U-ist, 'ksesju-ist. 

casns belli n. (occasion of war; excuse for war) kee-S9s- 
'beli. 

catabasis n. descent [plural catabases} kd'tssbs-sis. 

oatabolie adj. [also spelt katabolici kstd'behk. 

catabolism n. disintegration : the epposit of anabolism [al- 
so spelt katabolism^ kd'taebd-hzsm. 

cataobresis n. misuse of words [plural catachreses^ ksets- 
'ksii-sis. 

oatacbrestio adj, kstd'ksestik, kaets'k^ii-stik. 

cataolasm «. (break, disruption) ^kaeta-k ii^aezam. 

c: law J b: f«r, ae cat, ehot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a*, ask, b,iV\\.^*, 

Ungtb'tnark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f ellowing s^WaYA^. 



80 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oataolysm n. (deluge, flood) 'kaet3-ki:.izam. 
catacomb n. (subterranean burial-place) 'kxta-koom. 
catafalqne n. coffin-stage [also spelt catafalc, catafalk] 

'kaeta-faelk. 
catalepsy n. (seizure, trance) 'kxtd-lepsi. 
catalog n», v. [also spelt catalogue'^ 'kseta-leg, 'kxtl-eg. 
cataloged adj. [also spelt catalogued, catalogdl 'kxta-legd. 
cataloger n. [also spelt cataloguer'\ 'kaetd-legs?. 
cataloging n. [also spelt cataloguing^ 'kaets-legii). 
catalpa n. (tree) ka'taelps. 

catalysis n. decomposition [plural catalysesi ks'tsti-sis. 
catamaran n. (raft; craft with twin hulls) ksetsmd'rxn, 

'kaet3m9-raen, ka'taema-^an. 
catapan n. (Byzantin official) kseta'paen, 'kxtd-psen. 
cataphora n. (lethargy) ks'tsefd-ra. 
cataract n, (waterfall; opacity of eye-lens) 'kxts-raekt. 
catarrli n, (inflammation of mucous membrane) ks'ta:?. 
catarrhal adj. (of catarrh) ks'ta:-??}. 
catarrhine adj, of the apes called Catarrhina [also spelt ca- 

tarhinel 'kaeta-rain, 'kaet9-zin. 
catastasis n. a setting forth ; narrativ [ploral catastases] 

k9'taest9-sis. 
catastrophe n. (conclusion; disaster) k9'txstS9-fi. 
Catax^ba n. (grape) k9'tc:-b9. 
catch v., n, kaetS ; {vulgarly or dialectally) ketj. 
catchnp n. 'kxtjdp. same meaning as ketchup. 
catechetic adj, (of catechism) kxti'ketik. 
catechise n. dialectal (catechesis, catechism) Icxti-kiz. 
catechism n. (religious textbook; book or course of questions 

and answers) 'kaeti-kiz9m. 
catechization n. [also spelt catechisation"] kaetiki'zee-Ssn, 

kaeti-kai'zee-S9n. 
catechize v. instruct by questions [also spelt catechisel 'kse- 

ti-kaiz. 
catechn n. extract [synonymous cognate cashool 'kaeti-tSu, 

'kaeti-Su. 
catechnmen n. (neophyte) kaeti'tSou-m9n, kaeti'kgou-m9n. 
categorem «, (predicate, etc.) 'kaetiga-^em, kg'tega-zrem. 
categorical adj. (of categories; precise) kaeti'ge^i-kgl. 
categorization n. [also spelt categorisation^ kxti-go^i'zee- 

San, kaeti-go-rai'zee-S9n. 
categorize v. (classify) 'kaeti-go-zraiz. 
category n. (notion, class) 'kaeti-gorr. 

j\ve, Qcure; d the, Q thin; 5 a.mre, d$joy; ^ shoe, tlchew, 
wzt'Aen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, o iu\\, QMiool, itt, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abwt, o: door, 00 no, t.\ic^, t^^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 81 

oateaia n. chain [plural catenae} ks'tii-na. 
catenary adj.,n, 'kaetn-cri, 'kaeti-neei, ka'tii-na-ji. 
oateran n. (Highland marauder; freebooter) 'kxta-zdn. 
cater-eomered adj. diagonal [also spelt cater-cornerd"] 

'ke e-t3?-ke :?-n9?d, 'kaetaj-ke : z-n^zd. 
caterpillar n. larva [also spelt caterpiller'\ 'kaetsr-piid?. 
caterx^anl v. (cry as a cat) 'kaetdr-wc:!. 
oatkarixe v, (purify) 'kxOa-raiz. 
oathartio adj,, n. (purgativ) kd'Oartik, k3'6a:?-tik. 
catkedra n. (bishop's chair; episcopal see) ks'Oii-drd, Icae- 

6i-dr9; (less properly) kd'Oedra. 
oatbedraled adj. [also spelt cathedralled, cathedraldl kd'Oii- 

drsid. 
catheter n. (tube) IcxOi-td?. 
oatlietiiB n. line [plural catheti] 'kxQi-t^s. 
cathodal adj. of the cathode; lower [also spelt kathodall 

'kaeGa-dl. 
cathode n. negativ pole [also spelt kathodel 'kx-6od. 
cathodic adj, going down [also spelt kathodic} ka'Oedik. 
Catholicism n. kd'Oeh-sizsm, 'kaeOsh-sizam. 
Catholicise v. [also spelt Catholicise'} ks'Oeh-saiz, 'kaeOah- 

saiz. 
cation n. ion at the cathode ; electropositiv ingredient [also 

spelt kationi 'kaeti-sn, 'kaet-ai-an. 
catoptric adj. (of a mirror; of optic reflection) ka'tep- 

tsik. 
catsnp n. 'kxtssp. same meaning as ketchup. 
Caucasian adj, (of the Caucasus; Indo-european) kc^ks^dn, 

kc'kee-San, kc'kee-Si-an, kc'kee-san, kcTcee-zi-an. 
candad adj, (toward the tail) 'kc.-dxd. '^" 
candal adj. (of the tail) 'kc:-d}, 'kodsl. 

candez n. stem, trunk [ploral caudices, caudexesi 'kc:-deks. 
candle n. (warm drink) 'kodh 
canght V. [past participle and preterit of catchi kc:t, {when 

unstrest) kct. 
cank n. (spur on a horseshoe) see calk.* 
canl n. net; membrane [also spelt cawl} kc:!. 
canldron n. see caldron. 
canlifloTver n. (vegetable) 'kc:-h-fLau-3r. 
canline adj. of a stem [also, sometimes, spelt caulini 'ko 

hn, 'kc:-lain. 
canlis n. stalk, stem [ploral caules} 'kc:-hs. 
eanlk v. see calk.^ 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cot, eh6?t, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, a\V\\.^N 

Xzngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f eUowing sv\\a>a\^. 



82 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oansexvay n. [synonymous cognate causeyl Icciz-wee. 
oansey n. 'kozi, 'kc:-ze. same meaning as causeway. 
oanterisation n. [also spelt cauterisationi kotd^i'zee-S^n, 

kc:-t9-zai'zee-S3n. 
canterixe v, [also spelt cauterisel 'kc:-t9-;aiz. 
canzee n. 'kc:-zi. same meaning as kasi. 
cavalcade n. (company on horseback) ksevdi'keed; (less 

properly) Icaeval-ked. 
caTalero n. cavalier [also spelt cayalierol kxv9li:-?3. 
cavalier n. (horseman; beau) ksevsli:?. 
cavally n. fish [also spelt cavalli; plural cavallies, cavallisi 

ka'vaeh. 
cavasB n. see kavass, 

cavatina n. (simple melody, air) kava'tii-no, kxvd'tii-na. 
cavea n. cage; auditorium [plural caveae'i 'kee-vi-9. 
caveat n. (notice; warning) 'kee-vi-9t; {less properly) 'kae- 

vi-aet. 
eavel n. a lot that is cast ; an allotment [synonymous cognate 

cavil, kevel, kevill 'kaevsl. 
caTesson n. Qose-band [also, formerly, spelt caveson; for- 
mer synonymous cognates cavason, caveson, causson} 'kae- 

visdn. 
caviar n. fish-roe [also spelt caviar el kavi'a:^, kav'ja:?, kaevi- 

'a:z, 'kaevi-ar, kavi'e:?:, kaev'je:?, ka'vi:?. 
cavil V. find fault; carp [present participle caviling, cavil- 
ling; past participle and preterit caviled, cavilled, cavildl 

'kaeviL 
caviler n. one who cavils [also spelt caviller^ 'kxvi-id?. 
cavort v, (prance about) kd'voizrt. 
cavnm n. hollow; cavity [ploral caval 'kee-vsm. 
cay n. kee, kii. same meaning as key, 
Cayenne adj, ke'en, kai'en, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'kee-en, 

Hcai-en. 
cayman n, alligator [also spelt caiman, kayman, kaiman; 

ploral caymansi 'kee-msn. 
caziqne n. ks'ziik. same meaning as cacique. 
cease v. stop, end [past participle and preterit ceased, ceasti 

siis. 
cecils n. pi, (hasht meat) 'sesilz, 'sii-silz. 
cecity n. blindness [also spelt coecityl 'sii-si-ti, 'sesi-ti. 
cecnm n. see caecum. 
cedar n. (tree ; wood) 'sii-dae. 
cede V. (yield) siid. 

J ye, gcure; bthe, ^Mn ; 5 a^ure, dsjoy; ^shoe, tSchew; 
wwAen; ijsing; u wh<7ever, i react, ofuu, QMiool, itt, i\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial, Abut, o: door, ;>otio, t\ie^, tt^a\fe\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS . 83 

eeder n, (one who cedes) 'sii-da?. 

eedilla n. (little z : a mark placed under the letter c to in- 
dicate that the c has the sound of s) si'dila. 
cedrin n. extract from cedron-seeds [also spelt cedrine'] 'sii- 

drin. 
cedrine adj, of the cedar [also, sometimes, spelt cedrin} 'sii- 

dnn, 'sn-dcain; {less properly) 'sedrin. 
ceil V, overlay, as with plaster or wood [also spelt del; past 

participle and preterit ceiled, ceildl siil. 
eeilins n. plastering at the top of a room, etc. [also spelt 

cielingi 'sii-Jiq. 
celandine n. plant [former synonymous cognates celendinc, 

celadine, salandine, saladine} 'selan-dain. 
eelantes n. (mood of the first figure of syllogism) si'lxn-tiz. 
celarent n. (mood of the first figure of syllogism) si'ie:- 

^nt. 
eelebrator n. [also spelt celebraterl ^sth-hzet9z. 
oeleres n,pl. (patrician knights) ^seh-ziz. 
celery n. plant [also, formerly, spelt selleril 'sels-zi, (rapidly) 

celestial adj, (of the sky; heavenly) silestSsl, si'leJtSdl, 

silesti-a). 
Celestine n. follower of Caelestius [also, sometimes, spelt 

Celestin} 'sela-stin, 'sela-stain, si'lestin. 
celestite n. (mineral) 'sels-stait, si'le-stait. 
celiac adj, of the belly ; also, coelian [also spelt coeliac} 'sii- 

li-aek. 
celibacy n. (single life; unmarried state) 'sehbs-si; (less 

properly) si^iba-si. 
cell n. (small apartment; religious house; structural element 

of organisms; battery-jar) sel. 
cella »• central room of a temple; cell [plural cellael 'scls. 
cellar n. (room under a house) 'sel^z. 
cello n. violoncello [also spelt 'cello} 'tjeb. 
cellular n. (of cells) 'seliu-ld?. 
celluloid n. (imitation ivory, etc.) 'seliu-leid. 
cellulose n. (substance of cell-walls) 'selio-los, seHu'}3os. 
Celt n. [synonymous cognate Kelt} selt, (rarely) kelt. 
celt n. (implement) selt. 

Celtic adj, [synonymous cognate Keltic"] 'seltik. 
cembalo n. (dulcimer) 'sembd-lo. 

cement n. (binding-substance; adhesiv) si'ment, 'semant. 
cement v. (unite by cement; cohere) si'ment. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, 01 boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai\t\\.e:\ 
length-xnorJr (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©tv%\ 
streas-mark C) indicates chief stress on the fellgy/xng sv\U\i\e. 



a4 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cemetery n. [ploral cemeteriesi 'scmi-tc^i; (also) 'semit9-2i, 
{anteriorly) 'scmi-tazi; (rapidly) 'semi-tji, 'semitji. 

oenobite n. [also spelt coenobite^ 'sena-bait, 'sii-ns-bait. 

cenotaph n. (empty tomb) '8en9-ta:f. 

Cenozoio adj, sind'zoo-ik. same meaning as Caenozoic. 

oense v, (perfume with incense) sents, (in Britain) sens. 

censer n. (vessel in which incense is burnt) 'sentsd?, 'senss?. 

censor n. (magistrate) 'sentsa?, 'sensd?. 

censure n. (hostil criticism) 'sent^d?, 'sen$37, 'sens^a?. 

cent n. (coin) sent. 

centanr n. (mythic monster, half man and half horse) 'sen- 
tc:z, 

centenary adj. (of a hundred) 'senti-nen; (also) 'sentins- 
zit (assumptivly) 'senti-nazi; (also, in Britain) sen'tii-na-ri, 
sen'tena-^i. 

centenier n. (police-officer) 'senti-ni:?. 

centennial adj- (of a hundred years) sen'teni-al. 

center n,, v. [also spelt centre ; as verb, past participle and 
preterit centered, centred, centerdi 'sentaz. 

centering n. [also spelt centreing and, sometimes, centring} 
'senta-jiq, 'sentjiq. 

centesimal adj., n. (hundredth) sen'tesi-mal. 

centesimo n. (hundredth of a lira) sen'tesi-mo, tSen'tesi-mo. 

centigrade adj, (graduated into a hundred equal parts) 'sen- 
ti-gzreed. 

centigram n. hundredth of a gram [also spelt centigramme} 
'senti-g^aem. 

centiliter n. [also spelt centilitre} 'senti-hi-ta? ; (improper- 
ly) sen'tih-ta?. 

centime n. (hundredth part of a franc) 'sen-tim, sen'tiim. 

centimeter «. [also spelt centimetre} 'senti-mii-ta? ; (im- 
properly) sen'timi-tar. 

centipede n. many-legged arthropod [synonymous cognate 
centiped} 'senti-pid. 

centrale n. bone [ploral centralia} sen'tjee-h. 

centralization n. [also spelt centralisation} sent£ah'zee- 
San, sentja-lai'zee-Jan. 

centralize v, [also spelt centralise} 'sent^a-laiz. 

centrifugal adj, (fleeing from the center) sen'tjifgo-gaJ. 
(assumptivly) sen'tjifgogal. 

centripetal adj, (seeking the center) sen'tjipi-tl, (assump- 
tivly) sen'tjipitl. 

cents n. (plural of cent) scnts. 

jjre, g cure; d the, thin ; 5 a-?ure, ds ;oy ; ' S shoe, tS chew ; 
wzt/Aen; i] sing; u wh<7ever, i react, aiu\\, \5Miool, \tt, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o:doot, ootvo, t.\ic^, tt^qXt.\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 85 

oeatnmTir n. one of a body of about a hundred Roman 

judges [ploral centumvirs, centumviril sen'tAmva?. 
eentnmTirate n. sen'tAmva-zot. 
eentnple cuij. (a hundred-fold) 'sentqo-psl, 
eentnrion n. (commander of a century) 8en'tQo:-?i-9n. 
eenturj n. (a hundred soldiers; a hundred years) 'sentSa-s^i, 

{anteriorly) 'sentS^zi; {rapidly) 'sentS^i; {older) 'sentga-ri. 
eeorl n. (churl) kge:;!, tSe:?!* 
eephalio adj, (of the head) si'fxhk, 'sefs-hk; {erroneously) 

ki'fslik. 
eepl&alopod n. (head-tentacled animal) 'sefsla-ped, si'fxtd- 

ped. 
eepl&aloiM adj. (having a head) 'sefa-lss. 
cermin. n. (constituent of beeswax) 'si:-ze-in, 'si:-?9-in. 
eeramio adj, [synonymous cognate keramici si'rxmik. 
ceras ». a horn, or the like [ploral ceratal 'szz^s. 
cerate n. (ointment) 'si:-?et, 'si:-?9t. 
cerate adj. (having a cere; cered) 'si:-?et. 
cerate n. horn-silver [synonymous cognate keratel 'se?et. 
eeratin n. horn-substance [also spelt ceratine; synonymous 

cognates keratin, keratinel 'se?9-tin. 
eerattna n. (horn-plate) si'?xti-n9. 

ceratode n. horn-like skeletal substance of sponges [synony- 
mous cognate keratodel 'seza-tod. 
eeratohyal adj.,n. sesd-to'hai-dl. 
eeratoid adj. horn-like [synonymous cognate keratoidi 'sezs- 

teid. 
ceratome n. cornea-cutter [synonymous cognate keratome} 

'sezd-tom. 
ceratose adj, horny [synonymous cognate keratosel 'se?9- 

tos. 
eeroiM n. rear feeler; bristle [ploral cercil 'sezkds. 
cere n.,v, (wax) 8i:z. 
cereal adj. (of edible grain) 'si:-?i-9l. 
cerebellum n. the little brain ; the hind-brain [plural cere- 

bellal sezi'beldm. 
cerebral adj. (of the brain) 'sezi-bzal; {less properly) si'^ii- 

hz9l. 
cerebrie adj, (cerebral) 'sczi-bzik, si'zeb^ik, si'^ii-bzik. 
cerebrospinal adj. of the brain and spinal cord [also spelt 

cerebrospinal^ sczi-bzo'spai-nl. 
cerebmm n. brain; prosencephalon [ploral cerebral 'sen- 

b?3m; {less properly) si^g ii-bggm. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o h^t, 01 hoy; a: far, a^j now, a: osk, aiV.\t.e\ 

\znglh-njark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \otvs\ 

stress-mark C) indicates cbi^f Btress on the following sy\\a\Ae, 



86 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cerement n. (waxt grave-cloth) 'si:7-m9nt. 

oeremonial adj,, n. se^i'moo-ni-a}. 

ceremony n. [ploral ceremonies'^ 'seri-mom, 'serimd-ni. 

cereons adj. (waxen) 'si:-ri-9s. 

oerens n. (cactus) 'si:-zri-9S. 

cerge n. sB:7d3. see under cierge. 

oerio adj. (of cerium) 'si:-?ik. 

cerin n. waxy substance from cork ; impure cerotic acid from 

beeswax [also spelt cerinel 'si:-rin. 
oerine n. ore of cerium [also spelt cerin} 'si:-?in. 
ceripli n. see serif. 
cerise adj., n, (cherry red) ss'^iiz. 
oeroma n. (wax salve; cere) si'?oo-m9. 

cerosin n. wax-like substance [also spelt cerosinel 'si:-?9-sin. 
certain adj. (fixt; sure) 'sertn, 'se^tm; (dialectally) 'seet-n. 
certainly adv. 'sB?tn-h, 'serti-nh; (dialectally) 'sszt-nh. 
certiorari n. (writ) suzl^'zBi-zm. 

cerulean adj, sky-blue [also spelt caerulean'l si'?ou-H-9n. 
cemlein n. blue substance [synonymous cognate cerulini si- 

'rou-H-in. 
cemlin n. 'si:-?o-hn. same meaning as cerulein. 
cemmen n. (ear-wax) si'?ou-man. 
cemse n. (white lead) 'si:-?us, si'?ous. 
cemsite n. [also spelt cerussitel 'se?9-sait. 
cervical adj. (of the cervix or neck) 'sB'.r-vi-kal, sdr'vai-kdt. 
cervine adj. (of the deer) 'sBrzr-vin, 'sB:?-vain. 
cervix n. neck, etc. [ploral cervicesi 'sB:?-viks. 
ceryl «. (radical in beeswax) 'sr.-zil. 

cesare n. (mood of the second figure of syllogism) 'sii-z3-ri. 
Cesarean adj. see Caesarean, 
cespitose adj, turfy; matted [also spelt caespitosel sespi- 

'toos, (assumptivly) 'sespi-tos. 
cessation n. (a ceasing; stop) se's8e-$9n. 
cessavit n. (writ) se'see-vit. 
cessible adj. obsolete (yielding) 'sesd-bdL 
cession n. (act of ceding) 'seSsn. 
cesspool n. (drain-cistern) 'ses-poul. 
cestns n. girdle [ploral cesti"] 'sestss. 
oestns n. boxing-glove [also spelt caestus; ploral cestusi 'se- 

stds. 
oesnra n. cut made by the ending of a word within a foot 

[also spelt caesura; ploral cesuras, caesurael si'sqo:-?3, si- 

'zjo:-?3, si'3o:-r3. 

jj^e, gcure; d the, *Mn; saxrure, dj/oy; ^shoe, tjc/iew; 
wze/hen; ij sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuu, Quiool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over ^ ea^rial^ Abut, o: door, 00 no, ^Vkc^, ^^^(Afe\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 87 

Cetaeea n. pi, (whales) si'tee-si-9, si'tee-$i-9. 

eetaoean adj. (of the Cete or whales) si'tee-$9n. 

eete n. (whale) siit. 

cete n. obsolete (a company of badgers) siit. 

Cete n.pl. (whales, dolphins, etc.) 'sii-ti. 

eeteraeli n. (scaly fern; miltwaste) 'set9-?£k. 

eetie adj. (of the whale) 'sii-tik. 

cetine n. [also, sometimes, spelt cetini 'sii-tin, 'sii-tain. 

eetrarate n. si'tsee-set. 

cetrarie adj. (of citraria or Iceland moss) si't£ae?ik. 

eetrarin. n. [also spelt cetrarine^ si'tse:-zin, 'sets9-?in, 'sii- 

t£9-3in. 

eetyl n. radical [also spelt cetylel 'sii-til. 

eeylonite n. [synen3rmous cognates ceylanite, zeylanite'] si- 

^en-ait, sile-nait, 'sii-la-nait. 
eliabasite n. 'ksbs-zait, 'kxbd-sait. same meaning as chab- 

asite. 
eliabaiite n. mineral [synonymous cognate chabasitel 'ks- 

bd-zait 
ChahUmn. (wine) San>}ii, Sx'bhi. 
chaff n. (grain-husks) tSa:f, t$a:f, t$ae:f. 
diaffincli n. (bird) 'tSaf-fmtS, 'tSaefintS, 'tJai-finS. 
chagrin n. (vexation; mortification) l^'gzm, $9'g?iin. 
cliair n. (seat) t^eiz, 
cludse n. (vehicle) Seez. 

chalaza n. tread of an egg, etc. [ploral chalasae^ kslee-zs. 
chalcedonic adj. of chalcedony [also spelt calcedonici kx!- 

si'denik. 
chalcedony n. [also spelt calcedony'] kael'seds-ni, 'kselsids-ni. 
Chaldean adj. of Chaldea [also spelt Chaldaean} ksel'dii-sn. 
Chaldee adj,, n. (Chaldean) 'kael-di, ksel'dii. 
chaldron n. (measure) 'tSc:}-dr3n, 'tSa:l-dr9n, 'tSxldrsn. 
chalet n. (cottage) l^leCf S^elee, '$sele. 
chalice n. cup [also spelt chalisi 'tSaetis. 
chalil n. (ancient Hebrew musical instrument) hslii}. 
chalk n. (soft white limestone) tSc:k. 
challenge n., v. 't^shnds. 
challis n. fabric [also, sometimes, spelt challyl '$aeh, 'tSxhs. 

compare shalli. 
Chalybean adj. {pi the Chalybes) kd'hbi-sn, kxh'bii-dn. 
chalybeate adj, (impregnated with iron) kslibi-et. 
chambranle n. (top-piece of a doorway, etc.) Saem'b^aenl. 
chanicleon n. reptil [also spelt chamaeleoni kd'mii-H-sn. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, ehot, ei hoy; a: far, aa now, a: osk, aikxte\ 

Xzngth-markO) indicates that the preceding sound is Vetv^'i 

^reaa-mark () indicates chief stress on the fellowing syWaU^ 



88 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cbamfer n.,v. bevel [as verb, past participle and preterit 
chamfered, chamferd'] 'tSamfa?. 

diamois n. antelope; soft leather [also sometimes spelt, es- 
pecially in the sense of leather, shamoy, shammy'^ 'Jaemi, 
'Sae-mwe,''Sae-mwa, 'Jae-mei, Jae'mei. 

obamomile n. see camomile, 

oliainp V, bite, chew [synonymous cognate chomp; past par- 
ticiple and preterit champed, champti tjaemp. 

obampagne n. wine [also, formerly, spelt champaigne, cham- 
paign'] Saem'peen. 

oliainpaig:!! n,, adj. (flat open country) ^sm'peen ; (formerly) 
tjaem'peen. 

ohampak n. tree [also spelt champaci 'tSsm-pxk, 't$xmp9k, 
't^Am-pAk. 

diampig^pn n. mushroom [also spelt champinion'] ^xm'pi- 
njsn, t$3m'pini-9n. 

Champlain adj. (part of the Paleozoic series) lxm'pL.een. 

chanoe n. (fortune, fortuity, etc.) tSa:ns, tSa:ns, tSs:ns; (also) 
tSa:nts, etc. 

cbanoel n. (sanctuary) 'tSa:n-S9}, 'tSaenssl. 

chancellor n. (officer) 'tSa:n-s9-l9z. 

chancery n. 'tSa:n-s9-?i. 

chancre n. (venereal ulcer) 'lxt)k9z, 

chancroid adj. (like chancre) 'SxQ-kseid. 

chandelier n. (pendant cluster of lights) Ixnd^^iiz, 

chandler n. (candle-maker; retailer) 'tSam-dldzr, 'tSxndls?. 

changeable adj, (variable) 'tSeen-dsd-bs!. 

channel v, [present participle channeling, channelling; past 
participle and preterit channeled, channelled, channeld} 
'tjaenl, 'tSaenal. 

chanson n. (song) S^ri'sei], 'Ssenssn. 

chant v., n. [synonymous cognate chauntl tSa:nt, tSci:nt, 
tSaemt. 

chantant adj, Sori'ter), 'tSa:n-t3nt. 

chanticleer n. (cock) 'tSsenti-k^i:?, 't$a:n-ti-kz<i:7. 

chaos n. (chasm, abyss; disorder) 'kee-es. 

chaotie adj. (like chaos) ke'etik. 

chap n. (a crack, as in the hand) tSaep. 

chap n. jaw [also spelt chop] t^ep. 

chaparral n. (thicket) tlxp^zxl. 

chapean n, hat [ploral chapeaux] Sse'poo. 

chapel n. (subordinate place of worship, etc.) 'tjaepsl. 

chaperon n. (hood; protector) 'Jaepa-^on, 'Jaepa-^on. 

J ye, gcure; d the, 9 /Mn ; 3 ajsrure, ds/oy; S j/»oe, tSc/iew; 
wzt/Aen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, Diu\\, ouiool, itt, \\s6e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, ;)ono, t,\ic^, ^.^\iAWn 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 89 

elutpfalloA ad$, 'tSep-fc:^9n, 'tSaep-fc:-l9n. same meaning 

as chopfallen, 
elutplain n. (priest, etc.) 't$xpz<in. 
elutplet n. (head-dress, wreath) 'tSsprst. 
elutppy n. chap, fellow [also spelt chappiel 'tSxpi. 
eliar it., v. tlaiz. same meaning as chare. 
ehar it. (fish) t$a:?. 
cliar tr. reduce to charcoal by burning; scorch [as verb, past 

participle and preterit charred, chard} tSaiz. 
ckaraetefr it. (mark; trait; person) laez^k-t^z, {anteriorly) 

'ksizsktsz; (also, often) laszik-t^z; (vulgarly) ks'zxkt^z. 
eliaraoteriiatloA n. [also spelt characterisationi ksezdk- 

t9zi'zee-$9n, (rapidly) kae?9kt£i'zee-S9n ; (also) kae^akta-eai- 

'rce-$3n. 
diaraeterise v, [also spelt characterise! ^sez^kts-zaiz, 
eltarade n. (word-riddle, often acted) Sd'zreed, S^'zaid, 
elaare n.,v. turn, etc. [synonymous cegnate char and, as a 

noun, in the sense of job, chorel t^ciz. 
cliarlne— n. 't$e:-zi-nis. 
charioteer n. (chariot-driver) tSae^i-s'ti:?. 
charifliii n. (devine gift; talent) 'kx-ziz^m. 
eharivari n. (mock serenade) laszi'vaezi, Sa?i'va:-2ri. 
cJiarlatan. n. (quack) 'Sa:r-la-tn, 'Sai^-la-tan, 'Sa:?-l3-taen. 
oliarlotte msse n. (whipt cream and sponge-cake) $a:?-l9t- 

Vous. 
ehaniel n. (repository for dead bodies') %a:z-nl. 
cl&art n., t/. (map ; draft) tlaizt. 
cluurta n. a paper, a parchment; a charter [ploral chartael 

Tcorta, Tcare-ta. 
eliarter n. (written instrument) 'tSa^ta?. 
eluurtograplier n. map-maker [also spelt cartographer'} kaz- 

'togra-far. 
ehartrense n. (cordial) Sa^t£B:z. 

chartnlary n. a set of charters ; register [also spelt cartula- 
ry"} TcartQo-Jen. 
el&ary adj, (careful, cautious, wary) 'tSer-jri. 
cluuiable adj. [also spelt chaseable} 'tSce-sd-bal. 
chase v., n. hunt [also spelt chace} t^ees, (when unstrest) 

t$es. 
chase n. (frame in which type-forms are lockt) tSees. 
chase n. (part of a gun ; groove) tjees. 
chasm n. (yawning gulf; cleft; gap) 'kaezsm, 'kaezm. 
chass6 V. glide, etc. [also spelt chassez, chassey; vulgar syn- 

c: low, b: fur, xcat, hot, ei boy; a: for, ao now, a: osk, BiiV\\e\ 

lengtb-markO) indicates that the preceding sound is \oti%', 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f©lloY/ing syWaU^ 



90 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

enymous cognates sashy, sashay, sasshay} Jx'see, (some- 
times, especially anteriorly) 'Jaese. 
oliassepot n. (rifle) '$£s-po, Saes'poo. 
chassis n. (frame) '^xsis, Sa'sii. 
chaste adj, (pure) tSeest. 
chasten v. disciplin; purify [past participle and preterit 

chastened, chastend} 'tjce-san, 'tjce-sn; (improperly) 'tjce- 

stsn, 'tSxsdn. 
chastening; adj. 'tSee-sd-niij. (rapidly) 'tSees-niij. 
ehastise v, punish [also spelt chastizel tSxs'taft, tSs'staiz, 

'tSae-staiz. 
ehastisement n. 't$xstis-mdnt, 'tSxstiz-msnt ; (less properly) 

tSss'taiz-mdnt. 
chasuble n. (vestment) 'tSasJo-bal, 'tjasgo-bsl, 'tSaeSjo-bal. 
ch&tean n. castle; country house [ploral ch&teaux^ S^c'too, 

Sa'too. 
ehatelaine n. (mistress of a chateau; appendage) 'tSaet}-en, 

'Saeti-len; 'Jai-ta-len. 
ehattel n. (movable possession) 'tSxtl, 'tSsetdl. 
ehanffer n. portable furnace [also spelt chauferl 'tjofd;, 

'Sc:-fazr. 
chauffeur n, (automobile-driver) Jo'fo:?, 'Joo-far. 
ehauvinism n. (devotion) 'S^o-vi-nizsm. 
ehay n. chaise [also spelt shay'\ See. 
cheap adj. (low in price ; mean) tSiip. 
check n., v. [also, as a noun, in the sense of a written order 

or draft, spelt cheque \ as verb, past participle and preterit 

checked, checktl tjek. 
checker n. one of the pieces or men used in the game of 

drafts or checkers [also spelt chequer'} 'tjekar. 
checkerberry n. [also spelt chequerberry ; synonymous cog- 
nate chickaherryl 'tSekar-be^i. 
checkered adj. [also spelt chequered, checkerdi 'tSekard. 
cheeky adj. checkt, checkerd [also spelt chequee, chequy, 

chequey, checquy, checqueyl 'tjeki. 
Cheddar adj. [also spelt Chedderl 't$edd;. 
cheep V, (peep, chirp, squeak) tSiip. 
cheerful adj, *tli:z'f^l. 
cheesy adj. (of or like cheese) 'tSii-zi. 
chef n. (head; chief cook) lef. 
chef-d'ceuvre n. [ploral chefs-d'oeuvre'] Sc'deiv?. 
cheiropter n. see chiropter. 
chela n. claw [ploral chelae] Hcii-ls. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Othin; sasure, d^foy; Jj/»oe, tSrfcew; 
wwhen; tj sing; u wh<?ever, i react, oiuu, oMiooV "1%^, 'A.^ec*, 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, otdoot, oono, «.>ac^, «.fe^cJ«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 91 

chela n. pupil, novice [also spelt cheeld] 'tjee-la, 'tjii-la. 

cheloid n. tumor [also spelt keloid} 'kii-leid. 

clielys n. (ancient Greek lyre; lute; viol) 'kehs. 

cheme n. (Roman weight) 'kii-mi. 

ehenUe adj. (of chemistry) 'kcmik. 

ehemise n. (garment; wall) Ji'miiz; {less properly) Si'miis. 

ehemiflette n. (garment) ^emi'zet. 

ehemist n. [former synonymous cognate chymist} 'kemist, 

{dialectally) 'kimist. 
cHemistry n. [former synonymous cognate chymistry} 'ke- 

mi-stsi, (dialectally) Tcimi-stii. 
ohenllle n. (cord) Jd^niil. 
cHenopod n. (plant) 'kii-nd-ped, 'kend-ped. 
clieqiie n. see check, 
cHeroot n. cigar [synonymous cognate sharoot} l^'zaut, tji- 

'zDUt. 

eliemb n. angel [ploral cherubs, cherubint"] 'tSceab. 
ohembie adj. (of cherubs; angelic) tSi'^uu-bik. 
eliembim. n. (ploral of cherub) 'tlez^-bim; (less properly) 

'tSeejo-bim. 
cliendl n. (plant) %b:z-viI. 
Cheshire adj. 'tSeSs?. 

chestnut n. nut; tree [also spelt chesnutl 'tSesNst 'tSes-nxt. 
ohetah n. leopard [also spelt cheeia, cheetah'} 'tjii-ts. 
eheval de frise n. war-appliance, spiked ornament [ploral 

chevaux de frise} Sa-vael-da'fsiiz. 
chevalet n. (prop) 'Sev9-le. 
che-ralier n. (horseman, knight ; bird) Jevali:?. 
ehe-ranx n. (ploral of cheval) Ss'voo. 
ehevelnre n. (head of hair; coma of a comet) 'lev^-lioz. 
ehe-rerel n. (obsolete) kid [also spelt cheveril] 'tjeva-ral. 
ohevet n. (eastern end of an apse) Ss'vee. 
cheviot n. (woolen cloth) 'tSevi-at, 'tSii-vi-at; 'tjivi-at. 
chevron n. beam ; device ; badge [synonymous cognate che- 

veron} 'Sevzran. 
cheiv V. masticate [past participle and preterit chewed, 

chev' '] tSou, (when unstrest) tju. 
chcwink n. bird [also spelt cheewink} tli'vritjk. 
chianti n. (wine) ki'xnti, ki'a:n-ti. 
chiaroscuro n. light and shade, clair-obscure ; a drawing 

in black and white [also spelt chiaro-oscuro} ki-a:-^3'sko:-^o. 
chiasm n. (two lines crost; decussation) 'kai-aezsm. 
chiasma n. chiasm [ploral chiasmatal kai'xzms. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*, ask, ^iV\\,^\ 

\zngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \^xvv^N 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f oVVovfing a^\\a\i\e^. 



92 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ohiasmiis n. (word-order) kai'sesMSS. 

oliibonk n. long-stemd pipe [also spelt chibouque, chibuk'i 

tSi'bouk, tSiTjok. 
oliic adj, (stylish; cunning) S^k, $iik. 
chicane n. (trickery) Si'keen. 
cMeanery n. [plural chicaneries} Si'kce-na-zri ; {less properly) 

Si'kaena-ei. 
eliick n. (chicken) t$ik. 
eliicken n. 'tSikin; {dialectally) 'tSikq. 
eliicory n. plant [also spelt chiccory ; synonymous cognate 

succory'i 'tjika-ei, {anteriorly) 'tjikaei; {rapidly) 'tSiksi. 
eliief adj. (principal) tSiif, {when less strest) tSif. 
eliief n. head [ploral chiefs'] t^iif. 
chief ery n. office or domain of a chief; tribute [synonymous 

cognate chief ry] 'tSii-fa-^i. 
chieftain n. (leader) 'tSiif-tin. 
chiffon n. (bit of cloth or finery) 'Jifan, 'Sifon. 
chiffonier n. case of drawers; rag-picker [also spelt chif- 

fonnier; synonymous cognates chiffonniere, chiffonier e, 

chiffonidre, chiffonniere, cheffonier] Jifa'ni:?, Si'foo-ni-e, 

Si'feni-e, 'Sifa-niizr. 
chiffonnidre n. (female ragpicker) li'too-ni-ziz, 
chignon n. (a woman's hair done up at the nape of the 

neck) 'Sii-njorj. 
chilblain n. (blain due to a cold ; erythema) 'tSil-bleen. 
child n. [ploral children"] 'tSaild. 
childe n. (noble youth; squire; knight) tjaild. 
childlike adj. (like a child) 'tSaiM-laik, 'tSail-laik. 
children n. (ploral of child) 'tSildrsn. 

chiliasm n. (doctrin of final rule by Christ, etc.) 'kiH-aezam. 
chilli n. the pod or fruit of the Guinea pepper [also spelt 

chili, chilly, chile; ploral chillies] 'tjih. 
chilly adj. (cold) 'tjih. 

chiloma n. lip [ploral chilomata] kailoo-ms. 
chime n. (set of bells; also, their harmonious sound) t^aim. 
chime n. rim of a cask [also spelt chimb] tSaim. 
chimer n, (one who chimes) 'tjai-ma?. 

chimer n. [also spelt chimar, chimmar] 'tjima?. same mean- 
ing as chimere. 
chimera n. fantastic creature ; vain fancy [also spelt chi- 

maera] kai'mi:-?3, ki'mi:-^a. 
chimera n. [also spelt chimaera] Si'mi:-79. same meaning as 

chimere. 

J ye, gcure; b the, 9 *Mn ; 3 arure, dsjoy; I shoe, tjc/iew; 
wzaAen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, ouiool, i-it, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, e\>c^, ^^^a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS « 

ehia&ere n. bishop's robe [synonymous cognates chimer, chi- 

fnera\ Ji'mi;?, tji'mi:?. 
ehia&erieal adj, (fantastic; preposterous) kai'mc^i-kdl, ki- 

ehia&eriie v. obsolete [also spelt chimerise} kai'mi:-zaiz, 
ki'mi:-7aiz. 

ehimAey n. smoke-vent [ploral chimneysl 'tjimni; {dialec- 
tally, sometimes with variation of spelling) 'tjimh, 'tSim- 
Mi. 

ehlatpaniee n. (ape) tSim'pxnzi, tSim'paenzi, tSimpsn^zii, 
tSimpxn'zii. 

ehinar-tree n. tSi'na:?-t£ii. 

ddAoliilla n. (rodent; fur; cloth) tSm'tSils. 

diinese adj. (of China) tjai'miz, {assumptivly) 'tSai-niz; 
{also) tSai'niis, {assumptivly) 'tjai-nis. 

ehinkapin n. dwarf chestnut [also spelt chincapin, chin- 
quapini 'tjigka-pin, 'tjinka-pin. 

oltinoidine n. by-product obtaind in making quinine [also, 
sometimes, spelt chinoidin'] ki'nei-din, ki'noi-dain. 

ddAoline n. tertiary amin [also, sometimes, spelt chinolin; 
synonymous cognates quinoline, quinolin, quinolein, quino- 
leinel 'kina-lain, 'kina-lin. 

diinook n. (wind) tSi'nok, t^i'nouk. 

c]ii]i.tz n. printed cotton cloth [also spelt chints'\ taints. 

diipmunJE n. chipping-squirrel [synonymous cognate chip- 
muck, chipmuk} 'tJip-mAqk. 

cliirog^rapliy n. (handwriting) kaiVegzd-fi. 

ehiromancy n. (palmistry) 'kai-^a-maensi, {rarely) 'ki^a- 
maensi. 

ehiropod n. mammal with hands [also spelt cheiropodi 'kai- 
z9-ped. 

chiropodist n. (corn-doctor, etc.) kai'z;epd-dist, ki'^epa-dist ; 
{improperly) tji'^epa-dist, Ji'^epa-dist. 

chiropter n. wing-handed animal ; bat [also spelt cheiropter} 
kai'^opta^. 

ohirmp v. chirp [synonymous cognate cherup; past partici- 
ple and preterit chirruped, chirrupt'\ 'tji^ap. 

ehimrgeon n. (surgeon) kaiVardsan; {improperly) t^i'zBz- 
dssn. 

chisel n. (tool) 't^izdl. 

chisel V. [present participle chiseling, chiselling \ past par- 
ticiple and preterit chiseled, chiselled, chiseld} 'tjizal. 

chitin n. entomolin [also spelt chitine'\ 'kai-tin. 

c: low, b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, ©i hoy; a: far, go now, a: ask, a\k\\.^\ 
\Bngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \^xv%N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f oWovfin^ sv\\^\t. 



94 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

diitinisation n. [also spelt chitinisation^} kai-tini'zee-Sdn, 

kai-ti-nai'zee-San. 
chitinised adj. [also spelt chitinised'] Icai-ti-naizd. 
cliiton n. (tunic) 'kai-ten. 

chi-ralrio adj. (of chivalry) 'Sivsl-^ik, Ji'vakik, 'tjival-rik. 
oM-ralrons adj. (knightly; of the Age of Chivalry; gallant) 

'Siv3l-?3s, 'tjival-^as. 
ehivalry n. (mounted man-at-arms; knighthood; curtesy) 

'Sival-^i, {also, especially in Britain) 'tjival-?!. 
diive n. plant [synonymous cognate civel tjaiv. 
oblamys n. mantle [plural chlamydes'] 'kLee-mis, 'kuemis. 
chloral n. (liquid) 'kz.oi-z^l. 

oliloraliiiii n. (antiseptic) 'kLD:-?d-l3m, kLo'^xlsm. 
oUoranil n. [also spelt chloranilel *kt.o>z9-nil, kz^o'^snil. 
chloride n. [also, sometimes, spelt chloridl 'kz.o:-?aid, (be' 

fore of) 'ki.o:-?id. 
eUoridize r. convert into or cover with a chloride [errone- 

ous synonymous cognates chlorodise, chlorodisel 'ktor-ei- 

daiz. 
chlorine n. [also, sometimes, spelt chlorin'] 'kz.3:-;ain, 'kz.3:- 

zin, 'kto:-?in. 
chloroform n. (formyl trichloride) 'kt.oi-z^-feizm. 
chlorophyl n. green matter of leaves, etc. [also spelt chloro- 

phylll 'kto:-^3-fil. 
choana n. funnel; infundibulum [ploral choanael 'koo-s-ns. 
chock-fnll adj. [synonymous cognate choke-fult] tSek^fol, 

(assumptivly) 'tSok-fol; (dialectally) tSAk'fol, (assuntptivly) 

'tSAk-fol. 
chocolate n. (prepared cacao-kernels) 'tSeks-lst. 
choenix n. Greek dry measure [ploral choenicesl 'kii-niks. 
choir n. company of singers [also spelt quirel kwaiz. 
choired adj. assembled in a choir; utterd in chorus [also, 

sometimes, spelt quired"] kwai?d, (also, in poetry) 'kiuai-^id. 
ehoirman n. man who sings in a choir [also spelt quireman; 

ploral choirmeni 'kiuaij-man, 
choke V. (stop the breath, etc.) tSook, (when unstrest) tSok. 
oholagog:ne n. medicin for controlling the bile [also spelt 

cholagogi 'kola-gog. 
choler n. (bile; anger) 'kola?; (erroneously) 'koo-lar. 
cholera n. (disease) 'keld-??. 
choleric adj. (of choler or bile; angry) 'kela-eik. 
cholerine n. diarrhea preceding cholera [also, sometimes, 

spelt cholerini 'kela-zrin, 'kela-^ain, 'kola-^in. 

Jjy^, gcure; bthe, 9 /Mn ; 3 assure, ds/oy; I shoe, tjc/iew; 

ww/ten; zjsing; u whoever, i react, oiull, aufool, lit, \\^ee\ 

o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, 0: doot, 00 uo, t\ic^, t.^^oX&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 95 



c]&olesteri]& n. [also spelt cholesterine ; erroneous synony- 
mous substitutes cholestearin, cholestearine} ka'lesta-ein. 

cl&ollaii&b n. (variety of iambic trimeter; scazon) 'koo-li- 
smb. 

oholine n. bile-substance [also, sometimes, spelt cholin; syn- 
onymous cognate cholein} 'kolin, 'ke-lain. 

ol&oiie n. (cortical dome of a sponge) koon. 

olioose V. select [past participle chosen; preterit chosel 
tjouz, {when unstrest) tjuz. 

obopfallen adj. [synonymous cognate chapfalleni 'tSep-fc:- 
}dn. 

ol&opin n. liquid measure [also, formerly, spelt choppin, chop- 
ine^ 'tjopin. 

ol&opine n. clog, shoe [also, sometimes, spelt chopini tSo'piin, 
'tSopin, 'tS 0-pin. 

olioragie adj, (of a choragus) ko'^xdsik, ko'^ee-dsik. 

ol&oragns n. chorus-leader [synonymous cognate choregus', 
ploral choragil ko'?ee-gas. 

ol&oral adj. (of a chorus or choir) lai-z^h 

olioral n. song; tune [also spelt choralel Icoi-z^i, \a'za:h 

ol&ord. n. a string; the simultaneous sounding of three or 
more tones; a straight line intersecting a curve; a chorda 
[also spelt cord"] ke:zd. 

chorda n. tendon ; filament [ploral chordae"} 'kerzr-ds. 

cl&ore n. small job; char, chare [also spelt choar} t^oiz. 

chorea n. (Saint Vitus's dance) ka'^ii-a, ko'zrii-a. 

choree n. (trochee) 'ko:-?i, ko'^ii. 

ohorio adj. (of a chorus) 'ko^ik, 'ko:-?ik. 

chorion n. outer fetal envelop [ploral chorial 'ko:-?i-3n. 

chorisis n. (separation) 'k3:-7i-sis. 

chorist n. (singer in a choir) 'ke^ist, 'ko:-?ist. 

chorister n. (singer in a choir; choir-leader) 'kezri-std?; {im- 
properly) Tcor-n-sta?. 

choroid adj. (membranous) 'k3:-?eid. 

chorus n. band of singers ; song [ploral choruses] 'ko:-?3s. 

chose V. (preterit of choose) tjooz, {when unstrest) tSoz. 

chose n. (piece of property; thing) Jooz. 

chonsh M. (bird) t^Af. 

chrestomathy n. (collection of literary extracts) kses'te- 
ms-Oi. 

chrism n. (sacred ointment; unction) 'ksizam, Ic^izm. 

chrisom n. chrisom-cloth, chrisom-robe ; dead child [also 
spelt chrysom, chrysomel 'k^izam. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, © hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a*. asV., a."i.V.\\.e.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \^n«.N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f eUowms sv\\a.V\€:. 



% DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oliristen v. baptize, etc. [past participle and preterit christ- 
ened, christend} 'Icsissn, 'ksisn. 
oliristening n. 'Icsisd-nii], Ic^isn-ii], 'IcsisNir). 
Christianity n. k^is'tSseni-ti, ksiS'tSxni-ti ; ksistSi'xni-ti, 

ksiStSi'aeni-ti ; Icsis'tgani-ti, ksisti'aeni-ti. 
Christianize v. [also spelt Christianisel 'IcsistSd-naiz, 

'IcsiStJa-naiz ; Iraistga-naiz. 
Christmas n. 'Icsismss. 
ehromatrope n. rotary color-disk [also spelt chromotropel 

'lcsoo-ni3-t£op. 
clironiolithograpliy n. ksoo-mo-li'Oeg^d-fi. 
olironiospliere n. (solar color-sphere; chromatosphere) 

'ksoo-ms-sfi:?. 
eliromotype n. [also spelt chromatypel 'Icsoo-md-taip. 
chronic adj. (of time; long-continued) 'ksenik. 
chronograph n. (time-recording device) 'ksen3-g?a:f. 
chronologic adj. k^ensledsik. 

chronologize v. [also spelt chronologisel ksd'nels-dsaiz. 
chronology n. (science of the time-order of events) \cs9- 

'nela-dsi. 
chronometer n. (time-measuring device) k^a'nemi-ts?. 
chrysalides n. (ploral of chrysalis) k^i'saeh-diz. 
chrysalis n. pupa [ploral chrysalides, chrysalises'] 'ksisa-hs. 
chrysanthemum n. (flower) k^i'ssnOi-msm. 
chryselephantine adj. of gold and ivory [also spelt chrys- 

elephantifi] ksis-eh'faentin. 
chrysoberyl n. (cymophane) 'Icsisa-beeiJ. 
chrysolite n. (olivin) 'ksisd-lait. 
chrysoprase n. (variety of chalcedony) 'ksisa-psez. 
church n. (house of worship; ecclesiastic organization) 

tSeretS. 

chute n. inclined slide; waterfall; rapid [also, sometimes, 
spelt shute, shoot"] Sout. 

chutney n. condiment [also spelt chutnee"] 't^AtNi. 

chyle n. (liquid in the lacteals) kail. 

chylifactive adj, [also spelt chylifactiv, c hi I if active] kai- 
h'faektiv, kih'faektiv. 

chylification n. kai-hfi'kee-Jan, kilifi'kee-San. 

chyme n. (food in process of digestion) kaim. 

chymifioation n, kai-mifi'kee-Jan, kimifi'kee-San. 

cicada n. locust; cricket [ploral cicadas, cicadae] si'kee-da. 

cicatrice n. scar, cicatrix [also spelt cicatris; ploral cica- 
trices] 'sika-tEis. 

/j^'^/ gcure; d the, Q thin\ saswe, dsjoy; ^shot, tjc/iew; 
wze/Aen; ij sing; u whenever, i react, oiuW, oviiooV, \\\., \v^cc\ 
o poetic; o over, e aerial, a but, o:dooT, oono, t\ic^, «.^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 97 

eieatrices n. *(ploral of cicatrice) 'sik9t£i-siz. 
eieatriees n. (ploral of cicatrix) sikd'tsai-siz. 
eieatriole it. (germinal vesicle; hilum) 'sikatsi-ksl, si'kstsi- 

kal. 
eleatrisc it. scar, hilum [ploral cicatricesi si'kce-t£iks, 'siks- 

tiiks. 
eleatrisant adj, that cicatrizes [also spelt cicatrisant} 'siks- 

tsai-zant. 
eleatrisatioii n. [also spelt cicatrisation} sikdtsi'zee-Ssn, 

sikd-tsai'zee-Sdn. 
eleatriie v, scar over [also spelt cicatrisel 'sika-tsaiz. 
eicely n. (plant) 'sisi-li, 'sai-sz.i. 
eteerone n. guide [ploral ciceroni, ciceronesl tSitSi'zoo-ni, 

sisi'?30-ni. 
eteisbeo n. one who dangles about women [ploral cicisbei, 

cicisbeosi si'sisbi-o, tSitJiz'bee-o. 
eidarite n. (fossil echinoid) 'sids-zait. 
eider n. (drink) 'sai-ds?. 
elerse n. wax candle or taper [former synonymous cegnates 

cerge, serge"} si:7d3, si'c:?5. 
cigar n. roll of tobacco for smoking [also spelt segar} si'ga:?. 
eisarotte n. [also spelt cigaret} sigsVet; (improperly) 'sigd- 

zet, siga'eiit. 
eillairy adj. (of cilia; hair-like) 'si}i-e?i. 
eilimn n. eyelash; hair-like organ [ploral cilia"] 'sili-dm. 
eimeter n. 'simi-ts?. same meaning as simitar, 
einel&ona n. (bark) sin'koo-ns. 

cincture n. (belt; barrier) 'sigktSd?, (older) ^sir]ktq^z. 
cinematograpli n. (motion-picture machine) sini'mxts- 

gsraif. 
Cingalese adj. (of Ceylon) siggs'hiz, (assumptivly) 'sigga- 

liz; (also) siQgs'his, (assumptivly) 'siqga-Hs. 
cingle n. obsolete (girth) 'sir) gal. 

cinnabar n. (red sulfid of mercury; vermilion) 'sind-ba:?. 
cinnamon n. (bark; tree) 'sins-msn. 
cinqnefoil n. plant; ornament [also spelt cinqfoil} 'siqk- 

feil. 
cion n. obsolete (uvula, etc.) 'sai-dn. 
oion n. obsolete (shoot, twig, etc.) 'sai-an. see scion. 
cipher n. nought, zero; secret writing [also spelt cypher, ci- 

fer; past participle and preterit ciphered, ciferdj 'sai-fa?. 
Ciroeam adj. of Circe [also spelt Circaeanl so^'sii-dn. 
circle n. (ring; coterie) 'sezkal, 'ssr^-kal. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, 01 hoy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai\^itt\ 

Itogth-marlr (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \oTi%\ 

stress-mark () indicates Qhiei 9tres9 pn th^ fallowing s^WaW, 



98 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oircnit n. (boundary-line; area; detour) 'ss^kit. 
cironitons adj, (circuit-like; roundabout) sBz'kgou-i-tds. 
circularise v, [also spelt circularise'^ 'sB?kQol9-?aiz. 
oironmolie v. cut off the foreskin [also spelt circumcise'^ 

'sBrksm-saiz ; {less properly) SBzkdm'saiz. 
oircnmferenoe n. s^z'kAmi^-z^ns. 
eironinferenter n. (land-compass; circumventor) ssz-kiun- 

fa'eentae, sar'kAmfa-eenta?. 
oironnifleotion n. [also spelt circumflexion] sBzk9m'fz.ek- 

Sdn. 
oironinsoribe v. SBzrkdm'slnaib, {anteriorly) 'sB^ksm-sIcsaib. 
circnmspect adj. (cautious) 'sB^ksm-spekt. 
cironmspect v, {obsolete) sBzrkdm'spekt. 
oironinstance n. (surrounding; detail) 'sBzrkdm-stsns, 'ss?- 

kdm-stdns. 
oiroiim.stantial adj, SBzrkdm'staenSdl, {assumptivly) 'sb?- 

ksm-staenSdl. 
oircnin'vol've v. revolv [also spelt circumvolv; past partici- 
ple and preterit circumvolved, circumvolvdl SBzrkam'velv. 
eirrliosis n. (liver-disease) siVoo-sis. 

eirrose adj. having cirri [also spelt cirrhosel siVoos, {as- 
sumptivly) 'si?os. 
cisalpine adj. on this, the southern, side of the Alps [also, 

sometimes, spelt cisalpin^ sis'xlpin, sis'ael-pain. 
cist n. case, chest, mystic basket [also, erroneously, spelt 

cysfl sist. 
cist n. prehistoric place of interment ; sepulchral chest ; stone 

coffin [also, erroneously, spelt cyst; synonymous cognate 

kistl SI St. 
citadel n. (fortress) 'sits-ddl. 
cite V, (quote, name) sait. 

cithara n. (ancient Greek musical instrument) *siB^z9. 
eitliern n. musical instrument with wire strings, played with 

a plectrum [synonymous cognates cittern; cither, cithar, 

zither"] 'siGazn. 
citrate n. (salt of citric acid) 'si-tjet; {erroneously) 'sai-tjet. 
citrine adj. of the citron or lemon [also spelt citrini 'sitjin. 
eive n. saiv. same meaning as chive. 

civil adj. (of the state; curteous) 'sivil, {sometimes) 'sival. 
civilization n. [also spelt civilisationi sivih'zee-$9n, sivi- 

lai'zee-San. 
civilize v. [also spelt civilisel 'sivi-laiz. 
eivilizer n. [also spelt civiliser'] 'sivi-lai-zar. 

Jj^e, gcure; b the, Qthin; saxrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwken; zjsing; u wh/7ever, i react, oiuVl, xiMiool, itt, \\^ee\ . 
o poetic; q over, e aerial. Abut, o*. doot, ootio, t\ic^, t.^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 99 

eivilly adv, (in a civil manner) 'sivi-h, (anteriorly) 'sivili. 
clair-obsenre n. chiaroscuro [also spelt clare-obscurel 

dairroyaAoe n. (mesmeric insight) kz.ez'vei-9ns. 

clam ant adj, (crying) 'kz^ee-msnt, 'kLsmant. 

elamor n. outcry [also spelt clamourl 'kLxma^. 

elamor v. raise an outcry; shout [also spelt clamour; past 

participle and preterit clamored, clamord} 'kvxm^z. 
elamorons adj, [also, rarely, spelt clamourousl 'kz^ms- 

Z9S. 

clandestine adj, secret [also, sometimes, spelt clandestine 
kz.aen'destin, kLaen'de-stain. 

clangor n. clang [also spelt clangourl 'kLsgd?, 'kLSQgdz. 

clannish adj. (of a clan) 'kz^aeni^. 

clapboard n. (sheathing-board) 'kz^bszd, 'ki^p-ho:zd. 

daq^ne n. (paid applauders collectivly) kLsk. 

Clarencenx n. title of the second king-at-arms [also spelt 
Clarencieuxl 'kz^aersn-SQU. 

claret n. (wine) 'k^srst. 

clarinet n. wind-instrument [synonymous cognate clarionet} 
'kije^i-net, kz-aeei'net. 

clarion n. (trumpet) 'k^ae^i-dn. 

clasp n., V. catch, embrace [past participle and preterit clasp- 
ed, claspt"] kz.a:sp, kz^aisp, kz^isp. 

class n. (division; rank) kz.a:s, kz.a:s, k]:<se:s. 

classic adj. of the first class; standard; of old Greece or 
Rome) 'ki^sik, 'kta:-sik. 

classicist n. 'kLxsi-sist, 'k]:<a:-si-sist. 

classicize v. [also spelt classicise'\ 'kz.sesi-saiz, 'kLa:-si-saiz. 

classify v, (arrange in classes) 'kz.aesi-fai, 'k]:<a:-si-fai. 

clavate adj. (club-shaped) 'ktae-vet, 'ki.ee-vet. 

claTieliord n. (piano-like instrument) 'kLaevi-ke:7d. 

clavier n. (keyboard) 'klee-vi-azr, kJa'vi:?; (clavichord, pia- 
no) kta'vi:?. 

clayey adj, (of clay) 'ktee-i. 

oleading n. clothing; casing [also spelt deeding'} 'kLii-dii). 

cleanly adj. clean, neat [also spelt clenly} 'kLenh. 

cleanly adv. (in a clean manner; exactly) 'kz.ii-nh. 

eleansable adj. [also spelt cleansible, clensable} 'kz^enzd-bdl. 

cleanse v. make clean [also spelt dense} kLenz. 

clear v. clarify; become bright [past participle and preterit 
cleared, cleard] ki.i:z, (when unstrest) ktie. 

cleat ff. strip of wood, etc. [also spelt deet} k^iit. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: iar^ go now, a*, osk, aiV.\\.t\ 

Izngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtvd is \^ti^\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the teUo'Wing syWaXAt. 



48?447 



100 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cleaver n. (.one who or that which cleaves) Ici-ii-va?. 
cleavers n. climbing plant [synonymous cognate clivers} 

'k3Lli-V3?Z. 

clef n. (key-mark on a musical staff) k^ef. 

cleft n. crevis, rift [synonymous cognate cliftl k^eft. 

,cleistoganiy adj, same meaning as clistogamy. 

clematis ». (plant) 'ktema-tis; (improperly) ki.i'mee-tis. 

clemeney n. (leniency) 'kz.emdn-si. 

Clementine adj. of Clement [also, sometimes, spelt Clemen- 

tin} 'kteman-tin, 'kz^emdn-tain. 
clenoli V. fasten [synonymous cognate clinch; past participle 

and preterit clenched, clenchtl ktentj, lalso, and in Britain 

normally) kz.enS. 
clepsydra n. water-clock [plural clepsydras, clepsydrae} 

'ki.epsi-dr3, ktep'sai-drs. 
cleptomania n. see kleptomania. 
clerestory n. upper story or part of the nave, etc. [also 

spelt clearstory} 'ki.i:z-sto:-zi. 
clergy n. (body of ecclesiastics) 'kto^dsi, 'ktei^-dsi. 
clerical adj, (of the clergy; of clerks or writers) 'kteri-kal. 
clerk n. (clergyman ; scholar ; recorder ; salesman) kL.B:zk, 

(in Britain, oftener) ktaizk, kLa:k. 
eleiv n. ball or skein; thread [also spelt clue} k^ou. 
clio]i6 n. (printing-plate) k^i'See. 
click n. (sound) ki.ik. 

clientele n. clients collectivly [also spelt clientelle, clien- 
tele} ki.ai-3n'tiil, ki.ai-3n'tel, kti-eq'teel. 
climacteric n. (critical period in life) kz.ai'msekt9-7ik, kz.ai- 

maek'te^ik, ki.i'maekt3-rik, ktimaek'terik. 
climatal adj. (of climate) 'kz.ai-m9-tl, 'k^ai-md-td}. 
climate n. (region; prevailing atmospheric condition) 'ktai- 

mit. 
climatic adj. (of climate) loLai'maetik ; (less properly) ki.i- 

'maetik. 
climatize v. [also spelt climatise} 'ktai-md-taiz. 
climatology n. (science of climate) kLai-ms'tels-dsi. 
climb n. (ascent) kz.aim. 

climber n. (one who or that which climbs) 'k^ai-md?. 
clime n. (region, realm) kz.aim. 
clinantkinm n. (receptacle of a composit flower; coenan- 

thium) kti'naenGi-am. 
clinok V. [past participle and preterit clinched, clincht} 

ktintS, ktinj. same meaning as clench, 

j ye, gcure; d the, 9 *Mn ; 3 a-sure, ds/oy; S shoe, tSc/tew; 

wwAen; ijsinff; u whoever, i react, oiuU, aufool, i it, lis^e; 

Q poetic; o QVfr, ^ aerial, Abut, o;^0P^^ o6iio» cV^» ^^^a\&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 10! 

ellnometer n. (dip-measuring device) kLi'nemi-t97, kz«ax- 

'nemi-tds:. 
eliiiq,iiant adj. (glittering) IcLiijkdnt. 
clique n. (party, set) kz.iik. 
eliqLni*™ m- [also spelt cliqueism\ 'kLii-kizsm. 
eliquy adj, of cliques [also spelt cliquey'] 'kz.ii-ki. 
eVkmto^ajMkj n, [also spelt cleistogamyl kLais'tegs-mi. 
clitellnm n. saddle of an earthworm; cingulum [ploral cli- 

telld] kLi'telsm, kLai'telsm. 
elitl&ral adj. wholly rooft over [also spelt cleithral'} 'kLai- 

elitoris n. (female erectil organ) 'kLsi-td-zris. 
doff n. weight-allowance [also spelt dough] kz.ef. 
cloisonne adj. (divided into compartments) kLOi-sd'nee, 

kz.wa-z9'nee. 
close V. (shut, etc.) ki.ooz, (when unstrest) ktoz. 
close n. (enclosed place; yard) kz^oos. 
close adj., adv, kz^oos. 

close n. (act of closing; end; cadence; union; grapple) ktooz. 
cloth n. fabric [ploral cloths and, formerly, clothes] kLe:0, 

kz.eO; (dialectally) kz.c:0. 
dotl&e V. (dress, attire) kz.3od. 
dotl&es n,pl. (garments, vestments; bedclothes) kz^oodz, 

kz.30Z. 

clothier n. (maker or seller of cloth or clothes) 'kz.oo-di-3?, 

IcLood-jae. 
dotliiiig n. (dress, apparel) ncLOO-dii]. 
dotHs n. (ploral of cloth) kt^eibz^ kz.e:Os, kteOs. 
dough n. (valley, cleft, gorge; earthenware vessel) k^xf, 

dnbable adj. sociable [also spelt clubbable] 'kz^Abs-bsl. 
due n. guide, indication, or key [also spelt clew] k^ou. 
dunuiy adj. (acting as if benumd; awkward) 'kz^Amzi. 
olntch v., n, clasp [as verb, past participle and preterit 

clutched, clutcht] kLAtS. 
clyster n. (enema) 'k^istd?. 
cnemial adj. (of the cnemis or tibia) 'nii-mi-al, (rarely, 

pedantically) 'kNii-mi-al. 
cnemic n. crus; tibia [ploral cnemides] 'nii-mis. 
cnicin n. (bitter principle) 'nai-sin. 
cnicxiode n. (node) 'nik-nod. 
cnida n. thread-cell [ploral cnidae] 'nai-ds. 
Cnossian adj. (of Cnossus or Gnossus) 'nesi-dn. 

c: law, b: fur, a cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiVi\.e\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \©n%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f elloY/mg syWaNAt. 



102 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

coadjntant adj.,n. (assistant) ko'aed30-tnt, ko'aedsju-tnt; ko- 

3'd30U-tnt, ko-s'dsjou-tnt. 
ooadjntor n. (assistant) ko-^'dsou-ts?, ko-d'dsjou-td?. 
ooadjnvancy n. ko'aed3ov9n-si, ko'sedsjovsn-si. 
ooadjnvant adj., n, (assistant) ko'aedso-vdnt, ko'sedsjo-vsnt. 
ooag^nlate v. (curdle) ko'aegjo-let. 
ooalesce v, (grow together) ko-sles. 

ooalised adj. joind, allied [also spelt coalisedl 'k30-3-}aizd. 
ooarse adj. (wanting in fineness; rude) \a:zs, 
coat n. (garment; thin outer layer) koot; (dialectally) kot. 
ooati n. (quadruped) 'koo-aeti, ko'a:-ti. 

coax V. pet; influence by caresses [past participle and pret- 
erit coaxed, coaxtl kooks. 
co-azal adj. j(having a common axis ; co-axial) ko'seksdt. 
cob n. gull [also spelt cobbi keb. 
cobalt n. metal [also spelt kobaW] 'k30-bc:lt, 'koo-belt, Hce- 

baelt 
coble n. boat [also, sometimes, spelt cobblel 'loo-bdt, 'kebal. 
coca n. (a shrub, Erythroxylon coca) 'koo-kd. 
cocaine n. (alkaloid) ko'keen, 'k30-ke-in, 'koo-ke-ain. 
cocainize v, [also spelt cocainisel 'k30-kd-naiz, loo-ke-i- 

naiz. 
cocci n. (ploral of coccus) 'kek-sai. 
coccns n. insect; fruit-carpel; spheric bacterium [ploral 

coccil 'kekas. 
coccygeal adj, (of the coccyx) kek'sidsi-al. 
coccyges n. [ploral coccyges'] kek'sai-dsiz. 
'Coccyx n. tail-bones collectivly [ploral coccyges] 'keksiks. 
cocbineal n. (crimson dyestuff; insect) 'ketSi-nil, ketSi'niil, 

'koo-tSi-nil. 
oocblea n. snail-like part of the inner ear [ploral cochleae] 

'keki-i-a. 
cocblear adj, (of the cochlea) 'kekz.i-d?. 
cocblear n. spoon, labis [ploral cochlearia] 'kekz^i-a?. 
cocblear adj. (spoon-shaped) 'kekLi-s?. 
cockatrice n. (fabulous monster) 'keks-tsis, 'keka-tsais. 
cockney n, (townsman; nativ Londoner) 'kekNi. 
cockscomb n. comb of a cock; plant; oyster; fop [also spelt 

coxcomb] 'keks-koom. compare coxcomb. 
cock-snre adj. (certain) kek'So:?, (assumptivly) Hcek-So:?. 
cocks'vrain n. helmsman [also spelt coxswain] 'kek-siueen, 

'keksan, 'keksn. 
cocksy adj, cocky, bumptious [also spelt coxy] 'keksi. 

/j^e, gcure; d the, 0^/iin; 3 asure, dj/oy; I shoe, il chew; 
wwAen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, oMiooV, lil, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, eoerial, Abut, 0: doot, oot^o, e\ic^, ^.^^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 103 

coco «. coconut-tree, coco-palm [also spelt cocoa\ 'koo-ko. 

ooooa^ n. 'koo-ko. same meaning as coco, 

cocoa' n. (the cacao or chocolate-tree ; also, the ground seeds 

of this tree, or the beverage made therefrom) 'koo-ko. see 

cacao, 
coconnt n. fruit of the coco-palm [also spelt coco-nut, cocoa- 
nut} 'koo-k3-nAt, 'koo-k3-nat. 
cocoon n. larva-envelop [also spelt coccoon} ka'koun. 
coctile adj, made by baking, as a brick [also, sometimes, 

spelt coctil} 'kektil, 'kek-tail. 
coddle V, (boil gently; seethe) 'kedh 
coddle V. nurse overmuch; pamper [also, rarely, spelt codlel 

'kedl. 
codeine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt codeini ko'dii-in, 

'koo-di-ain. 
codez n. code, etc. [ploral codices\ 'koo-deks. 
codices n. (ploral of codex) 'kedi-siz, {vulgarly) 'koo-di-siz. 
codicil n. (supplement to a will) 'kedi-sih 
codicillary adj, kedi'sils-ri. 
codification n. kedifi'kee-Ssn, kodifi'kee-$3n. 
codify V, (reduce to a code ; epitomize) 'kedi-f ai, 'koo-di-f ai. 
co-ed n. (female student in a coeducational college) 'koo-ed, 

ko'ed. 
coefficient n. (joint factor; constant multiplier) ko-d'fi^dnt. 
coelebs n. (bachelor) 'sii-lebz. 
coelelmintli n. (cavitary, etc.) 'sii-lel-min9. 
Coelentera n,pl, animals with a body-cavity or enterocoele 

[synonymous cognate Coelenteratal si'lentd-^a. 
coeliac adj, 'sii-li-sek. see celiac. 
coelian adj. of the coelia or brain-cavity [also spelt celian} 

'sii-H-3n. 
coeloma n. body-cavity [synonymous cognates coelome, coe- 

lorn, coelum ; plural coelomatal si'loo-ma. 
coelomate adj, (having a coeloma) si'bo-met. 
coelome n. 'sii-lom. same meaning as coeloma, 
coenanthinm n. (clinanthium) si'nsen6i-9m. 
coerce v. (constrain by force) ko'si^s. 
coercible adj. ko'e^s^-bsl. 
coercion n, (compulsion) ko'e^San, ko'eir-Jan. 
coeval adj. of the same age [also, formerly, spelt coaevall 

ko'ii-val. 
coexist V. (exist at the same time) ko-eg'zist, ko-ig'zist. 
coffee n. (drink; tree) 'ko:-fi, 'kefi; (dialectally) 'kc:-fi. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, 01 boy; a: for, ao now, a*, ask, aiV\\e^\ 

]ength-fnark CO indicates that the preceding sound is \on%\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the f oUowing sy\\a\i\e., 



104 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

coffer n. (box) 'ke:-far, 'kefar. 

coffin n. (burial-chest) 'ke:-fin, 'kefin; {dialectally) 'kc:- 

fin. 
oog^itate v. (ponder, meditate) 'ked3i-tet. 
cognac n. brandy [also spelt coniac, cogniaci 'koo-njaek, 

'kenjaek. 
cognizable adj. [also spelt cognisablel 'kegnizd-bai, keg'nai- 

zd-bal, 'keniz3-bal. 
cog^nizably adv. [also spelt cognisablyl 'kegntza-bli, keg- 

'nai-z3-bli, 'keg-nai-z3-b}i, 'keniz3-bh. 
cognizance n. knowledge; jurisdiction [also spelt cogni- 

sancel 'kegni-zans, 'keni-zans. 
cog^nizant adj. [also spelt cognisanti 'kegni-zsnt, 'keni-zant. 
cog^nize v. perceive; know [also spelt cognise! Iceg-naiz, 

keg'naiz. 
cognizee n. the party in whose favor a fine of land was lev- 
ied [also spelt cognisee'\ kegni'zii, keni'zii. 
cognizer n. one who or that which cognizes [also spelt cog- 

niserl keg'nai-z3r. 
cognizor n. the party who levies a fine of land [also spelt 

cognisorl 'kegni-zar, 'keni-zer. 
cognomen n. (surname; name) keg'noo-msn; (erroneously) 

'keg-noman. 
cognomine adv. (by cognomen) keg'nemi-ni. 
cognoscible adj, (knowable) keg'nesd-bal. 
cobere v. (stick together) ko'hiir. 
cobesion n. (act or state of cohering) ko'hii-ssn. 
cobesive adj. [also spelt cohesiv"] ko'hii-siv, ko'hii-ziv. 
coiffenr n. (hairdresser) kwa^fs:?. 
coif f nre n. (head-dress) kiua'f i:?, kwa'f Qo:r. 
coign n. corner; coin, quoin [also spelt coignel kein. 
coigne n. {obsolete) kein. same meaning as coynie. 
coin n. (corner-stone, quoin; wedge, angle; die, stamp; piece 

of money) kein. compare quoin. 
coincide v. (fall together; agree in position; concur) ko-in- 

'said. 
coke n. carbonized coal [also spelt coakl kook. 
colander n. strainer [also spelt cullender"! 'kAlsn-dd?; {er- 
roneously) 'kelan-da?. 
colcbicnm n. (plant) 'kelki-kam, 'keltji-kam. 
cold-blooded adj. k3old'bLAdid, (assumptivly) loold-btAdid. 
cold-cbisel n. (chisel for cutting cold metal, etc.) 'kool-tji- 

Z9l, 'koold-tSizal. 

/j^e. gcure; b they Gf/iin; 5 azure, dstoy; \sho^, tSc/iew; 
wzt/hen; 13 sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, qmIooV \\\., \\^ce; 
o poetic; saver, e oerial. Abut, 0; do ot, oot^o, e\ic^, t^^^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 105 



oole n. cabbage [synonymous cognates cale, kale} kool. 

ooleopter n. (sheath-wingd insect; beetle) koli'optse, koli- 
'optae. 

oole-slav n. [also spelt cole-slaugh; erroneous substitute 
cold-slaw} 'kool-si-c: . 

colic n. pains in the belly; gripes [also spelt cholick, cholic} 
Icelik. 

colicky adj. [also spelt cholickyl 'koh-ki, (anteriorly) 'kohki. 

collapsible adj, [also spelt collapsable} ks'laepsa-bal. 

collar n. (neck>band) 'keldz. 

collare n. collar; prothorax [ploral collaria} kd'lei-zi. 

collaret n. [also spelt collarette} kelaVet, 'kola-ret. 

collateral adj. (at the side; accompanying) ka'laetd-rdl, (an- 
teriorly) kdlxtd^dl, (.rapidly) ka'lxtsdl. 

collation n. (comparison; repast) kalee-San. 

colleasuc n. associate [also spelt colleag} 'ko-lig. 

colleasue v, cooperate; combine [also spelt colleag} ks'liig. 

collect V, (gather, assemble) ka'lekt. 

collect n. (prayer; collection) 'ko-lekt. 

collectable adj. [also spelt collectible} kalektd-bal. 

collegiate adj. (of a college) ka'hi-dsi-dt. 

collie n. sheep-dog [also spelt colly, colley} 'koh. 

collier n. (coal-miner) 'kolia?. 

colliery n. (coal-mine) 'kolia-ri, 'koli-e?i; (also) 'koU-3-ei, 
(anteriorly) 'koli-ari. 

collimator n. (collimating-telescope) 'koh-metaz. 

collision n. (act of colliding) kd'hsan. 

collisive adj, of collision [also spelt collisiv} ka'lai-siv. 

collocutor n. (interlocutor) 'kela-kguta^, ka'lok^o-tar. 

coUodionize t/. [also spelt collodionise} kalao-di-a-naiz. 

collog^ne V. (gloze, flatter) ka'bog. 

colloid adj. (like glue) 'ko-loid. 

colloqnialize v. ka'bb-kwi-d-laiz, (often) ks'lokwi-a-laiz. 

colloqnize v. converse [also spelt colloquise} 'kob-kwaiz. 

colloquy n. conversation [ploral colloquies} 'kob-ktua. 

collum n. in biology, neck, collar [ploral colla} 'kolam. 

collusive adj. [also spelt collusiv} ka'liou-siv, kaliou-ziv. 

colluvies n. (filth) k3'Hou-vi-i:z. 

colocyntb n. (bitter apple) 'kob-sinG. 

cologne n. (perfume) kalaon. 

Colombian adj. (of Colombia, South America) kalxmbi-an, 
ka1ombi-3n. 

colon n. part of a sentence or rythmic period ; clause ; punc- 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, au now, a*, ask, a\V\\.e\ 

^engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \e>tvg,\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the foUov/ms sv\\ia)a\e. 



106 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

tuation-mark [ploral cola but, in the sense of a punctuation- 
mark, colonsi 'koo-lan. 

colon n. large intestin [ploral colons, colal 'koo-lan. 

oolonel n. (commander of a regiment) 'ke^nl, 'kerndl; (for- 
merly) kela'nel, 'kela-nel. 

ooloneloy n. (office or rank of colonel) 'ksrnl-si. 

colonization n. [also spelt colonisation^ keldni'zee-S^n, keld- 
nai'zee-Ssn. 

colonize v. form a colony [also spelt colonisel 'kels-naiz. 

colonnade n. series of columns [also, formerly, spelt colo- 
nadel keU'need. 

colony n. (body of migrators to a new region) 'kela-ni. 

colophon n. (final device or note) 'kela-fen, 'kola-fan. 

colophony n. resin [synonymous cognate colophone"] 'kola- 
foni, kalofa-ni, 'kola-foni. 

color n. hue, etc. [also, especially in Britain, spelt colour"] 
'kAlar. 

colorable adj. [also spelt colourablel 'kAld^d-bal. 

colorant n. 'IcAla-rdnt, lael^-z^nt. 

coloration n. [also spelt colourationi kAla'^ee-S^n, keld'^ee- 
Ssn. 

coloratnre n. 'kAlara-tSa?, 'kebza-tS??. 

colored adj, [also spelt coloured, colordi 'kAlard. 

colorer n. [also spelt colourerl ^aI^-z^z. 

colorific adj. (color-producing, etc.) kAlaVifik, keWzihk. 

colorimeter n. (color-measuring device) kAla'^imi-ta^, 'kola- 
'rimi-tae. 

colorin n. extract of madder [also spelt colorinel 'kAla-zin, 
'kel3-rin. 

coloring n. [also spelt colouring"] ^aI^-zit). 

color ist n. [also spelt colourist] 'kAla-^ist. 

colossal adj. (like a colossus; huge) ks'lesa}. 

Colossenm n. Flavian amphitheater, etc. [synonymous cog- 
nate Coliseum] kela'sii-sm. 

colossns n. gigantic statue [ploral colossi] ks'lesss. 

colporter n. book-pedler [also spelt colporteur] 'kel-poi^-ta?. 

colter n. cutter on a plow-beam [also spelt coulter] 'kool-tar. 

colnmbary n. (dove-cote) 'kolam-beri. 

columbine orf/. (of the dove; dove-color) 'kelam-bain, 'ko- 
lam-bin. 

columbine n. (plant) 'koldm-bain. 

column n. cylindric shaft; pillar [also spelt colum] 'kolam; 
(vulgarly) nco-Hum, 'koHam. 

j\ve, gcure; d the, Q th'm\ 5 a^ure, ds/oy; S^/toe, tSc/tew; 
wu'hen; t) sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVX, oMioo\, \tt, lisee; 
o poetic; o over, e aerial. Abut, o:dooT, 00 tic, e,\ic^, «,^%aXfc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HAMD WORDS MV 




coliuoAed adj^ hariag nnanrm Ii£aft tgm^ cj*,i 
oolure n. (circle ai ^tadaaaasa.. 
colxa n. cole-seed DilsB apcit cajxJ 
coma n. (heavy dccy; 
coma n. tuft of bans ' 

'koo-ma. 
comatose <uf/. (luvix^ Gfiai&: «c 
{assumptivly) loo-vs^^mz ^susi- 
eoJMkh n. (tootfat device; canmce kssn. 
com1> M. komn, loom, see cttvm^^ 
combat v. (fi£^> lEHD-krt. Taoxciac; iLtaB-lKt, iLAiobat; 

kam'baet. 
combat ». (figltt> ^vaa-^xi^ lEsad&fx.z IlasMbei, iLAalnt. 
combatable adj» lam\wt>^nL '«sai&x>-lai, luxslno^nL 
combatamt «. (fi^pbier; c ff i nmdfT / 7ciMi:iv>-tnt, TriTnh>-tiit, 
combative adj. pugniww Bt laiK> spcJt C0mb siii ] lcemb»-tiT, 

'kAmb»-tiv; (/«* properly ) kaar'oKTr. 
combattvea g— «. (also spch c9«^wfxnKX«] IwmbatiT^iis, 

'kAmbativ-nis; (Xet* property) kaaaslnetnr-iixs. 
comber n. (one ^b^w cosxas; a Idbs cmAm% vave) loo-mas. 
comber n. (gaper; wnamt) loKodbix, 
combimatiwe adj. Lalso sf^h comabimaHrl kamliai-nd-tiT, 

'kembi-netiv- 
combimatozial adj^ k9XD-bai-i»''tx-zi-at, keinbnid't3:-zi-dl. 
combimatorj adj. kamljei-i^-tan, kamlMi-n^tan, kdmliai- 

n3t^^i. 
combine r. (ttmte) k^m'baixL 
combine n. (combisatioflj 'kom-bam, kamlMiii. 
combinedlj adv. (is a combined manner) kamlmi-ni-dli. 
conibvatible adj. (bnraable; inflammable) k3ml)AStd-bdt 
combnstiom n. (bnming) kam'bAStSsn, kdm'bAStSdn. 
come V. (appTQackL, etc) ItAm, {when mnstrest) kam. 
oonielimem n. (qnalitj of being comely) IcAmli-nis. 
comer n. (one who comes) IcAma;. 

comes n. companion; epistolary; in music, consequent, an- 
swer [ploral comitesi loo-miz. 
comfit n. (bonbon) IcAmfit. 
comfort n.,v. (cheer, solace) lunafazt. 
comfortable adj. (giving comfort; easy) TcAmfdrta-l^oJ, 

{rapidly) TcAmft^-bal; {vulgarly) k3m'fo:2-t»-b3l. 
eomfrejr n. plant [also spelt comfry} TcAmfsi, Tcomfsi. 
comie adj. (of comedy; funny) Hcemik. 
comites n. (ploral of comes) Hcemi-tiz. 

c: law, b: iur, 2t cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao nott\ a\ ask, ^vV\\t\ 

\Bngth'ia^ 0) indicBtes that the preceding sound \s \«^\^'ft^ 

streBs-matlc (J indicates chief stress on the io\\o>witva s^\\%>2^< 



108 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oomitial adj. (of comitia or assemblies) ka'miSdl, ka'miSi-al. 

oomity n. (curtesy) 'kemi-ti. 

oomma n. [ploral commas, but in the sense of a group of 

words or feet, or a cesura, commatal 'kema. 
oommand v,, n, (order) ks'maind, ka'maind, ka'maeind. 
oommandant n. (commander) kemdn'damt, kem3nMa:nt. 
oomniandeer v. command; force into service; seize [also 

spelt commander; past participle and preterit comman- 
deered, commandeerdl kemsn'di:?. 
oommandery n. [synonymous cognate commandryl k9'ma:n- 

ds-ri. 
oommandite n. (partnership) kemon'diit, kemen'diit. 
commandment n. (mandate) kd'maind-msnt, ka^msendmant. 
oomme il fant adj, (as it should be; genteel) kAmi^foo, 

kemil'foo. 
commence v. (begin, enter upon; make a start; take a de- 
gree) ka'mens, ka'ments. 
commendable adj. (laudable) ks'mendd-bdl. 
eommendam n. (benefis or living commended or bestowd) 

kd'men-daem. 
commensurable adj, (having a common measure ; suitable) 

ka'menSara-bal, ka'mensgora-bal, ka'mentSora-bal. 
commensnrate adj. (of equal size; adequate) kd'men^d-rdt, 

ka'mensgo-rat, ka'mentSa-rat. 
comment n. (remark) 'ke-ment. 

comment v, (make remarks; annotate) 'ke-ment, ka'ment. 
commentary n: (memoire; treatise) 'keman-teri, 'keman- 

taei, Tcemanta-ri, (rapidly) Tceman-tEi. 
commenter n. [also spelt commentorl 'kemsn-td?, ks'mentd?. 
commerce n. (trade; intercourse) 'kemsrs. 
commerce v, (hold intercourse) k^'msizs. 
commiserate v. (pity) ks'mizs-ret. 
commissariat n. commissary court; supply-department; 

food-supply [also, sometimes, spelt commissarioti kemi'se:- 

ji-at, kemi'sc:-ri-3et, kemi'sae^i-at. 
commissary n. (commissioner; judge) 'kemi-seri, 'kemi-sari, 

'kemiS3-8:i, (rapidly) 'kemi-ssi. 
commission n. (charge, etc.) ks'miSdn. 
commissural adj, (connectiv) kemi'So:-79}, kemi'sco:-73l, ks- 

'miSs-ral, ka'mijjo-^al, ka'misgo-^al, Tcemi-Sor-^a!, 
commissure n. (joint) Icemi-So?, Icemi-sgo?. 
committable a(f/. [also spelt commitHhle] kd'mitd-bsf, 
committal n. (commitment, etc.) ka'mitl, ka'mital. 

j\ve, gcure; d the. OfMn; sa^ure, dj^/oy; S jfioe, tjcfcew; 
wze/hep; ij sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuu, i3Mioo\, \\t, iise«; 
o poetic; 9 over, e drerial, Abut, o: door, oono, t,>Dc^, t^^aXfe\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 109 

committee n. (a person charged with a trust or function; 

commissioner, commissary) kemi'tii; (a body of persons) 

kd'miti, (formerly) kemi'tii. 
committer n. (one who commits) ka'mita?. 
committor n. (judge who commits a person to the custody 

of another) ks'mi-te?. 
conimlKtion n. (mixture) ka'mikstSdn, kd'mikStSsn, ks- 

'miksti-9n. 
eommodious adj, (useful; fit; convenient and spacious) ka- 

'm30-di-9s; (vulgarly) ka'moo-dsas. 
commodity n. (useful thing, etc.) kd'medi-ti. 
commonalty n. [former synonymous cognate commonality^ 

Icemdndl-ti. 
commonplace adj. kem9n'p£.ces, (assumptivly) 'keman-pLees. 
comntonplace n. 'kemdn-pz.ees. 
comntonireal n. kemdn'wiil. 
comntonvealtli. n. body politic; republic [also spelt com- 

monwelth] 'kemsn-welO, keman'welO. 
comntorant adj. (abiding, dwelling) ncemd-^dnt. 
communal adj. (of a commune) 'kemju-nl, kd'mjou-nl. 
commune v, (hold intercourse) ka'mjoun, 'ke-mjun. 
commune n. (communion; intercourse) 'ke-mjun. 
commune ». (community, government) 'ke-mjun. 
communer n. (one who communes or communicates) kd- 

'mjou-n3?. 
communer n. (member of a commune) 'kemjo-na?. 
communifm n. ncemjo-nizdm. 

communist n. (adherent of communism) 'kemjo-nist. 
commutative n. of exchange; mutual [also spelt commuta- 

tivl ka'mjou-ta-tiv, 'kemjo-tetiv. 
oomofe adj. (hairy, comate) ko'moos, (assumptivly) 'koo-mos. 
compact adj. (dense) ksm'paekt, (assumptivly) 'kem-paekt. 
compact n. (agreement) Hcem-paekt; (formerly) ksm'psekt. 
compact V. kam'paekt. 
compactly adv. kam'paektz.!. 

company n. (society) 'kAmp3-ni, (rapidly) 'kAmpNi. 
comparable adj. (capable of being compared) 'kempsza-bdl ; 

(erroneously) kam'pei-ra-bal. 
comparative adj., n, [also spelt comparativH kdm'paeri-tiv. 
comparator n. (comparing-device) 'kemp^-zet^z. 
compaff v., n. [as verb, past participle and preterit com- 
passed, compasf] 'kAmpas. 
compatible adj. (mutually tolerant) kdm'pseta-bdt. 

c: law, b: f «r, x cat, o hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-morlf (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \oxv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f eUowmg svWeXAt. 



112 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

comrade n. (companion) 'kem-^aed, 'kemzdd, 'kem-red; 'kAm- 

eaed, HcAm^ad, 'kAm-zred. 
Comtian adj, [also spelt Comtean^ 'ker)ti-9n, 'kemti-sn, 

'kenti-an. 
con V. direct (anyone) how to steer; direct the steering of 

(a ship) [also spelt conn, kun; past participle and preterit 

conned, cond'\ kAn, ken. 
conAtive adj, exertiv [also spelt conativ} 'kens-tiv, 'koo-ns- 

tiv. 
oonca n. 'kegka. see concha, 
concave adj, (incurvd, hollow) ken'keev, (assumptivly) 'ken- 

kev ; (also, less properly) 'keq-kev. 
conceal v. hide [past participle concealed, conceald} kan- 

'§iil. 
concede v, (grant; allow) kan'siid. 
conceit n. (conception; fancy; vanity) ksn'siit. 
conceive v. (become pregnant ; imagin ; think) [past partici- 
ple conceived, conceivd'\ kan'siiv. 
concenter v, bring to a common center; focus [also spelt 

concentre; past participle concentered, concenterd} kan- 

'scnt33. 
concentrate v. (focus; rectify) 'kensan-tset, kan'sen-tset. 
concentrate adj., n. kan'sen-tset, k3n'sent£9t, 'kensan-t£et. 
concentrative adj. [also spelt concentratM kan'sentsa-tiv. 
conceptible adj, obsolete (conceivable) kan'septa-bal. 
concert n. (harmony ; musical performance ; consort) 'ken- 

S9Zt. 

concert v, (contrive mutually) kan'sBirt. 

concerto n. (concert; composition) kan'tSeir-to, k3n'se:?-to. 

conch n. (shell) kegk; (erroneously) kentj. 

concha n. shell ; domed roof ; apse ; cove ; the outer ear [also, 

in the architectural senses, spelt conca; ploral conchae, 

concasl 'keqka. 
conchiolin n. organic residuum of a shell [also spelt con- 

chyolinl kenTcai-a-lin, keq'kai-9-lin. 
conchoid n. (curve) 'ken-keid, 'keq-keid. 
concholoey n. (science of shells) kenHcela-dsi, keq'kela-dsi. 
conchylium n. shell of a mollusk; conch [ploral conchylial 

ken'kiH-am, keq'kili-am. 
concierge n. (warden; doorkeeper; janitor) keqsi'ei^s. 
conoife adj, (brief) kan'sais. 

conclave n. (room; assembly) 'ken-ktev, 'keij-ktev. 
conolndable adj. [also spelt concludiblel kdn'kLou-dd-bal. 

/j^e, gcure; dthe, 9 //tin; ja^rure, ds/oy; S j/toe, tjc/tew; 
wzvAen; tj sing; u wli<7ever, i react, oiuVV, dmIooV, \\\, \\^cc\ 
o poetic; o over, eijerial. Abut, o: door, ootio, t\ic^, te:^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 113 

coiLelude v. (enclose; end; infer; settle) kan^kz^oud. 

eonelufilile adj. {obsolete) kanncLou-sa-ba). 

conelusiTe <ufy. [also spelt conclusive ksn^kz^ou-siv, kan'kz.ou- 
ziv. 

coneord n. (accord; peace) 'ken-ke:zd, 'kei]-ke:7d. 

eoncord v, (agree; concur; harmonize) k9n'ke:zd. 

coneordanoe n. (agreement) kdn'ke:z-dns ; {less properly) 
keglceiz-dns. 

eoncordat n. (agreement; compact) ken'ke:z-dxt, kan'keiz- 
ddt. 

eoneourme n. (confluence; throng) 'ken-k3:zs, 'ker^-koizs. 

conereate adj. obsolete (created together) ncenlni-et. 

eoncreate v. (create together) kenlni'eet, ken-ksi'eet; 
'kenksi-et. 

eoncrete adj. (composit; solid; particular, actual) kenlraiit, 
{assumpiivly) 'ken-krsit; {less properly) 'koq-ksit. 

eonorete n. (concretion : cemented mass) 'ken-lnit, ken'lniit. 

concrete v. (unite) kenlniit. 

concretelj adv. ken'lmi-tLi, 'ken-ksitz^i. 

concreteness n. ken'lmit-nis, 'ken-lnitNis. 

ooucnliinage n. (state of being a concubine) kdn'k^ou-bi- 
nids; {improperly) 'keqkgo-bai-nids. 

concubine n. (paramour, etc.) 'keqkgo-bain. 

concmpiscence n. (eager desire; lust) kegk^o'pisdns, kan- 
'kgou-pi-sans. 

concupifcible adj. (concupiscent; lustful) ksn'kgou-pisd-bdl. 

concur v. run together; agree [past participle and preterit 
concurred, concurdl kdn'ks:?. 

concnrrence n. kdn'kerans, ksn'kA^ans. 

concnfsion n. (shock; agitation) kdn^kA^dn. 

cond V. conduct; direct how to steer; balk [synonymous ceg> 
nate cundl kxnd, kend. 

condemn v. (convict; blame) ksn'dem. 

conden&ner n. (one who condemns) kdn'dema?, kdn'demns?. 

condemning adj. kdn'demir). 

condense v. make more dense; become liquid [past parti- 
ciple and preterit condensed, condenstl kon'dens, ksn'dents. 

condensedlx adv. kanMensi-dh, kan^enstLi. 

conder n. one who conds or cons a ship; also, a man who 
signals to fishing-boats; balker [also, formerly, spelt con- 
dor; sjrnenymous cognate connerl 'kAndse, 'kendae. 

condescend v. (deign) kendi'send. 

condescension n. (act of condescending) kendi'senSsn. 

c: law, b: fi«r, x cat, e hot, ei hoy; a; far, go now, a: osk» aikitf, 

lengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \on%\ 

stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the foUowing sv\\a>a\t* 



114 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

condign adj. (worthy; merited) ksn'dain, {sometimes, as- 

sumptivly) 'ken-dam. 
condite v, (obsolete) pickle; embalm; season [also, some- 
times, spelt conditl kan'dait, 'kendit. 

condite adj. rare (put together) 'ken-dait, 'kendit. 

condolence n, (expression of sympathy) k9n'd30-}9ns ; (less 
properly) 'kends-lans. 

condor n. (bird) 'kends?. 

oondnoive adj. promotiv [also spelt conducivl kdn'djou-siv. 

conduct V. (lead, guide; manage) kdn'dxkt. 

conduct n. (leading; management; behavior) 'ken-dAkt, 'ken- 
dokt. 

conductive adj. (leading or conducting heat, electricity, 
etc.) kan'dAktiv. 

conduit n. channel; passage [also spelt conditl 'kendit, 'kxn- 
dit ; (less properly) 'kendwit. 

condyle n. process [also spelt condyll 'kendil ; (less properly) 
'ken-dail. 

confectionary adj. (of a confection or sweetmeat) ksn'fek- 
Sa-neri, kan'fekja-nari, kan'fekSana-ri, kon'fekSa-n^i. 

confectionary n. (confectioner; place where confections 
are kept or made ; sweetmeat ; confectioner's art) kan'f ek- 
Sa-nen, etc. 

confectionery n. confections; confectioner's art; confec- 
tionery-shop [also spelt confectionary^ kan'fekSa-neei, etc. 

confederacy n. (league; alliance) ksn'feds^d-si. 

oonfefsedly adv. kdn'fesi-dh. 

confeffor n. (one who confesses; one who hears confes- 
sions; a pri'St) kan'fesa^, (rarely) 'ken-fes3^. 

confidant n. (confidential friend) 'kenfi-dnt, kenfi'da:nt, 
kenfi'daeint, 'kenfi-da:nt. 

confidante n. (female confidant) 'kenfi-dnt, kenfi'da:nt, 
kenfi'daeint. 

confident adj. (assured; bold) 'kenfi-dnt. 

confine v. (bound ; restrict) ksn'f am. 

confine n. (limit; bound; frontier) 'ken-fain. 

confineleff adj. ksn'fai-nlds, 'kenfai-nlas. 

confiscate v. (seize) 'kenfi-sket, kan'fi-sket. 

confiscator n. 'kenfi-sketd?. 

conflagrate v. (burn up) 'kenfta-gret, kan'ftee-geet. 

conflict V. (contend; be in opposition) kan'fLikt. 

conflict n. (combat; discord) 'kenfz-ikt. 

confluence n. (a flowing together) 'kenfi-u-ans. 

/j^c, f cure; d the, 9 thin ; 3 a-srure, ds /oy ; S shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; tjsing] u wh<?ever, i react, oiuu, o\xioo\, \\t, ix^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 oyer, e aerial, Abut, o: doot, ooxko, ^\>e^, ^.^^qX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 115 

confluent n. 'kenfi^u-dtit. 

confrere n, coUeag [also spelt confrdre'\ ken'fse:^, 'ken-fte:e. 

Confucian adj. (of Confucius) kan'fgou-San. 

confusion n. (ruin; disorder; tumult) kdn'f^ou-son. 

cong6 n. (leave; apophyge) keq'see, 'kooq-se, kon'dsii, ken- 

'dsee. 
congee n. leave to depart; leave-taking [synonymous cog- 
nate conge} 'kon-d3i, 'kAn-dsi. 
congener n. (member of the same genus or class) kan'dsii- 

na?, 'kend3i-na^, (rarely) 'kon-dsena^, 
congenial adj. (kindred; agreeable) kan'dsii-njdl, ksn'dsii- 

ni-aL 
congeniality ft. kan-dsini'aeh-ti, k3n-d3in'jsehti. 
conger-eel n, 'kondsar-iil, 'keqgar-iil. 
congeries n. collection; aggregation [ploral congeries} kan- 

'd5i:-2i-i:z. 
conglobate v. (collect or form into a globe or ball) 'kengla- 

bet, kan'gloo-bet. 
conglobate adj, (rounded; globular) 'kengla-bet, kan'gloo- 

bet. 
oonglutin n. albuminoid [also spelt conglutine} kdn'glou-tin. 
congregate v. (assemble) 'keqg^i-get. 
oong^reff n. (a coming together; assembly) 'keqg^is, 'koq- 

gzes. 
eong^eff v, (come together) kan'gzres; (meet in congress) 

'keq-gres. 
congressional adj. kdn'g^eSo-nl. 
congruence n. (accordance) 'keqg?u-3ns. 
congrnenoy n. 'keqg^u-an-si ; (less properly) kan'g^ou-an-si. 
congruent adj. 'keqg^u-ant. 
oongrnity n. (accord; fitness) kan'grou-i-ti. 
congruously adv. 'keqg^u-ds-h. 
conic adj. (cone-shaped; of a cone) 'kenik; (improperly) 

'koo-nik. 
conical adj. (cone-shaped; conic) 'koni-kdl. 
conifer n. (cone-bearing plant) 'keni-fasr, 'koo-ni-fa?. 
ooniine n. 'loo-ni-ain. same meaning as canine. 
Conine n. conia, an alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt conin; 

synonymous cognates coniine, coneine} 'koo-nin, 'koo-nain. 
conium n. (hemlock) ko'nai-am; (less properly) 'koo-ni-am. 
conjee n. rice-water; gruel [also spelt congee} 'ken-dsi. 
conjugal adj. (of marriage; matrimonial) 'kendss-gal. 

conJug:ial adj. (conjugal) kan'djou-dsi-al, 

* 

c: lo7«;, b: f«r, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*. asV., «l\V\\.^\ 
Icngth-morJf (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \?>tv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on thQ IqIVqwiiv^ s^\\ajQ\^« 



116 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oonjiinotiva n. (outer eye-membrane) ken-d3Aqk'tai-va, ken- 

d^Aqk'tii-v3, kan'dsAqkti-va. 
conjunctivitis n. ksn-dsArikti'vai-tis, k3n-d3Ai]kti'vii-tis. 
conjnrator n. (fellow conspirator) 'kendss-retdz. 
conjnre v. (practis the arts of a conjurer; affect or effect 

by magic, etc.) 'kendsa?, 'kAnd33r. 
conjnre v. (swear together; conspire, plot; solemnly en- 
treat, abjure) kdn'dso:?. 
conjnrer n. enchanter, magician; juggler [also spelt conju- 

rorl 'kend33-z:33, 'kAndsa-ra?. 
conjnrer n. one bound by an oath; conjurator, conspirator; 

one who enjoins [also spelt conjuror"] k^n'd^oi-z^z, 
connate adf, (inborn, congenital; cognate) 'ke-net, ke'neet. 
connecter n. [also spelt connector] ks'nektdz. 
connection n. a joining together; relation [also spelt con- 
nexion] ka'nekjan. 
oonneetional adj. [also spelt connexional] kd'nekSd-nt. 
connective adj, connecting [also spelt connectiv] ks'nektiv. 
connellite n. (mineral) 'kena-iait, ke'ne-lait, ke'nel-ait. 
Conner n. (inspector) 'kensz, Icati^z. 
Conner n. (one who cons; student) 'kens?. 
Conner ». (balker) 'kensz, 'IcAns?. see under conder. 
Conner n. (fish) 'kAnaz. same meaning as cunner. 
connexive adj, conditional; conjunctiv; connectiv [also 

spelt connexiv] ka'neksiv. 
connexivnm n. abdominal border in bugs [ploral connexiva] 

kenek'sai-vam. 
connivence n. act of conniving; winkipg at wrong [also 

spelt connivance] ka'nai-vans. 
connoiffenr n. (one verst in a subject; critic) kena'se:?, 

keni's^o:?, /kona-sgor. 
connotative adj, [also spelt connotativ] k3'n30-t9-tiv, 'kend- 

tetiv. 
conquer v. acquire or overcome by force [past participle and 

preterit conquered, conquerd] Tceqkae. 
oonqncft n. (acquisition; victory, etc.) 'keq-kiuest, 'keqkujist. 
consansninity n. (blood-relationship) kensxn'gwini-ti, ken- 

saeq'gwini-ti. 
conscience n. (knowledge, especially of right and wrong) 

Tconjans, 'kentjans. 
conscientionf adj, (scrupulous) kenSi'enSss, kentSi'entSss, 

kensi'en^ds, kensi'entSds. 
conscionable adj. (conscientious) 'kenSdno-bdl, IcentSsnd-bd}. 

/.re, gcure; dthe, Qthin; saarure, d;^;oy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 

wwhen; tjsing] u whoever, i react, oiull, dm fool, itt, \\^ee\ 

o poetic; 9 Qver, e aerial; Abut, o;doot, ;)Oilo, ^.^ic^, ^.^\LaXt\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 117 

oonsoionf adj, (knowing; aware) 'ken^ds, 'kent^ds. 
conseiunf n. (concord, sympathy; agreement in opinion) 

kan'sensds, ksn'sentsds. 
consequence n. (result) 'kensi-kwans, 'kentsi-kwdnts. 
consequential adj, (resultant; self-important) kensi'kwen- 

Jdl, kensi'kwentSdl. 
conservatoire n. (conservatory) kan-SB^va'twe:?. 
conservator n. (preserver) 'kens97-vet97, kan'sBizr-vd-td?. 
conserve v, keep safely; preserve [also spelt conserv; past 

participle and preterit conserved, conservd} kan'seiev. 
conserve n. preserve [also spelt conservl ksn'sBizv, 'ken-SB7v. 
considerable adj., n. kdn'sidd^a-bal, {rapidly) ksn'sidra-bdl ; 

{vulgarly) kan'sida-bdl. 
consign v, seal; hand over, deliver [past participle and pret- 
erit consigned, consignd} kdn'sain. 
consignation n. kensig'nee-San. 
eonsigne »• (watchword; countersign) 'ken-sain. 
consign^ n. (person commanded to keep within bounds) ken- 

sin'jee. 
consignee n. (person to whom something is con^gned) ken- 

sai'nii, 'kensi-ni. 
consigner n. (one who consigns; consignor) kan'sai-na?. 
consignor n. (one who consigns : correlativ of consignee) 

ksn'sai-na?, ken'sai-ne?, ken-sai'ne:?, kensi'ne:?. 
consistency n. (constitution; congruity) kan'sistdn-si. 
consistory n. (council) ksn'sista-ri, 'kensistd-^i, 'kensi-sta^i. 
consol n. consolidated annuity [plural consols'} 'ken-sel, ksn- 

'seL 
consol n. (bracket, etc.) 'ken-sel. same meaning as console. 
consolatory adj. (consoling) k9n'se}d-t37i ; (also) kan'selata- 

zi, (assumptivly) kan'sela-tari ; (rapidly) ksn'sel^-tji. 
console n. bracket; corbel; part of an organ [synonymous 

cognate consol} 'ken-sol. 
console v. (comfort; cheer) ksn'sool. 
consonun6 n. (clear soup; cheer) kensa'mee, 'kensd-me. 
consonantal adj, (of a consonant) kensd'naentl, 'kensd-nant!. 
consonantly adv, (harmoniously) 'kensandn-tLi. 
consort n, (partner, mate; spouse) 'ken-se:7t. 
consort n. (company; musical accord, etc.) 'kon-so:?t. 
consort v. (associate; join) ksn'seirt. 
conspiracy n. (plot) kan'spirs-si. 
conspirator n. (joint plotter) ksn'spird-td?. 
constable n. (officer) 'kAnsta-bdl, 'kensta-bdl. 

c: law, b: f«r, x cat, hot, ei boy ; a: for, ao now, a; asVi, a\V\\ft\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souti^ 1^ \©^^\ 
streg9-mark C) indicates cbki stress on the f ©Wo-wmft s^\\aX>\«.r 



118 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oonftat n. (certificate) 'ken-staet. 
oonftate v. (establish; state) ksn'steet. 
constellate v. (unite as stars) kan'stetet, 'kensti-)et. 
constellation n. (group of fixt stars) kensti'ice-^dn. 
constituency n. lon'stitgu-dn-si, ksn'stitju-dn-si. 
constituent adj. (component; electiv) ksn'stitS-u-snt, ksn- 

'stitQU-ant. 
construct adj. (constructed; connected as governing noun 

to noun governd) kan'stjxkt, (assumptivly) 'ken-stjAkt. 
construct v, (put together ; build) kdn'stSAkt. 
construct n. (complex formd in the mind) ncen-stjAkt. 
construe v. (combine; interpret) kan'stjou, 'kon-stju. 
consuetude n. (custom; use; social intercourse) 'kenstui- 

tQud. 
consul n. (magistrate ; foreign agent) 'kensol. 
consult V. (ask advice of; confer) ksn'sAlt. 
consult n. (consultation; cabal; decree) kan'sAlt, 'ken-SAU. 
consultative adj, advisory [also spelt consultative kan'sAl- 

ta-tiv. 
consume v, (make away with ; devour ; spend) ksn'sgoum ; 

(dialectally) kan'soum. 
consummate v, (complete; perfect) 'kensa-met, kan'sAmet. 
consummate adj, (complete) ksn'sAmit, 'kensa-mit. 
Gonsummator n. 'kensa-meta?, 'kentsa-meta^ ; (improperly) 

kan'sA-meta?. 
consumption n. (a wasting away) kan'sAmpJan. 
oontag^ion n. (infectious contact, etc.) kan'tee-d3an. 
contag:ious adj. (infectious by contact; noxious) kan'tee- 

dsas. 
contag^ium n. material basis of infection [ploral contagial 

kan'tee-dsi-am. 
contakion n. hymn [ploral contakial kan'tee-ki-an, kan'tae- 

ki-an. 
contaminate v. (defile; taint) kan'tsemi-net. 
contemn v. (treat as contemptible ; despise) kan'tem. 
contemned adj. (despised) kan'temd; (formerly) kan'tem- 

nid. 
contemner n. despiser [also spelt contemnorl kan'tema?, 

kan'temnazr. 
contemningly adv. (contemptuously) kan'temiq-h, kan'tem- 

niq-li. 
contemplate v. (meditate; intend) 'kentam-pz-et, kan'tem- 

pLet. 

/j'e, gcure; d the, thm; sa^rure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tSc/iew; 
wze/Aen; ij sinff; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, oMiool, i-Ct, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: doot, oorvo, t.'Vic^, ^^^o.\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 119 

GontemplatiTe adj., n. [also spelt contemplativl kan'tem- 

pLdtiv, 'kentara-pi-etiv. 
contemplator n. 'kentsm-pLetd?, kan'tem-pLetdz. 
GontemporaiLeity n. (contemporariness) kdn-tempd^d'nii- 

i-ti. 
contempt n. (disdain) kan'tempt. 
contemptible adj. (despicable, etc.) kdn'temptd-bdt 
contemptuous adj. (scornful) ksn'temptSu-ds, ksn'temp- 

t9U-3S. 

content adj. (satisfied, contented) ksn'tent. 

content n. (one who votes 'content' : the epposit of non- 
content) kan'tent. 

content v, (satisfy) ksn'tent. 

content n. (contented state of mind; contentment) ksn'tent. 

content n. (that which is containd : often used in the plur- 
al : as, table of *contents) 'ken-tent, kan'tent. 

contentions adj. (quarrelsome) kdn'ten^ds, kan'tent^ss. 

contest n. (strife; dispute) 'ken-test. 

contest V, (strive for; oppose) ksn'test. 

context n. (connected text) 'ken-tekst. 

context v., adj. (obsolete) ksn'tekst. 

contiguity n. (contact; proximity) kenti'gjou-i-ti. 

contiguous adj. (touching) ksn'tigju-ds. 

continent adj, (holding in; self-restraining; continuous) 
'kentn-ant, 'kenti-nant. 

continent n. (containing-agent ; continuous land; main- 
land) 'kentn-9nt, 'kenti-nant. 

continental adj. kentn'entl, kenti'nenth 

continuity n. (continuousness) kenti'njou-i-ti. 

continuuui n. continuous thing [plural continual kan'tinju- 
dm. 

contour n. (outline) 'ken-tu:?, ksn'to:?. 

contour v. furnish with contours; adapt t^ a contour [past 
participle and preterit contoured, contourd'\ kan'tu:^. 

contract v. (draw together; agree) kan'tjaekt. 

contract adj. (contracted; brief) kan'tsaekt. 

contract n, (something contracted or shrunken; a contrac- 
tion; an abbreviation) kan'tjaekt. 

contract n. (agreement) 'ken-tjaekt. 

contractable adj. (liable to be contracted or acquired, as a 
disease or habit) kan'tsaekta-bal. 

contractible adj. capable of contracting; contractil [also, 
formerly, spelt contractable'! kan'tEaekta-bal. 

c: law, b: iur, scat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a*. asV., B.\V\\.e.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \Qtv%\ 
tress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioUovjin^ sv^V^>a\^. 



120 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

contractile adj. susceptible of contraction [also spelt con- 
tracHll kan'tjaektil, kan'tjak-tail. 

contralto n. (part or voice next above the alto ; singer) kan- 
'tjaeho, kan'tjail-tD. 

contrariety n. (opposition) kdntsd'zai-i-ti. 

contrary adj. (opposit) 'ken-tje^i, {also) 'kentja-zi, {ante- 
riorly) Icentjoei, (rapidly) 'kentji; (occasionally or vulgar- 
ly) kan'tje:-?!. 

contrary v. (oppose) 'ken-tje?i; (formerly) kan'tjei-ei. 

contrast v. (set in opposition) k9n'txa:st, k9n't£a:st, ksn- 
'tjaeist. 

contrast n. (opposition) 'ken-t£a:st, 'kent£3st. 

contretenips n. (untoward event; hitch) 'kentsd-terj. 

contribute v. (give with others) kan'tjibjot. 

contrite adj. (penitent) 'ken-tjait; (less properly) ksn'tsait. 

control V, direct, govern [also spelt controul; present par- 
ticiple controlling; past participle and preterit controlled, 
controld'\ kan'tjool. 

controller n. financial officer; also, one who controls or 
restrains [also spelt, in the sense of an officer, comptrol- 
ler! kan'tjoo-la?. 

controlnient n. (control) ksn'tsool-mdnt. 

controversial adj. (of controversy) kentja'vBzS^l ; (less 
properly) kentja'vB^si-al. 

controversy n. (disputation) Hcentsd-vezsi. 

controvert v. (dispute) kentjaVsiet, 'kentja-vB^t. 

controvertible adj. kentsdVeztd-bdl. 

contnniacy n. (stubbornness) ncentgoma-si ; (improperly) 
kan'tgou-ma-si. 

contnnielins adj. (insolent) kent;o'mii-H-3s. 

contnniely n. (insolence; insult) 'kentgo-mih ; (improperly) 
'kentgo-meh, 'ken-tQumh, ken'tou-mi-h. 

conusant adj. obsolete (cognizant) 'kenjo-zdnt, 'keni-zdnt. 

convalescense n. (gradual recovery) kenvslesans. 

convenable adj. (suitable, proper, meet) 'kenvina-bal. 

convenable adj. (capable of being convened) kan'vii-na-bal. 

convenience n. (fitness; comfort) kan'vii-njans, kan'vii-ni- 
9ns. 

conventicle n. (assembly) kdn'venti-ksl. 

conventionalization n. ksn-venSdnl-i'zee-Sdn, ksn-ven^dnl- 
ai'zee-San. 

conventionalize v. (render conventional) kan'venSanl-aiz. 

conventual adj. (of a convent) kan'ventSu-al, kan'vpntQu-al. 

J ye, g cure; d the, 9 thin ; 3 a^ure, d$ joy; S shoe, tj chew; 
wwAen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, oiuW, DW.io6V, \\\, \\s€e; 
o poetic; 9 oyer, e aerial, Abiit, o: door, 00 no, ^\>c^, t.^^a.\.^% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 121 

eonversable adj, that may be converst with [also spelt con- 
versihlel kdn'vBzsd-bdl. 

eonversant adj. (acquainted) 'kenvdz-ssnt ; {improperly) 
ksn'vBzssnt. 

'eonversaiione n. (a meeting for conversation; soiree) ken- 
v3?-sa:-tsi'oo-ni. 

GonveTse n. (intercourse; communion) 'ken-vB^s. 

converse v. hold intercourse ; talk [past participle and prete- 
rit conversed, converst"} kan'vo'.^s. 

converse adj, (turnd round; opposit; contrary) Tcen-ve^s. 

conversely adv. (in the converse manner, etc.) kanVezsLi, 
'ken-VB^SLI. 

conversible adj, obsolete (capable of being converted) kan- 

'v8^S9-b9l. . 

conversion n. (transmutation, etc.) V^n'vBzl^n, k3n'vB:z-39n. 

convert n. (person converted, etc.) 'ken-vsrt. 

convert v, (turn, change) ksn'vBi^t. 

convertible adj, (capable of being converted) kdn'vBzrtd-bdl. 

convex adj. (curved outward; bulging) ken'veks, (assump- 

tivly) 'ken-veks. 
convex n. (convex body or surface) Hcen-veks. 
convezly adv. kan'veksti, 'ken-veksti. 
convexo-concave adj. (bulging on one side and concave or 

hollow on the other) ken-veksD-ken'keev, (assutnptivly) ken- 

veksoTceq-kev, 
convexo-convex adj. (double-convex) ken-vekso-ken'veks, 

{assumptivly) ken-vekso'ken-veks. 
convict adj. (adjudged guilty) kan'vikt. 
convict n. (person adjudged guilty) 'kenvikt. 
convict V. (adjudge guilty) kan'vikt. 

convincible adj, (capable of being convinced) ksn'vinsd-bdl. 
convive v. obsolete (feast) kan'vaiv. 
convive n. (boon companion) Tcen-viv, 'ken-vaiv. 
convivial adj. (festal; social; jovial) ksn'vivi-al, kan- 

'vrvisl. 
convocant n. (convoker) 'kenvd-kant. 
convolve v. roll together [also spelt convolve past participle 

and preterit convolved, convolvdl kan'velv. 
convoy n. (escort; protected train or fleet) 'ken-vei. 
convoy v. escort [past participle and preterit convoyed, con- 
voy d} kan'vei. 
cony n. rabbit [also spelt coney \ ploral conies} Tcoo-ni, 

TcAni. 

c: low, b: f«r, x cat, e hot, ei boy; a: for, aa now, a*. a^V, ^\V\V^\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutv\ \s \qtv%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ieWo'win^ s^Yi^\t 



122 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eoo V. murmur, as a dove [past participle and preterit cooed, 
coodi kou. 

eooky n. flat cake [also spelt cookey, cookie; ploral cook- 
iesl 'koki. 

eoolie n. laborer [also spelt cooly"! 'kou-h. 

coolly adv. (in a cool manner) 'kou}-h. 

eoomb n. valley [also spelt comb, combe, coomi koum, koom. 

eoomb n. dry measure [also spelt combl koum, koom. 

coop interj. (a call for domestic animals ; a call in the game 
of coop and seek) kop; {less properly) koup. 

eoop n. (cage, pen ; cask, barrel ; corn-measure ; cart) koup ; 
(dialectally) kop. 

coop V. put into a coop or cage; shut up [past participle and 
preterit cooped, coopti koup; {when unstrest) kup; {dialect- 
ally) kop. 

cooper n. (one who makes barrels, etc.; also, a beverage) 
'kou-pa?; (dialectally) 'kopa^. 

cooperate v. work together; operate jointly [also spelt 
co-operate, cooperatel ko'epa-^et. 

copaiba n. balsam [synonymous cognate copaiva'\ ko'pee-bd, 
ko'pai-ba, kD'pii-ba. 

copal n. (resin) 'koo-pal, ko'pal. 

coparcener n. (coheir, parcener) ko'porsi-nd?. 

copeck n. [also spelt kopeck, kopek ; synonymous cognate co- 
peek'] TcDO-pek. 

copepod n. oar-footed crustacean; copepodan [ploral cope- 
pods, copepoda] 'koo-pi-ped. 

copepoda n. order of Crustacea ; ploral of copepod [synony- 
mous cognate copopodd} ka'pepo-da. 

copped adj, pointed, crested [also, sometimes, spelt copt"] 
kept, Ocepid. 

copperas n. (ferrous sulfate) 'kopd-zss. 

coppice n. wood, thicket [also spelt coppis; synonymous cog- 
nate copsel 'kopis. 

cops n. clevis [also spelt copse"] keps. 

copse n. keps. same meaning as coppice, 

copy n. transcript; specimen; set; original writing [ploral 
copies! Tcepi. 

coquet v. flirt ; dally ; trifle [also spelt coquette"] ko'ket. 

coqnetry n. 'koo-ka-t^i; {less properly) kD'ketji. 

coqnette n. flirt [also spet coquet] ko'ket. 

coqnimbite n. (mineral) ko'kim-bait; {less properly) ko- 
'kiuim-bait. 

/\ve, gcure; d the, Qth'm; 5 a^rure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tlchew: 
wzt/hen; tj sing; u wh<?ever, i react, oiuVl, owfool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; s over, e serial, AbMt, o*. door, ooxvo, t.\ic^, t,^^a\^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 123 

coquina n. (soft white rock) ko'kii-ns. 

corah adj. plain ; undyed : said of silk [also spelt cora^ Ho:- 

coral n. (polyp-skeleton formation) 'ke^dl. 

coraled adj. fiirnisht with coral [also spelt coralled, corald"! 

'kezdld. 
eorallin n. (dye; paeonin) 'kez^-hn. 
coralline n. seaweed ; polyzoan [also, sometimes, spelt co- 

rallin'\ 'kez^-hn, 'kezd-lain. 
coralline adj. of coral [also, sometimes, spelt corallM 'kezs- 

hn, 'kezd-lain. 
corbeil n. gabion; basket-like ornament [also spelt cor- 

beillej 'keis-bal, 'ke:z-hil, kee'bee-i. 
corbel n. supporting-piece projecting from a wall [also spelt 

corhell] 'keiz-bal. 
corbel v. [present participle corbeling, corbelling; past par- 
ticiple and preterit corbeled, corbelled, corbeld} 'keiz-h^l. 
corbeling n. [also spelt corbelling} 'keie-ba-hq. 
corbie n. raven; carrion crow [also spelt corby'\ 'ke:?-bi. 
cord n. string, rope [in certain senses commonly spelt chord : 

see chord} 'ke:zd, 
cordelle n. (tow-line) 'keiz-ddl, kez'd&l. 
cordial adj. (of the heart, cheering) 'kex-dsal, 'kei^-di-a^ 

'kei^-djal. 
cordial n. (stomachic; liqueur) 'keie-dsal, 'keie-di-al. 
cordiality n. (heartiness) kezdsi'aeh-ti, ke^di'aeh-ti. 
cordialize v. make into a cordial; become cordial [also spelt 

cordialisel 'ket^-dsa-laiz, 'keie-di-a-laiz. 
Cordillera n. (mountain-range) 'kezdiVjci-z^, kezdilei-z^, 

kez'dil^-z9. 
cordon n. (course of stones; line of troops) ^keiz-d^n. 
corduroy n. [also, sometimes, spelt corderoyl kezd^'zei, (as- 

sumptivly) 'ke:z-d^-zQi; {also, sometimes) 'kei^-djo-eei. 
cordnvain n. Spanish leather [synonymous cognate cordo' 

van} 'ke:^-dween. 
core n. (heart; nucleus) ko:z, 
Corean adj., n. see Korean. 

co-respondent n. (joint respondent) kon'spendsnt. 
cornea n. (the transparent front part of the eyeball) 'kerr- 

ni73. 
cornelian n. ke^'nii-Hdn. same meaning as carnclian. 
comet n. wind-instrument; coil [also spelt cornette} 'ke:z- 

nit, 'keir-net, ker'net. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length -iTJorA- (:) indicates that the preceding soutv^ i^ \^tv^?»\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ieWoYiitv^ sV>\b}c\^. 



124 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

conietist n. [also spelt cornettisfl 'ke:?-ni-tist. 

cornice n. [also spelt cornisl 'kei^-nis; (erroneously) 'ke:r- 

niS. 
conin n. horn; horn-like part [ploral cornud] 'keiz-njo. 
conincopia n. [synonymous cognate cornucopiae; ploral cor- 

nucopiasl ko-.e-njo'koo-pi-a. 
cornnoopiae n. [ploral cornucopiaesi ke:7-njo'koo-pi-i: . 

same meaning as cornucopia, 
corody n. aliment; pension [also spelt corrodyl 'ke^a-di. 
corolla n. inner envelop of the perianth; the petals collec- 

tivly [ploral corollas'} kd'zeld. 
corollary n. inference [ploral corollaries'! 'kezd-lezi, Hce^d- 

l^zi, k^'zel^-zi. 
coroUiferons adj. (bearing a corolla) ke^s'hfd-rds. 
CoroUiflorae n,pl. (Gamopetalae) k9-zeWii.o:-zi. 
corollifloral adj. kd'zeh'{i.o:-zdl. 
coroUiflorons adj. k^-zeli^fi.o:-zds, kez^'hfi^-z^s. 
coroUine adj, of a corolla [also spelt corollini ks'zehn, kd- 

're-lain. 
corona n. crown [ploral coronas, coronael ko'^oo-na. 
coronacli n. dirge [also spelt coranachl 'kez^-naek. 
coronal adj, (of a crown) 'keea-nl, ksVoo-nl. 
coronaled adj, [also spelt coronalled, coronaldl 'kez^-nld. 
coronet n. (coronal, circlet) 'keea-nat. 
corporal adj, (bodily) Hcerr-pa-^al. 
corporal n. (corporal -cloth ; corporale) *ke:z-p^-z9l. 
corporal n. (officer) 'keir-pa-eal. 
corporale n. corporal-cloth, corporal [ploral corporalid] kez- 

pa'zee-h. 
corporeal adj. (physical, bodily; material) ker'poi-^i-al. 
corporeity n. (the being of the nature of body; materiality) 

keep3'eii-i-ti. 
corposant n. St. Elmo's fire; corpse-light [synonymous cog- 
nates composant, comozantl 'ker^-pa-zant, 'ker^-pa-zaent. 
corps n. body; society [ploral corps, see corps pi.] 'ko:e. 
corps n. (ploral of corps) 'koizz. 

corpse n. (body; dead body; cadaver) keizps, keizs. 
corpulence n. (bulk of body; obesity) 'koi^-pQo-Ians. 
corpuscle n, (particle) 'keizr-pASol, 'keie-pa-sal, ke^'pAsaJ. 
corpnscnle n. (corpuscle) ke?'pAs-kcul. 
corral n. (pen, enclosure) 'keeal, ka'eaeJ, ko'rael, ke'^ael. 
corral v. (drive into a corral; capture) Tcoral, ka'rael, ko- 

'ral, ko'^ael. 

J,ve, Qcure; bthe, */tin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wzc'/ten; ijsing', u whoever, i react, oiuu, DW.ioo\, i-Ct, ilscc; 
o poetic; ^ over, e aerial. Abut, 0: door, 00 no, tV^c^, t,e^?.a\^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 12J 

correal adj. (under joint obligation) ka'eii-al, 'keei-ol. 
correality n. (quality of being correal) kezi'aeh-ti. 
correality n. (equal reality) ke^i'aeh-ti. 
eorreet adj, ks'^ekt, {rapidly, sometimes) k^ekt. 
corregidor n. (Spanish magistrate) ke'?ed3i-de?. 
correspondent n. (one who corresponds, as by letter) kezi- 

'spendsnt. 
corridor n. (gallery; passage) 'keei-dee, 'keei-dD?, 'kori-da?, 

keei'do:?. 
corrie n. hollow [also spelt correi, corri, corry; synonymous 

cognate currie"] 'ke^i. 
corrigible adj. (capable of being corrected) 'keeidsa-bsJ. 
corroborate v. (strengthen; confirm) ks'^ebs-^et. 
corrody n. aliment; pension [also spelt corody'i 'kez3-di. 
corrosible adj, (corrodible) kaVoo-sa-bal, ko'eoo-za-bal. 
corrosive adj., n. [also spelt corrosiv'^ ka'zoo-siv, ka'eoo-ziv ; 

(formerly) 'kera-siv. 
corrugate v, (wrinkle) 'keeo-get. 
corruptible adj. ks'^Apts-bsL 
corsage n. (bodice) 'ke:z-sid3, kez'sa:3, ke^'saids. 
corsair n. (privateer) 'ke:z-se:z. 
corse n. (dead body; corpse) ke:?s, koizs. 
corslet n. body-armor ; garment ; thorax [also spelt corselet"] 

Hcei^-SLat. 
cortdge n. (train of attendants ; procession) ke^'tees. 
Cortes n. pi. (the senate and chamber of deputies constitut- 
ing the legislature of Spain) 'ke:^-tis, 'ke:?-tes. 
cortex n. outer part; shell; husk [ploral cortices] Tcei^-teks. 
cortices n. (ploral of cortex) 'keie-ti-siz. 
comscant adj. (glittering; flashing) ks'^Asksnt. 
coruscate v. (sparkle, glitter) 'kesrd-sket, kd'zA-sket. 
corvette n. (flush-deckt cruiser) ko^'vet. 
corvine adj. (of the crow) 'keie-vin, 'ke:e-vain. 
corymb n. (raceme) 'ke^im, Tce^imb. 
corjmibose adj. (growing in corymbs) kezim'bDOs, (assump- 

tivly) ke'eim-bos. 
corypb^e n. (chief ballet-dancer) ke^i'fee. 
corypbeus n. leader [also spelt coryphaeus] keri'fii-as. 
coryza n. (catarrh) ko'?ai-z9. 
cosinage n. blood-relationship; writ [also spelt cosenage] 

'kAza-nids, TcAzn-ids. 
cosnictic n. (preparation for the skin, etc. ; art of bodily 

adornment) kez'metik. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*. as\s., BLiV\\.e.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \Qn%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the toUoY/ms sv^V^^^^^ 



126 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

cosmogony n. (world-creation) kez'megd-ni ; (erroneously) 

kez'medsi-ni. 
eosmopolitan adj. (of a cosmopolite; world-wide) Icezmd- 

'peh-tn. 
cosmopolite n. (citizen of the world) kez'meps-lait. 
cosmorama n. (view of the world) kezmd'zar-md. 
cosmos n. world; universe; order [also spelt kosmosi 'kez- 

mes. 
Cossack n. (inhabitant of the lower Don, etc.) 'kessk, 'ke- 

ssek. 
cost V. (be of the price of, etc.) keist, (when unstrest) kest; 

(dialectally) kc:st. 
costean v. sink pits, etc. [also spelt costeen"] kes'tiin; (less 

properly) 'kosti-an. 
costmary n. (plant) ncest-meri, 'kest-mei-ei. 
costnme n. (custom; style of dress; gown) 'kestgum, kes- 

'tQoum; (dialectally) Ocestum, kes'toum, 
costnme v, (provide with a dress) kes'tgoum. 
costnnier n. (dealer in costumes) kes'tgou-ma? ; (less proper- 
ly) Tces-tQuma?. 
cote n. (hut; sheepfold) loot. 
coterie n. (circle, set, meeting) 'koo-t3-?i; (less properly) 

Tceta-n, kota'ni. 
cotlinm n. (boot, buskin, cothurnus) 'koo-Osr^n, ko'Gsirn. 
cotillion n. dance [also spelt cotillon"] ko'tilidn. 
cotyle n. hollow thing, hip-joint socket [ploral cotylae, coty- 

lesl 'keti-h. 
cotyledon n. (patch of villi; pennywort; seed-leaf) keti- 

lii-dn. 
cotyledonons adj. keti1ii-dn-3s, keti1edn-3s. 
conchant adj. (lying down) 'kao-tSsnt. 
congar n. puma, panther [also spelt couguar, cougouar] Hcou- 

congh V, (expel air thru the glottis, etc.) kc:f, (ivhen un- 
strest) kef. 

conld V. (preterit of can) kod, (when unstrest) kad. 

conlomb n. (electric quantity-unit) kulem. 

conncil n. (assembly) 'kaon-ssl. 

conncilor n. member of a council [also spelt councillor"] 
'kaon-S3-l9?. 

connsel n. (consultation; advice; plan; body of legal ad- 
visers) Tcaon-sal. 

connsel v. give or take counsel; advise; consult [present par- 

/.ve, gcure; d the, Q thin; 3 a^rure, d5/oy; I shoe, t^ chew; 
wwhen; 13 sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, ow.ioo\, lit, ilsee; 
o poetic; q over, e aerial, a but, o'.doot, 00 no, tV>e^, ^^^oX^N 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 127 



i 



ticiple counseling, counselling \ past participle and preterit 
counseled, counselled, counseldl 'kaon-ssl. 
connselor n. adviser; barrister [also spelt counsellor^ 'kaon- 

eountenance n. (demeanor; face; support) 'kaon-tn-9ns» 

'kaon-ti-nans. 
counter n. counting-device ; counterfeit coin ; table ; debtors' 

prison [also, in the sense of prison for debtors, spelt comp- 
ter'] 'kaon-t32. 
counterfeit adj.,n, imitation [also, sometimes, spelt coun- 

terfit] 'koon-tae-fit, (also, in Britain) 'koon-tae-fit. 
countermarcli v, (march back) kaon-tds'moistS, 'kaon-tdr- 

ma:7tS. 
countemiarclL n. 'kabn-t9z-ma:7tS. 

counterpane n. (bed-quilt) 'kaun-tds-peen, 'kaon-tdzr-pin. 
coup n. (prompt blow, sudden stroke) kou. 
coup n. cart, wagon [also spelt coopl koup. 
coup V, exchange, barter [also spelt cowpl kaop. 
coup V, upset [also, formerly, sptlt cowpl kaop. 
coup de gr&ce n. (stroke of mercy; quietus) kou-d3'g?a:s. 
coup de main n. (stroke with the hand ; sudden attack) kou< 

dd'mxi]. 
coup d'6tat n. (stroke of state; stroke of policy) kou-de- 

'ta: . 
coup d'oeil n. (glance of the eye; general view) kou'dB:-i. 
coupe n. (cup, bowl; Swiss dry measure) kuup. 
coup6 n. (carriage) ku'pee. 
coupee n. (dance-step; bow) ku'pii. 
coup6e adj. (in heraldry, coupt) ku'pee. 
couple n. (brace, leash; pair) 'kApsL 
coupon n. (detachable certificate; ticket) 'kou-pen; (vul' 

garly) 'kgou-pen, 'kao-pen. 
courageous adj. (full of courage; bold) kd'ree-dsds. 
courant adj. (in heraldry, running) 'ko:-?sent. 
courant n. dance [also spelt courante} ko'za:nt, ko'^omt, ku- 

courant n. gazette, news-letter [obsolete except as the name 
of some particular newspaper] 'koi-rant, ko'zaint, ku'za:nt, 
ko'?ae:nt. 

courier n. (running messenger; traveler's servant) 'kozi-^z, 
(less often) ^ko:-ziz. 

couronne n. (crown) ko'?en. 

course n. (onward motion ; path) koizs, (when unstrest) kozs. 

c: low, b: iur, ae cot, 6 hot, ei hoy; a: for, go now, a*, osk, aiV.\\.e^\ 

\zngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is \qicv?,\ 

Btresa-mark C) indicates chief stress on the f oUov/itvg sv^V^^^^^* 



126 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eonrteons adj. graciously polite [also, sometimes, spelt cur- 

teousl IcB^ti-as, 'ksie-ti-as; 'ksrtQas, 'ksiz-tg^s; 'koiz-tq^s. 
eonrtesy n. courtliness or elegance of manners; also, favor, | 

indulgence : as, the *courtesy of England [also spelt curte- 

sy'\ 'kB?ti-si. 
courtesy n. 'ke^tsi, {rarely) 'ks^ti-si. same meaning as curt- ' 

sy. 
courtezan n. court-mistress; prostitute [also spelt courte- 
san^ 'ko:e-ti-z3n, 'ko:?-ti-zaen, 'ke^ti-zon, 'kerti-zan, ksrti- 

'zaen. 
conrtier n. (one who frequents the court of a sovereign) 

koiz-tjar, 'koiz-tq^z, 
court-martial n. court for the administration of martial 

law [ploral courts-martiall koizt^mazl^l. 
conrtmartial v. [past participle and preterit courtmar- 

tialed, courtmartialdl koizrt'maeSal. 
cousin n. (son or daughter of one's uncle or aunt) 'kAzdn, 

IcAzn; {erroneously) 'kAzin. 
covenant n. (compact, contract) 'kAvi-nsnt. 
covenanter n. (one who covenants; adherent of the Scotch 

covenant of 1638 or that of 1643) 'kAvi-nanta^. 
covenantor n. (one who enters into a legal covenant) 'Icavi- 

nsntdz, 'kAVinan-te:?. 
coverlet n. (bed-quilt; cover) 'kAva^-lat. 
covert adj. (covered, secret, disguised) 'kAvaet; {erroneous- 
ly) Icoo-vBrt. 
covetous adj, (eagerly desirous; grasping) 'kAvi-tas. 
covey n. (brood of partridges; set) icAvi. 
coivage n. pod-hairs of Mucuna pruriens [also spelt cow- 

hage, couhage; synonymous cognate cowitch] 'kau-ids. 
cowardice n. want of courage [also spelt cowardisi 'kau-3?- 

dis; {erroneously) ncau-ss-dais. 
coTvcnniber n. {dialectal) 'kao-kAmbs?. same meaning as 

cucumber. 
coTvlierd n. (cattle-tender) Tcao-hst^d. 
coivl n. (hood; hooded garment) kao). 
coivry n. shell [also spelt cowrie; ploral cowriesl 'kao-ei. 
coxcomb n. a fool's cap; fop, vain silly fellow [also spelt 

cockscombl Tceks-koom. 
cozopodite n. (crustacean) kek'sep9-dait. 
coynye n. billeting of soldiers upon private persons; impost 

[also spelt coignye and, formerly, coigny, coyne, coynie; 

former synonymous cognate coignel Hcoi-nji, 'kei-ni. 

J ye, gcure; dthe, 9*Mn; 3 asure, djf'oy; \shot, tSc/tew; 
wwJten; 13 sing \ ti wh(7ever, i react, oiuVV ow.ioo\, i-Vt, \\^ce\ 
o poetic; s over, e aerial. Abut, 0: door, ooxvo, «.V>c^, t^%a\^% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 129 

be n. prairie-wolf [synenymous cegnate cajote, coyote, 

ie"} Icei-ot, ko'joo-ti, ko'joot. 

L V, cheat; entice [past participle and preterit cozened, 

endl 'kAzdn, IcAzn. 

adj. snug; social [also spelt cosy, cosey, cozey, cosie, co- 

'koo-zi. 
bed adj, (perverse, cross, churlish) 'ksabid. 
; n. skill; cunning; boat [ploral crafts and, in the sense 
jhips coUectivly, craft"] k3a:ft, k^aift, k^aeift. 
pon n. grappling-iron [synenymous cegnate crampooni 
:mp3n, 'Icsxm-pen. 

.poon n. ksaem'poun. same meaning as crampon, 
berry n. Ic^aen-besi, 'ksaen-baei, 'ksaembei. 
sH V. k3a:nt$, IraamtS, kscmtS; {also, and in Britain nor- 
ly) ksamS, lcsa:n$, k^cm^. same meaning as craunch, 
Lai adj. (of the cranium or skull) 'ksee-ni-al. 
Lum n. skull; brain-box [ploral crania] 'k^ee-ni-sm. 
» n. gauze-like fabric [also spelt crepe, crepe] kzeep, 

adj. (coarse; gross) k^aes; (less properly) k^aeis, k^ais. 
Aoli f. crunch [synenymous cognates cranch, crunch] 
ntS, ksaintS, lraa:ntS; (also, and in Britain normally) 
nS, k3a:n$, ksomS. 

fisli n. crustacean; spiny lobster [synenymous cegnate 
ifish] 1rec:-fiS. 

IsH n. 'ksee-fiS. same meaning as crawfish, 
t V, make a sharp, harsh, or squeaking sound [past par- 
pie and preterit creaked, creakt] icsiik. 
ine n. organic base [also spelt kreatine and, sometimes, 
itin, kreatin] 'Icsii-a-tin, 'ksii-3-tain. 

iiiine n. alkaline substance [also spelt kreatinine and, 
etimes, creatinin, kreatinin] k^i'aeti-nin, ksi'aeti-nain. 
or n. (one who creates) Icsi'ee-ta?. 

;ure n. (created thing ; animal ; human being) 'k^ii- 
, Tc^ii-tgar; (dialectally) 'Icsii-tae, 'Icsita^. 
ince n. (belief, etc.) Tc^ii-dns; (erroneously) 'k^edns. 
ble adj. (believable) 'Iraeda-bal. 

tor n. (one who gives credit; one to whom a debt is 
ig) Ireedi-ta?. 
► n. (creed) 'Icsii-do. 

ility n. (over-readiness to believe) Irai'djou-h-ti; (less 
yerly) Irai'dsou-h-ti. 

lions adj. (gullible) 'k^edso-Ias, Tc^edjo-las. 
: n. (inlet, bay ; brook, rivulet) Icsiik ; (dialectally) Icsik. 

b: fi*r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \ftTi.^% 
nark C) indicates chief stress on the ieUoNiiin^ s^WaWi^ 



130 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eremate v, (burn up ; consume by heat) k^i'meet, 'Icsii-met. 
erematorinni n. (crematory) ksims'to^^i-sm, k3em9'to:-n- 

9m. 
crematory n„ adj. 'k^ii-ma-toei, 'ksema-tazi, Treemata-^i. 
erenate adj, (notcht, indented) 'k^ii-net. 
erenatnre n. (tooth or notch of a leaf) 'k^ens-t^d?, 'k^sens- 

tQ3?, 'ksii-ns-tQae. 
erenel n, (tooth of a erenate leaf, crenature; also, crenelle) 

'ksenoh 
erenelate v, embattle [also spelt crenellate'\ 'k^ena-let. 
erenelation n. condition of being crenelated; battlement 

[also spelt crenellation\ ksens'lee-Jan. 
crenelle n. (opening in a parapet; crenel) k^i'nel. 
Creole n. (nativ-born person of European or African des- 
cent) 'Iraii-oh 
creosote n. oily liquid from wood-tar [also spelt creosote, 

kreasote'l 'ksii-a-sot. 
crepon n. (crape-like fabric) 'ksepsn. 
crescendo n. (gradual increase; swelling) k^i'sendo, k^i'5en- 

do. 
crescent n. (convexo-concave figure like the growing or 

waxing moon) 'ksesant. 
cresol n. tar phenol [also, sometimes, spelt cressoll 'k^ii-se}, 

'kse-sel. 
cretaceons adj. (chalky) ksi'tee-Sss. 
cretonne n. (cotton cloth) Irai'ten, 'k^e-ten, 'ksii-ten. 
crevasse n. (fissure) k33'va:s, k^dVais, lcs3'vx:s. 
crcTice n. crack; fissure [also spelt crevisl 'ksevis. 
crewel n. (worsted thread) 'Iraou-al. 
cricoid adj, (ring-shaped) 'k^ai-keid. 
crinoid adj. (lily-like) 'Icsai-neid, 'k^i-neid. 
crinoline n. stiff fabric; petticoat; warship-netting [also, 

sometimes, spelt crinolini 'Iraina-hn, 'ksina-lin, 'k^ina-lam. 
crises n. (plural of crisis) Ic^ai-siz. 
crisis n, turning-point [ploral crises and, rarely, crisises'^ 

Ireai-sis, 
criterion n. standard of criticism [ploral criteria"] ksai'ti:- 

ei-an. 
criticize v, judge accurately [also spelt criticise] 'k^iti-saiz. 
critique n, (critical review) Irei'tiik; (obsolete spelling of 

critic) Ireitik. 
crocliet V, (knit) Ireo'Jce, Ireoo-Si. 
crocodile n. (reptil; sophism) 'Ireeka-dail, 'k^eka-dil. 

jyc, gcure; dthe, Q thin; 5 a^ure, ds/oy; I shoe, tJcAew; 
wze/Aen; rf sinff; ti whoever, i react, oiuu, viwlooV, \\\., \\^cc% 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abt*t, o:dooT, 00 no, t\ie^, «,e^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 131 

cromlech n. (ancient stone structure) 'k^emisk, 'ksem-lek. 
crony n. [also spelt cronie, croney; ploral croniesl 'k3D0-ni. 
! crooked adj. (bent; not straight) 'ksukid. 

crooked v. past participle and preterit of crook [also spelt 
I crookt} ksokt. 

I croquet n. (game) kso'kee, 'k^oo-ke, 'ksoo-ki. 
croquette n. (food) kso'ket. 
croquiz n. (sketch; study) k^o'kii. 

cross V. make a cross; cancel; pass over, etc. [past partici- 
ple and preterit crossed, crost"! k^eis, {when unstrest) kses; 

(dialectally) k3c:s. 
crosslet n. small cross [also spelt croslet"] 'lcse:-SL3t. 
crotcket n. (hook; musical symbol; whim) 'ksetjit. 
cronck v. (stoop; cringe) k^aot^; (^erroneously) k^outj. 
croup n. rump, buttocks [also spelt croupe, croop"] k^oup. 
croup n. (disease) k^oup. 
croupier n. (money-raker at a gambling-table; assistant 

host) 'k30U-pi-9?, kzvi'piiz. 
crosier n. cross-bearer; pastoral staff [also spelt crosierl 

'ksoo-saz:. 
crucial adj. (cross-shaped; decisiv) 'k^ou-Ssl. 
crucian n. fish [also spelt crusian\ 'k^ou-Ssn. 
crucible n. (melting-pot) 'Icsou-sa-bal ; {less properly) 'Ireou- 

zd-bdl. 
crucifix n. (image of Christ on the cross) 'ksou-si-fiks. 
crucifixion n. k^usi'fik^sn. 

cruel adj. (disposed to inflict suffering) 'ksou-ah 
cruelly adv. (in a cruel manner) 'k^ou-a-h, 'ksou-al-h. 
cruise v,, n. voyage [also spelt cruize'^ ksouz. 
cruuib n. particle; scrap [also spelt crutnl k^Am. 
crunck v. crush with the teeth, etc. [synonymous cognates 

craunch, cranchi k^AntS, (in Britain) k^AnS. 
cruorin n. hemoglobin [also spelt cruorinel 'k^ou-a-nn. 
crupper n. (saddle-strap passing under a horse's tail; rump; 

croup) 'k^opaz, 'ksApae. 
cms n. the lower leg; pillar [ploral crural ksAS. 
crusado n. Portuguese coin [also, sometimes, spelt crusadol 

k3o'see-do, kso'zee-do. 
cruse n. jar, bottle [also spelt cruised k^ous, k^ouz. 
crustaceous n. (of or like a crust; crustacean) k^As'tee-Sss. 
crux n. cross; vexatious difficulty [ploral cruxes, crucesi 

k3Aks; (erroneously) k^oks. 
crjrptogaui «. (flowerless plant) 'ksipta-gaem. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a*, ask, ^\k\\.«.\ 

len^tb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtv^ \^ \^t^%% 

stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on tbe ioWoYim^ «^\\?iX^^* 



132 DTCTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

crjrptogram n. (secret writing) 'ksipta-graem. 

crystalline adj. of crystal [also, sometimes, spelt crystallini 

'ksistl-in, 'ksistl-ain, 'k3ist9-hn, 'ksista-lain. 
crystallization n. [also spelt crystallisation] ksistl-i'zee- 

San, k^istl-ai'zee-San. 
crystallize v. [also spelt crystallise} 'Icsistl-aiz, 'ksista-laiz. 
cnbic adj. (cube-like ; solid ; of the third degree) 'kgou-bik. 
cnckoo n. (bird) 'ko-ku, (anteriorly) • 'koku. 
cncnniber n. [dialectal equivalent cowcumber, formerly in 

regular literary use] 'kgou-kAmba?. 
cndgel n. (club) 'kAdssh 
cne n. concluding word; hint; proper course; frame of mind 

[also, formerly, spelt kew, ku, quew, q, quue, que, qu, kuel 

kgou. 
cne n. stick used in billiards [also spelt queue"} k^ou. 
cnirass n. (armor) kiwi'^aes, ku)i'^ae:s; {less properly) kiui'^ars; 

'ku)i:-29s; kgoVais, kgo'zaers. 
cnirassier n. (mounted soldier armd with a cuirass) kwi^s- 

'si:r, kgozo'si:?, 
cnir-bonilli n. boild leather [also spelt cuir-bouilly} kwv.z- 

'bou-ji, ku)i:r'boul-ji. 
cnish n. thigh-piece [synonymous cognate cuisse} kwiS. 
cnisine n. (kitchen; style of cooking) kiui'ziin. 
cnl-de-sac n. blind alley [ploral culs-de-sac} k^oul-dd'saek. 
cnlin^ry adj, (of the kitchen or cooking) 'k(jou-!i-ne2i ; {er- 
roneously) TcAh-neri. 
cnller n. (one who culls or selects) 'VtA^z. 
cnltnre n. (cultivation) 'kAltJar, {older) 'kAltga?. 
cnlverin n. gun; cannon [also spelt culverine} 'kAlvd-zin. 
cnmic adj. (of cumin) 'kAmik, 'kgou-mik. 
cnmin n. plant [also spelt cummin} 'kAmin. 
cnmqnat n. small orange [also spelt kumquat, cumquot} 

'kAm-ku30t. 
cnmnlative adj. increasing by addition [also spelt cumula- 

tiv} 'kgou-mjo-4etiv, 'k^ou-mjola-tiv. 
cnneal adj, (wedge-shaped) 'kQou-ni-dl. 
cnneifomi n. wedge-shaped [synonymous cognate cuniform} 

kQo'nii-i-forzrm, TcQou-ni-i-foijm, 'kgou-ni-foirm. 
cnnicnlns n. small underground passage [plural cuniculi} 

kgo'nikgo-fes. 
cnnner n. fish [also spelt Conner, connor} 'kAna^. 
cnnning n. (skill; craftiness) TcAniq; {dialectally, vulgarly, 

and familiarly) TcAnin. 

j\ve, gcure; d the, Q thin] sa^ure, ds/oy; S ^''oe, tlchew, 
wwhen; i)8ing\ u whoever, i react, dIuVY, viMiooV, \\t, \\^cc\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o'.doot, oono» ^\ie^, t^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 133 

Clipboard n. (sideboard for cups; provision-closet) 'kAbdzrd. 

onpel n. (bone-earth vessel) 'kguu-pdl, 'kApsl. 

fsnpel V. present participle cupeling, cupelling; past parti- 
ciple and preterit cupeled, cupelled and sometimes cupeldl 
Tcgou-pal. 

cupful n. as much as fills a cup [ploral cupfulsl IcAp-fo). 

cupola n. dome-like roof, etc. [dialectal synonymous cog- 
nate cupolo"} 'kgou-p3-l3. 

curable adj. (capable of being cured) 'kqai-z^-h^l. 

Curasao n. [also spelt curagoa'\ kgo^s'soo. 

curari n. poison [also spelt curare; synonymous cognate cu- 
raral kgo'ear-^i, ko'za:-zi. 

curariue n. (alkaloid from curari) 'kgoi-z^-zain, ko'za:-?in. 

curariaEC v, (treat with curari) ^kqoi-z^-zaiz, ko^zai-zaiz. 

curassow n. (bird) kgo'raeso, 'kgoi-ro-so. 

curate n. (curer of souls; pastor; assistant of a rector or 
vicar) 'kQo:-?it. 

curator n. (guardian; manager) kq&zte-t^z, 'kqo:-z^-tsz. 

curb n. mouth-strap; check; swelling; frame; edging; curb- 
stone [also, formerly, spelt kerb, kirbl ksr^b. 

curculio n. (fruit-weevil) kB^'k^ou-H-o, 

curcumin n. coloring-matter of tumeric [also spelt curcu- 
m%ne'\ 'ks^kgo-min. 

cur§ n. (parish priest) kgo'^ee. 

curfcvr n. (evening bell; fire-plate, blower) 'kezfiu, 'ker^-fiu. 

curio n. (curiosity; piece of bric-a-brac) 'kgoi-ei-o. 

curled adj. ksirfd, {also, in poetry) 'kBie-hd. 

cunnudLgeon n. (miser, niggard) kd^'mAdssn. 

currant n. (fruit) 'keeant, 'kA^ant. 

currency «. (flow; course of time; state of being current; 
circulation; money in actual use; vogue) 'koran-si. 

current n. (flow, stream) 'ks^ant, 'kA^ant. 

current adj, (passing, common, prevalent) 'ksrant, 'kA^ant. 

curriculuni n. course [ploral curricula"! kaVik^o-lam. 

currier n. (one who dresses leather) 'k^zi-^z, 'kAzi-9Z. 

cursed adj. (under a curse; damnable) 'ks^sid, 'kB:?-sid. 

cursed v, (past participle and preterit of curse) kBi^st. 

curser n. (one who curses) 'kszs^z, ^siz-s^z. 

cursor n. (runner; slide) ^kiszs^z, 'kB:^-s3c. 

ciursory adj. (running; hasty) ^bzs^-zi, 'kszszi. 

curtail v. cut short [past participle and preterit curtailed, 
curt ail d"] kszr'teel. 

Ciurtain n. (hanging; screen) 'kB^tn, 'kB?tin. 

c: law, b: fi*r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*. QsV, a\V\\fc\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soun^ \^ \^t^V% 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWovJin^ s^WaJo\^. 



134 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

curtsy n. obeisance [also spelt curtsey; synonymous cognates 

curtesy, courtesyl IcBetsi. 
curtsy V, [present participle curtsying; past participle and 

preterit curtsiedl Tcertsi. 
curule adj. (of a chariot) 'kqai-zuh 
curve n. curvd line [also spelt curvl ksizv. 
curvet n„ v. leap [also spelt curvettel 'keie-vit, ke^'vet. 
cushion n. (stuft bag) 'koSsn. 
cuspidor n. spittoon [synonymous cognate cuspidore'] 'kAspi- 

dez, 
cuspidore n. 'kAspi-do?. same meaning as cuspidor, 
cutlas n. cutting-sword; big knife [also spelt cutlass"] HcAtLss. 
cyanide n. (compound of cyanogen and a metal) 'sai-9-naid, 

'sai-3-nid. 
cyanine n. blue coloring-matter [also, sometimes, spelt cya- 

ninl 'sai-a-nain, 'sai-a-nin. 
cyanogen n. (radical) sai'aens-dsin, sai'sens-dsen. 
cyanurate n. (salt of cyanuric acid) sai-9'njo:-?et. 
cyanuret n. (cyanide) sai'aenju-rst. 
cyanuric adj. sai-3'nju:-7ik. 
cycad n. (plant) 'sai-ksed, 'sai-ksd., 
cyclamen n. (plant) 'sik^d-msn. 

cyclamin n. (principle found in cyclamen-root) 'sikta-min. 
cycle n. (circle; round of events) 'sai-kal. 
cyclic adj, (of a cycle) 'siktik. 
cyclide «. envelop of a sphere [also, sometimes, spelt eyelid} 

'sai-ktid, 'si-ktaid. 
cycloid adj. (like a circle) 'sai-k^eid, 'si-k^eid. 
cycloidal adj, (of a cycloid) sai'kLoi-dl, si'kLoi-dl. 
cyclone n. (rotatory storm) 'sai-kz^oon. 
cyclope adj. (having or using one' eye) 'sai-k^op. 
Cyclopean adj. (of the Cyclopes) sai-kLd'pii-dn. 
cyclopedia n. encyclopedia [also spelt cyclopaedia'] sai-k^d- 
. 'pii-di-3. 
cyclopedic adj, [also spelt cyclopaedic] sai-k^a'pii-dik, sai- 

ki-a'pedik. 
Cylopes n. (ploral of Cyclops) sai'ki-DO-piz. 
Cyclops n. one of a mythic race of one-eyed giants [ploral 

Cyclopes, Cyclops, Cyclopses] 'sai-ktops. 
cyclorama n. (circular panorama) sai-kL3'7a:-md. 
cygnet n. young swan [also, formerly, spelt signet] 'signit. 
cylinder n. (solid figure; tube) 'sihn-dar. 
cylindric adj. Oike a cylinder) silindrik. 

Jjye, gcure; dike, Qthin; saxrure, ds/oy; S-^^oe, tjc/iew; 
wzvhen; 13 sing; u whoever, i react, Diuu, \3Mioo\, lit, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abwt, o;dooT, ooxio» t\ic^, ^^%oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 135 

' . r 

If. robe [also spelt fimarre, simar, symarl si'maiz. 
cymbal n. metal plate [alio spelt sytnball 'simbsl. 
eymbiformL adj, boat-shaped [also spelt cymbaeformi 'simbi- 

ieizm. 
eyme n. (centrifugal inflorescence) saim. 
cyniose adj, (bearing a cyme) sai'maos, (assumptivly) 'sai- 

mos; (also) 'sai-moz. 
Cyntric adj. of the Cymry; Welsh [also, sometimes, spelt 

Kymric^ 'aimzik, Icimsik. 
Cya&ry n. pi, the Welsh [also spelt Cymri, Cwmry and, some- 
times, Kymry, Kimry, Kitnril 'simzi, (^less often) 'kimzi. 
cynamolie n. (throat-disease) si'nxgki. 
Cynic n. (one of a sect of Greek philosophers) 'sinik. 
cynic n. (sneering faultfinder) 'sinik. 
cynical adj. (captious; sarcastic) 'sini-kdl. 
cynicism n. 'sini-sizsm. 
cynosure n. (center of attraction) 'sai-ns-Suz, sins-Su?; 'sai- 

ns-sgor, 'sins-sgo?; (less often) 'sai-n3-302, 'sina-so?; 'sai- 

nd-zjor, 'sins-zju?. 
cypress n. (tree) 'sai-psis. 

cyprinoid adj, (carp-like) 'sipsi-neid, si'psai-neid. 
cyst n. sac, vesicle, cell [also spelt cist'] sist. 
cytoplasm n. (cell protoplasm) 'sai-ts-pz^zsm. 
cyrar n. (Welsh land-measure) 'kii-va?. 
oiar n. emperor, king; especially, the emperor of Russia [also, 

spelt tsar, tsar'] zaiz, {rarely) tsaiz. 
osarcTitcli. n. Russian prince [also, sometimes, spelt tsare- 

vitch, csarewitch, tsarewitch, czarowitch, csarowitz\ synen- 

ymous cognates cesarevitch, cesarewitch] 'za:r-3-vitS, 'tsa:^- 

3-vitS. 
oiarina n. empress of Russia [also, sometimes, spelt tsarina ; 

synonymous cognates czaritza, tsaritsa, tzaritsa] za'^ii-na, 

tsa'7ii-n3. 
Ciech adj, [also spelt Csech, Tsech, TschecW] tjek. 



daehshnnd n. badger-dog [synonymous cognate dachshound] 

'da:ks-hont; {less properly) 'daeks-hunt. 
dactyl n. metrical foot [also spelt dactyle] 'daektil. 
daddy n. dad, father [also spelt daddie] 'dsedi. 
dado n. die of a pedestal, etc. [ploral dados] 'dee-do, {less 

often) 'do: -do. 

c: law, b: f«r, a cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: for, ao now, a*, ask, a\k\le.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somti^ \s \^^?»\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the feWo-witv^ s^W?iJc^fc« 



136 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

daedal adj. see dedal. 

daffadoiiTndilly n. daffodil [synonymous cognates daffy- 

downdilly, daffedowndillyl daefa-daon'dih. 
daffodil n. (narcissus; pale yellow) 'dsefs-dil. 
daft adj. (crazy; madly gay) da:ft, da:ft, daerft. 
daguerreotype n. (fotograf) da'ge^a-taip, da'gen-a-taip. 
dahabeeyah n. boat used on the Nile [also spelt dahabeiah, 

dahabiyeh; synonymous cognates dihabiah, dahabeeah, da- 

habiehl da-ha'bii-ja, da-ha'bii-a. 
dahlia n. (plant) 'da:-H3, 'dee-lid, 'dselis. 
dairy «. milk-room [ploral dairiesi 'de:-ei; (dialectally) 'dee- 

zi. 
dais n. (platform) 'dee-is, dees. 
daisy n. flower [ploral daisiesl Mee-zi. 
dam n. (bank or wall to obstruct water) daem. 
damage n. (loss; harm) 'dsemids. 
Damascene adj, (of Damascus; of damask) dsems'siin, (as- 

sumptivly) 'daema-sin. 
damascene v. inlay, damask [synonymous cognate damas- 

keenl daema'siin, 'daema-sin. 
dammar n. resin [also spelt damar, dammer\ 'daems?. 
damme interj. (damn me) Maemi. 
dammed adj. obstructed by means of a dam [also spelt 

damdl dsemd. 
damn v. (condemn to hell) dsem, (often) dse:m. 
damned adj, (consigned to hell) dsemd, (often) dse:md; 

(sometimes, in poetry) 'daemnid. 
damning adj. (that damns) Maemnir), 'dsemir). 
damning n. (damnation) Maemii]. 

damsel n. young unmarried lady; girl, lass [archaic synon- 
ymous cognates damosel, damozel, damozeW] 'daemzal. 
damson n. (plum) Maemzsn. 

dance n.,v. da:nts, darnts, dae:nts; (also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) dams, da:ns, daeins. 
dandelion n. (plant) 'daendi-lai-sn, daendilai-dn ; (vulgarly) 

'daendi-lain, 'daendl-ain. 
dandi n. Saiva mendicant [ploral dandisl 'daendi. 
dandruff n. scurf [synonymous cognate dandriffi 'daendraf. 
dandy n. boatman on the Ganges [also spelt dandi, dandee; 

plural dandiesl 'daendi. 
dandy n. beau, fop; sloop; foul; jug; grate; cart [ploral 

dandies'] Msendi. 
dandy n. (dandy-fever, dengue) 'daendi. 

J ye, gcure; dthe, 6*Mn; sarure, dsf'oy; I shoe, t^ chew ; 
wwhen; tjsing] u whoever, i react, oiuu, ^Mioo\, \\\., \\^c«; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, :iOt^o, ^\ic^, «,^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 137 

Dai&esold n. tax [synonymous cognate Danegeltl 'deen-geld. 

Danish adj, (of the Danes; of Denmark) 'dee-niS; (errone- 
ously) 'daeni$. 

daiiseiise n. (female dancer; ballet-dancer) dei)'sB:z. 

daric n. (ancient Persian coin) 'dx7ik. 

darky n. night ; dark lantern ; negro [also spelt darkey ; plu- 
ral darkiesi 'da^ki, 'da:?-ki, 'da:-ki, 

data n. (ploral of datum) 'dee-ts, 'da:-t9. 

datum n. [ploral datal 'dee-tsm. 

daub v., n. smear, etc. [past participle and preterit daubed, 
daubdl dc:b; (dialectally) deb. 

danshter n. (female child) 'dci-t^z. 

dannt v. (discourage; abash) dc:nt, da:nt, da:nt. 

danntless adj. (bold) 'dc:n-tL3s, 'da:n-tL3s, 'da:n-tL3s. 

dannton n. daunt; tame [also spelt dantoni 'dc:n-tdn, 'dam- 
tan, 'da:n-t3n. 

danpliin n. eldest son of the king of France [former syn- 
onymous cognate dolphini 'dc:-fin. 

danpliine n. (the wife of a dauphin) 'dc:-fin. 

davit n. crane [also spelt davitt'] 'dee-vit, 'daevit. 

day n. time of sunlight, etc. [ploral days\ dee, {when un- 
strest) de. 

dead adj. lifeless, etc. [also spelt dedl ded. 

deaden v. make dead [also spelt deden; past participle and 
preterit deadened, dedendl 'dedn. 

deadhead n. [also spelt dedhed"] 'ded-hed. 

deadly adj. mortal, fatal, destructiv [also spelt dedlyl 'dedh. 
• deaf adj. defectiv in hearing [also spelt defl def ; (dialectal- 
ly or vulgarly) diif. 

deafen v. make def [also spelt def en; past participle and 
preterit deafened, defendl 'defan. 

deal V. divide, distribute; have to do; handle [past participle 
and preterit dealt, delf] diil. 

dean n. (head, chief, president) diin. 

Dean n, (title) diin, (anteriorly, as a title) din. 

dean n. vale [also spelt denel diin. 

dear adj. (beloved, precious, costly) di:?. 

deary n. little dear; darling [also spelt dearie'] 'di:-?i. 

death n. cessation of life [also spelt dcth] deO. 

deathly adj., adv. [also spelt dethlyl McOli. 

debatable adj, (admitting of debate) di'bee-ta-bal. 

debaneh v. (bout of excess ; debauchery) di'bc:tS ; (errone- 
ously) diliaotS. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e h^t, ei hoy; a: far, qo now, bi*. asVi, ^\V\\.^\ 

]engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtv^ "v^ \^tv^\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ioWovJin^ s^W^^^t. 



138 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

debauchee n. (one addicted to debauch) debc'Sii- 
debenture n. (certificate of indebtedness) di'bentSs?. 
debile adj, archaic (weak, feeble) 'debil. 
debonair adj. pleasant, affable [also spelt debonnaire, de- 

bonnairl debd'ne:?. 
debouch v. (emerge) di'bouS. 
debris n. fragmental remains; rubbish [also spelt dSbris; 

plural debris! dilDni, 'dee-bd, 'debn. 
debt n. that which is owed, etc. [also spelt detl det. 
debtor n. one who owes [also spelt dettor! 'detar. 
d6but «. (entry into society; first appearance) di'bjou, de- 

'bjou, 'dee-bju. 
debutant n. (male performer making his first appearance 

in public) debjo'teq. 
debutante n. a female appearing for the first time in so- 
ciety or before the public) debjo'ta:nt, 'dee-bjo-ta:nt. 
decad n. 'deksd. same meaning as decade, 
decade «. group of ten years, etc. [synonymous cognate 

decadi 'deked, 'deksd; {erroneously) diTceed. 
decadence n. (decline; deterioration) di'kee-dns, 'dekd-dns. 
decadent adj. diHcee-dnt, 'deks-dnt. 
decag^ram n. a weight of ten grams [also spelt decagramme, 

dekagram"! 'deka-graem. 
decalcomania n. (picture-transfer process) di-kaelka'mee- 

ni-3. 
decaliter n. a capacity-measure of ten liters [also spelt de- 
calitre, dekaliter! 'deka-hi-tar. 
decalogue n. the ten commandments said to have been given 

to Moses [also spelt decalog! 'deka-leg. 
decameter n. a measure of ten meters [also spelt decametre, 

dekameter! 'deka-mii-ta?. 
decanal adj, (of a dean) 'deka-nl, di'kee-nl; (rarely) 'dii- 

ka-nl. 
decantation n. (a pouring off) dikaen'tee-^an, (rarely) de- 

kan'tee-San. 
decapod n. 'deka-ped. 
Decapoda n. pi, (ten-footed crustaceans ; ten-armd cephalo- 

pods) di'kaepa-da. 
decarbonize v, [also spelt decarbonise! dilcat^-ba-naiz. 
decastich n. (poem of ten lines) 'deka-stik. 
decease n. (death) di'siis. 
deceased adj, dead [also spelt deceast! di'siist. 
deceit «. (deception; fraud; wile) di'siit. 

fye, gcure; dthe, Q thin; sasMte, d^joy; ^shoCy t^chew; 
wwhen; losing; u whoever, i react, oiuu, xsMiodV, t\\., \\^cc\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abttt, o'.doot, 00 no, t\ied, t^^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 139 

deceive v, mislead; take in [past participle and preterit de- 
ceived, deceivdl di'siiv. 

deceniTir n. one of a body or council of ten men [plural 
decemvirs, decemviril di'semva?. 

deceniTirate n. (body of decemvirs; office or rule of de- 
cemvirs), di'scmva-^at. 

deeeniTiri n. (plural of decemvir) di'semv9-?ai. 

decenary n. decena, tithing [also spelt decennary'} di'sen9-?i. 

decency n. (propriety, etc.) 'dii-ssn-si. 

decennary adj, (of ten years; decennial) di'sens-ri. 

decent adj. (fit, proper, decorous) 'dii-ssnt. 

decern v, (in Scottish law, decide; decree) di'sB:?n. com- 
pare discern. 

decliristianise v. [also spelt dechristianise'\ di'lcsistSd-naiz. 

declare n. (a tenth of an are) 'desi-e:?. 

decidence n. (a falling off) 'desi-dns. 

decidnons adj. (falling off; shedding the leaves every year) 
di'sidsu-ds, di'sidju-3s. 

decig^ram n. a tenth of a gram [also spelt decigramme^ 
'desi-g?sem. 

deciliter n. a tenth of a liter [also spelt decilitre^ 'desi-hi- 
ta?; (improperly) di'sih-tae. 

decimal n. (of tenth parts; of ten) 'desi-msl. 

decimalisation n. [also spelt decimalisation'] desi-msh'zee- 
San, desima-lai'zee-Jan. 

decimalize n. [also spelt decimalise'} 'desims-laiz. 

decimator n. one who decimates or destroys [also spelt deci- 
mater] 'desi-meta?. 

decimeter n. a tenth of a meter [also spelt decimetre] 
'desi-mii-ta?. 

decipher v, interpret [also spelt decypher, decifer; past par- 
ticiple and preterit deciphered, deciferd] di'sai-fazr. 

decisive adj. conclusiv [also spelt decisiv] di'sai-siv, di'sai- 
ziv; {erroneously) di'sisiv. 

deoistdre n. (a tenth of a stere) 'desi-ste:z. 

decivilisation n. [also spelt de civilisation] di-sivih'zee-Ssn, 
di-sivi-lai'zee-San. 

decivilise v. [also spelt decivilise] di'sivi-laiz. 

deckle n. paper-pulp confining device; raw edge made by 
this device [also spelt deckel, dekle] 'dekal. 

declamatory adj. (of declamation) di^kz^ms-to?!. 

declarative adj. characterized by declaration [also spelt de- 
clarativ] di'kweza-tiv. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souiv^ \^ \^tv.%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tile ieWo^iti^ s^>\?i5^^. 



140 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

declension n. (a declining) di^kLen^sn. 

declinatory adj. (of declination) di'kz.ai-na-t37i, di'kz.in3- 
tozi. 

deooctible adj. (capable of being decocted) di'kekts-bd!. 

decollate v. (behead) di'kelet, 'deks-let. 

decollation n. (act of beheadng) dikd'ke-Ssn, dekd'lee-Ssn. 

d^coUet^ adj. (low-neckt: said of a dress) de-kela'tee, de- 
'kela-te. 

d6eollet6e adj. (wearing a low-neckt dress: said of a wo- 
man) de-kela'tee, de'keJa-te. 

decolor v. deprive of color [also spelt decolour^ di'kAlar. 

decolorize v, [also spelt decolorise, decolourize, decolourisel 
di'kAla-raiz. 

deooloriiation n. [also spelt decolorisation, decolourisa- 
tion, decolourisation] di-kAlan'zee-San, di-kAla-rai'zee-San. 

decorative adj. ornamental [also spelt decorativl 'deka-eetiv, 
'dekara-tiv ; {less properly) diTceea-tiv. 

decorons adj. (proper; decent) di'kor-eas, 'deka-^as. 

deeomm n. (seemliness; propriety) dinca:-7am. 

decrease v. grow less; diminish [past participle and preterit 
decreased, decreasf] dilcsiis. 

decrease n. (diminution; abatement) dilc^iis, 'dii-k3is. 

decrement n. (decrease; waste; loss) 'dek3i-mant. 

decrepid adj. di'k^epid. same meaning as decrepit. 

decrepit adj. worn out; old and feeble [synonymous cog- 
nate decrepidi diTc^epit. 

decretal adj. (of a decree) di'k^ii-tl. 

decretory adj. (of a decree or final judgment) 'dek^i-tozri, 
di1c5ii-ta-3i, 

decnbation n. obsolete (act of lying down) dikgu'bee-San, 
dekgo'bee-San. 

decussate adj. (crost) di'kAset, di'kAsat. 

decussate v. (intersect, cross) di'kAset, 'deko-set. 

decussation n. (crossing) dikA'see-$an, dekA'see-^an. 

dedal adj. skilful; maze-like [also spelt daedal"] Mii-dal. 

dedalian adj. like Daedalus; skilful [also spelt daedalian, 
daedaleani di'dee-H-an. 

dedalous adj. of Daedalus, skilful [also spelt daedalousi 
'deda-las, 'dii-da-las. 

dedicatory n. (of dedication) 'dedika-to?i, 'dedi-keta-?i. 

deduce v. (derive; infer) di'djous; (dialectally) di'dous. 

deducible adj. (that may be deduced) di'djou-sa-bal. 

deepening adj., n. 'dii-pa-niq, 'diip-niq, 'dii-pm-iq. 

/^^/ gcure; d the, f Mn ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wze/hen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuW, ^uiool, lit, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial, Abut, o:doot, ootvo, ^\ic^, t^^aX«:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 14! 

deer n. solid-homd ruminant [ploral deerl dr.z. 
defalcate v, (deduct; misappropriate property in one's 

charge) di'fal-ket; {less properly) di'£c:l-ket. 
defalcation n. (deduction; fraudulent deficiency) difaei'kee- 

Ssn; {less properly) difd'kee-$9n, defal'kee-Sdn. 
defalcator n. 'defdl-ketse, 'dii-faei-kets?. 
defamation n. (act of defaming, etc.) defd'mee-Ssn, difd- 

'mee-S^n. 
defamatory adj, (calumnious) di'f£m9-t3?i. 
default n. (want; defect; failure to perform) di'fciit. 
defeasance n. (undoing; ruin) di'fii-zdns. 
defeasible adj, capable of being defeated or undone; sub- 
ject to forfeiture [also spelt defeasablel di'fii-zs-bdl. 
defendable adj, capable of being defended from assault or 

injury; also, defensible [also, formerly, spelt defendihle"] 

di'fendd-bdl. 
defendant n. (the person sued) di'fendant. 
defense n. prohibition; resistance against attack [also spelt 

defence^ di'fents, {also, and in Britain normally) di'fens. 
defensible adj. justifiable; also, defendable [also, formerly, 

spelt defenciblel di'fensd-bdl. 
deferenee n. (submission or curtesy to superiors) 'defa- 

73ns. 
defervescence n. (cooling down) difa^'vessns, defszr've- * 

ssns. 
deficit n. (a falling short; deficiency) 'defi-sit, 'dii-fisit; 

{less properly) di'fisit. 
def ier n. one who defies [also, formerly, spelt defyer} di'fai- 

defile n. (narrow pass) di^fai), 'dii-faiL 

defile v, (render foul; pollute) di'fail. 

definite adj. clearly defined; exact [also spelt definif} 
'defi-nit, {anteriorly) 'definit. 

definitive adj. decisiv; determinate [also spelt definitivl 
di'fini-tiv. 

deflag^rable adj. (combustible) 'defLsgzd-bdl, di'fLee-g^s-bdl. 

deflag^rate v. (cause to burn; burst into flame) 'defta-g^et. 

deflection n. a bending down; curve; turning [also spelt de- 
flexion"] di'ftekjan. 

defloration n. (act of deflowering) defLs'^ee-^sn. 

deflonr v. di'ftao?. same meaning as deflower. 

defloiver v. deprive of virginity; ravish [synonymous cog- 
nate deflour"] di'fi-au-azr, di'ftaozr. 

c: low, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mork- (:) indicates that the preceding soutv^ \^ \^viV> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oN«iitv% «^^?^j^^» 



142 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

degag6 adj, (easy; unconstraind) dega'see. 

deglutition n. (swallowing) deglu'tiSsn, diglo'tiSsn. 

deg:radation n. (deposition; lowering; debasement) deg?3- 
'dee-San. 

degradation n. (lowering of color ; gradation of tint ; toning 
down) dig^a'dee-San, degea'dee-Jan. 

dehisce v. (gape ; burst open) di'his. 

deicide n. (killing of a god) 'dii-i-said. 

deifio adj, (deifying; godlike) di'ifik. 

deify v, (make a god of) 'dii-i-fai. 

deig^n v. think fit; condescend [past participle and preterit 
deigned, deignd"] deen. 

deinosanr n. see dinosaur, 

deism n. (doctrin concerning God) 'dii-izam. 

deist n, (believer in God, etc.) 'dii-ist. 

deistio adj. (of deists or deism) di'istik. 

deity n. (godhood; (jodhead) Mii-i-ti. 

dekadraclmi n. silver coin [also spelt decadrachm] 'deka- 
draem. 

delaine n. (light fabric) di'leen. 

delator n. informer; spy [also, formerly, spelt delater"] di- 
1ee-ta?. 

dele V, (in proofreading, take out; remove) 'dii-h. 
* deleble adj. see delihle. 

delectation n. (action of delighting; pleasure) dilek'tee-$an. 

delegate n, (deputy; representativ) 'deh-get. 

delete v. (destroy ; blot out) di'hit. 

deleterions adj, (hurtful; noxious) deh'ti:-n-as. 

deletive adj. erasiv [also spelt deletiv'i dilii-tiv; (less of- 
ten) 'dch-tiv. 

delf n, ware [also spelt delph; synonymous cognate delft"} 
delf. 

delible aef/. erasable [also spelt deleble"] 'dela-bal, (less of- 
ten) 'dii-la-bal. 

delicacy n. fineness; daintiness [ploral delicacies] 'dehka-si. 

delicatessen n. pi. (food-delicacies ; in singular, shop where 
such articles are sold) dehka'tesan. 

deliqnesee v. (melt away; liquefy) deh'kwes. 

delirions adj, (wandering in mind; crazed) di'hri-as. 

delirinm n. disorderd mental state [ploral deliriums, deliria] 
dilin-am. 

delivery n. (a handing over; release; childbirth) di'hva-^i, 
(rapidly) dilivzi. 

jye, g cure; d the, 6 thin ; ^ 3 a^ure, d^joy ; S shoe, tS chew ; 
wzt'Aen; 13 sing; u whoever, i react, oiiiu, xsMiooX, \\\, ilscc; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, ;>otvo, ^>oc^, ^,^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 143 

delude v. (deceive; beguile; cheat) dilioud; {dialectally) di- 

loud. 
delusive adj, deceptiv [also spelt delusivl di'Hou-siv. 
delusory adj. (deceptiv, delusiv) di'liou-sa-zi. 
delve V. dig; search [also spelt delv; past participle and 

preterit delved, delvdl delv. 
demaenetize v. [also spelt demagnetise} di'mxgni-taiz. 
demasosie adj. (of or like a demagog) dems'gegik, dema- 

'gedsik. 
deiiiasosi*^^ n. [also spelt demagoguisfril 'dems-ge-gizdm, 

'dem9-geg-iz9m. 
demasosne n. leader of the people; factious orator [also 

spelt demagogi 'dcma-geg. 
demasosnery n. (demagogic practises; demagogism) 'de- 

ma-gega-^i, 'dems-geg^i. 
demasosy w* (action, quality, or rule of demagogs; body of 

demagogs) 'dema-gegi, 'dema-gedsi. 
demain »• di'meen. same meaning as demesne. 
demand n,, v, (request) di'ma:nd, di'ma:nd, di'mae:nd. 
demareation n. delimitation [also spelt demarkaXion'\ di- 

moe'kee-San. 
demean v. debase, lower, bemean [past participle and pret- 
erit demeaned, demeand"] di'miin. 
demean v. behave, carry, conduct (oneself) di'miin. 
demean n. (mean, demeanor, behavior, conduct) di'miin. 
demeanor n. behavior [also spelt demeanour"} di'mii-ns?. 
dementia n. (insanity) di'men^s, di'ment^s. 
demesne n. landed estate [also, sometimes, spelt demaini 

di'meen, di'miin. 
demijohn «. (big bottle) 'demi-dsen; {vulgarly) 'dimi-dsen. 
demi-monde n. (class of women of doubtful repute) demi- 

'mend, 'demi-mend. 
demise n. (transfer by will; death) di'maiz; {erroneously) 

di'miiz. 
demit v. (send down; lower) di'mit. 

demobilise v. disband [also spelt demohilisel di'moo-bi-laiz. 
demoiselle n. (young lady; crane; dragon-fly) demwe'zel. 
demolition n. (a demolishing) demd'h^an, dimd'h^sn. 
demon n. being between gods and men [also spelt daemon} 

'dii-man, 'dii-men. 
demonetise v. divest of monetary value [also spelt demone- 
tise} di'meni-taiz, di'mAni-taiz. 
demoniac adj. (possest by a demon; devilish) di'moo-ni-sek. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding so>m^ \^ V>tv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie foWoTiiTi^ «^Y«iJj^fc. 



144 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

demoniacal adj. (demon-like; fiendish) dimd'nai-a-ks}, (less 

often) dema'nai-a-kal. 
demonixe v, [also spelt demonisel 'dii-md-naiz. 
demonolog^ n. (treatis on demons; study of demons) dimd- 

'nela-dsi, (less often) dema'nela-dsi. 
demonstrable adj. di'menstss-bsl, 'demsnstsd-bdl. 
demonstrate v, (point out; prove) 'dcmsn-stset, di'men- 

stjet. 
demonstrative adj. [also spelt demonstrative di'menst£9- 

tiv. 
demonstrator n. 'demsn-stseta?, (rarely) di'men-st^etd?. 
demoralization n. [also spelt demoralisation'^ di-mersh^zce- 

San, di-me^a-lai'zee-San. 
demoralise v. corrupt the morals of ; confuse [also spelt de- 

moralise'i di'mezra-laiz. 
Demostlienio adj, (of Demosthenes) dimes'Ocnik, demes'9e- 

nik. 
demy n. size of paper [plural demies'^ di'mai. 
demy n. foundation scholar at Magdalin College, Oxford 

[also spelt demi'y ploral demiesl di'mai. 
denal adj, (of ten; denary) 'denl. 
denarius n. silver coin; weight; penny [plural denarii} di- 

'ne:-2ri-3s. 
denationalisation n. [also spelt denationalisation] di- 
• naeSanl-i'zee-San, di-naeSanl-ai'zee-San. 
denationalise v, [also spelt denationalise^ di'naeSsnl-aiz. 
denaturalise v. [also spelt denaturalisel di'naet$a?3-}aiz, 

(rapidly) di'naetjsa-laiz. 
dengue n. fever [synonymous cognate dengal 'deq-ge. 
denier n. (one who denies) di'nai-37. 

denier n. (French coin) di'ni:?, 'deni-a^, 'deni-e, don^jec. 
denim n. (cloth) 'denim. 
denouement n. (unraveling; solution of a mystery; event) 

de'nuu-meq. 
dentifrice n. tooth-cleaning preparation [also spelt denti- 

frisl 'denti-f3is. 
dentUated adj, having teeth [also spelt dentillated, dente- 

lated'i 'denti-letid. 
dentin n, hard tissue of teeth [also spelt dentine^} 'dentin. 
dentise v. teethe [also spelt dentisel 'den-taiz. 
denudation n. (a laying bare; divesting) dinjo'dee-Snn, 

denjo'dee-San. 
denudate adj. (denuded; bare) di'njou-det, 'denjo-dct. 

JJ^^, 9 cure; d the, 9 *^in ; ^ 3 arure, d3 /oy ; 5 shoe, tj chew ; 
wwhen; ij sing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, ouioo\, \\\., \\^cc% 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, :iOTio, t.\ic^, ^^^a\.^% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 145 



denndAte v. (strip naked or bare; denude) 'denju-det, di- 

'njou-det. 
deniinciate v. (denounce) di'nAuSi-et, di'nAnsi-et. 
deniineiatioii. n. (proclamation ; act of denouncing) di-nxn- 

Si'ee-Jan, di-nAnsi'ee-Jan. 
deodorization. n. [also spelt deodorisationi di-od^zo'zec- 

San, di-od3-2ai'zee-S3n. 
deodorise v, [also spelt deodorisel di'oo-ds-raiz. 
departmental adj, (of a department or district) dipozt- 

'mentl, (rarely) dep3?fmentl. 
dependable adj. trustworthy [also spelt dependible'\ di'pen- 

dd-bdl. 
dependence n. fact of depending; subordination [also spelt 

dependancel di'pendsns. 
dependency n. [also spelt dependancyl di'penddn-si. 
dependent n. person who depends; subordinate [also spelt 

dependant'^ di'pendsnt. 
dependent n. hanging; subordinate; subject [also spelt de- 

pendantl di'pendsnt. 
depilate v. (remove the hair from) 'depi-let. 
depilatory adj. (that removes hair) di'pila-toei, 
depilons adj. (without hair) 'depi-lss, di'pai-los. 
deplanate adj, (flattend; explanate) 'dep^d-net, 'dii-pLS- 

net, di'pLce-net. 
deplete v. (empty) di'pi-iit. 
depletive adj. characterized by depletion [also spelt depletivl 

di'ptii-tiv. 
deplorable adj, (lamentable) di'pL3:-z:3-bdl. 
deplnmation n. (loss of plumes or feathers) dipz.u'mee- 

San, depi-o'mee-San. 
depolarize v. [also spelt depolarise'\ di'poo-ld-^aiz. 
deponent n. (deponent verb; a person who deposes) di'poo- 

nsnt. 
deportation n. (forcible removal) dipor'tee-Jan, (rarely) 

depa^'tee-S^n. 
deposit n., v, [also, formerly, spelt deposited di'pezit. 
depositary adj, (of deposit) di'pezi-tez:i, di'pezi-ta^i, di- 

'pezita-zri. 
depositary n. (trustee ; also, depository) di'pezi-te^i, di'pezi- 

tazri, di'pezita-zri. 
deposition n. (a putting down; degradation; deposit) dips- 

'zijan, depa'zijan. 
depository n. place in which things are deposited; store- 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the precedmc soutv^ \% \^^V> 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oN«i\t^% «^\VaJc5^^. 



146 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

house, repository [also spz:lt depositary^ di'pezi-to?i, di'pezi- 

t3?i, di'pezit3-ri. 
depot n. storage-place; headquarters; railway-station [also 

spelt depot and, sometimes, depSf] 'dii-po, 'depo, 'dee-po, 

di'poo. 
deprecatory adj. (disparaging) 'depsiks-tori. 
depreciate v. lower the value of [also, formerly, spelt de- 

prefiateli di'p3ii-Si-et ; (improperly) di'psii-si-et. 
deprivation n. (act of depriving; dispossession) depsi'vee- 

Ssn. 
deprivative adj. of deprivation [also spelt deprivativl 'de- 

p3i-vetiv, dl'p5IV3-tlV. 
depth n. (deepness, etc.) dep9; (less properly) debG. 
depths n. (plural of depth) depOs, (sometimes) deps. 
depnrant adj. (purifying) 'depgo-eant, di'pqo'.-z^nt, 
depurate v, (purify; dense) 'depQo-^et, di'pgo:-eet. 
deputize v. [also spelt deputise'! 'depgu-taiz. 
deputy n. (substitute) 'depgo-ti, (anteriorly) 'depgoti. 
Derby n. (horse-race) 'deir-bi, 'da:?-bi. 
derby «. (stiff hat; mason's float) 'deie-bi, 'da:z:-bi. 
derelict adj. (forsaken; unfaithful) 'deei-hkt. 
derelict v. (abandon; fail to keep; fall short of) den'hkt. 
derisive adj, scoffing; mocking [also spelt derisiv"} di'?ai- 

siv, di'eai-ziv. 
derivative adj. of derived nature, etc. [also spelt derivativ] 

dl'?IV3-tlV. 

dernier adj. (last, final) 'derni-a?, 'de^ni-e, de^'njee. 

derogate v. (repeal; take away) 'deea-get. 

derogative adj. belittling [also spelt derogativ"} di'^ega-tiv. 

derogator n. one who derogates [also, formerly, spelt dero- 
gatour, derogaierl 'deea-getae. 

derrick n. hoisting-device [also, formerly, spelt derick, der- 
icl 'denk. 

dervish n. friar [former synonymous cognates dervis, der- 
vise, dirvish] 'deie-viS. 

descant n. counterpoint, etc. ; comment [synonymous cog- 
nate discant"] 'de-skaent, di'skaent. 

descant v. play or sing an air in harmony with a fixt theme 
[also spelt discant"] di'skxnt. 

descendance n. descent, lineage [also spelt descendencel di- 
'sendans. 

descendant n. one who is descended from an ancestor; off- 
spring [also, formerly, spelt descendent'] di'sendant. 

jye, gcure; d the, O^Mn; 3 axrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wze/hen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, \3uioo\, \\t, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o:dooT, 00 no, t\ic^, «,^%,a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 147 

descendent adj. descending ; coming down ; also, origina- 
ting from an ancestor [also spelt descendant} di'sendant. 

descendible adj. that may descend to an heir ; also, capa- 
ble of being descended, as a hill [also spelt descendable} di- 
'sendd-bdl. 

descensioii. n. (descent, fall) di'sen^an, di'sentjan. 

descent n. (act of descending; fall; hereditary transmission) 
di'sent. 

descry v. (catch sight of; espy; perceive) di'slcsai. 

desert v. (abandon, forsake) di'zB:?t. 

desert adj. (deserted; barren) 'deza^t. 

desert n. (desert place, wilderness) 'dezs^t. 

desert n. (that which is deservd) di'zBizt. 

desert n. (course of sweetmeats, etc.) di'zBizt. see dessert. 

deserve v. merit [also spelt deserv; past participle and pret- 
erit deserved, deservd} di'zeiz^v. 

deshabille n. dezs'bii}, desa'bii}, 'dezs-bil. same meaning 
as dishabille. 

desicoant adj. (serving to dry) di'siksnt, 'desi-ksnt. 

desiccate v, (dry up) 'desi-ket, di'siket. 

desiccation n. (action of making dry; dried up condition) 
desi'kee-Ssn. 

desiccative adj. [also spelt desiccativ} 'desi-ketiv, di'si- 
ka-tiv. 

desiccator n. 'desi-ketd?. 

desideratiuii n. something desired [ploral desiderata} di- 
sida'eee-tam. 

design n., v. (plan) di'zain, di'sain. 

designable adj. (that can be markt out, distinguishable) 
'dezignd-bdl, 'designa-bal ; (capable of being designed) di- 
'zai-ns-bal, di'sai-na-bal. 

designate v. (point out; name) 'dezig-fiet, 'desig-net. 

designation n. dezig'nee-$9n, desig'nee-^sn. 

designative adj. [also spelt designativ} Mezig-netiv, 'de- 
sig-netiv. 

designator n. 'dezig-netd?, 'desig-nets?. 

designatory n. 'dezig-neta-^i, 'desig-neta-^i, {rarely) di- 
'signa-tori. 

designed adj. pland; formd [also spelt designd} di'zaind. 

designedly adv. (on purpose) di'zai-ni-dh, di'sai-ni-dh. 

designer n. (one who designs; schemer) di'zai-ns?, di'sai- 
n^z, 

desirable adj. (to be desired; delectable) di'zai-^s-bdl. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 

length-mark- (:) indicates that the preceding somh^ \% \^TiSL\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the w\0N«iin% s^^\si^^^. 



148 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

desist V, (cease, stop) di'zist, di'sist. 

desistance n. cessation [also spelt desistence'\ di'zistns, di- 

'sistns. 
desition n. (end, conclusion) di'si^dn. 
desmid n. (alga) 'desMid. 
desmodont n. (mollusk) 'desMS-dent. 
desmoid adj. (like a bundle; tendinous) 'des-meid. 
desolate adj, (left alone; deserted) 'dess-bt; (less properly) 

'deza-lat. 
desolator n. [also spelt desolaterl 'dess-lets?. 
desolation n. desd'lee-^dn ; (less properly) dezd'lee-Ssn. 
despatch n. di'spxtj. see dispatch. 
desperado n. desperate or reckless man [ploral desperados, 

desperadoesl despa'zree-do, despD'^a:-do, despa'zai-do. 
despicable adj, (to be despised; base) Mespikd-bsl ; (vulgar- 

ly) di'spika-bal. 
despise v. (look down on; scorn) di'spaiz. 
despite n. (scorn, etc.) di'spait. 
despite prep, (in spite of) di'spait. 
despiteous adj. (archaic) full of despite [also spelt dispit- 

eousl di'spiti-3s. 
despondent adj,, n. di'spendsnt. 
despumate v. (skim) di'spgou-met, 'despgo-met. 
despumation n. despQu'mee-$3n. 

desquamate v. (scale; peel) 'desku)3-met, di'skiuee-met. 
desquamation tt. deskw3'mee-$3n, (rarely) diskwd'mee-^dn. 
desquamative adj, [also spelt desquamativl di'sktuaems- 

tiv. 
dessert n. course of sweetmeats, etc. [also spelt desert] di- 

'zBi^t, di'sB:rt; (improperly) 'dezaet. compare desert. 
destine v. appoint ; j)redetermin [also spelt destin ; past par- 
ticiple and preterit destined, destindl 'destin. 
destructible adj. (capable of being destroyd) di'stjAkta- 

bal. 
desuetude n. (disuse) 'deswi-tQud. 
desultory adj. (skipping about; unmethodical) 'desal-to^i; 

(less properly) 'dezal-ton. 
detail n, (attention to particulars; item) di'teel, 'dii-tel. 
detail v. deal minutely with; appoint to a particular duty 

[past participle and preterit detailed, detaild] di'teel. 
detant n, (detent in a gun-lock) di'tsent. 
detectable adj. [also spelt detectiblel di'tekta-bal. 
detector n. [also spelt detecterl di'tekta?. 

/ye, gcure; d the, Q thin] sasrure, ds/oy; S shoe, tjc/iew; 
vjzt/hen; rising; u whoever, i react, oiuVV «Mioo\, "t-Ct, lisee; 
o poetic; ^ over, e aerial, Abut, o:doot, :iOTio, t\ic^, ^^^a\s:% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 149 

detemt ft. (stop, catch) di'tent; (less properly) 'dii-tent. 

deter v. discourage by fear [present participle deterring; 
past participle and preterit deterred, deterd'\ di'te:?. 

determiiie v, [also spelt deiermin ; past participle and prete- 
rit determined, determindl di'tB:?-min. 

deterrent adj. (tending to deter) di'tezsnt, di'tezant. 

detestable adj. di'testa-bd}. 

detestation, n. (hatred; loathing) dites'tee-Ssn, deta'stee-San. 

detinne n. (act of detaining) 'deti-nju, {rarely) di'tinjo. 

detonate v. (explode with a loud noise) 'deta-net, 'dii-ta-net. 

detonation n. detd'nee-Ssn, ditd'nee-^dn. 

detonr n. a turning; roundabout way [synonymous cognate 
ditourl di'to:r. 

d6tonr n. de'to:?, 'dee-to:?. same meaning as detour, 

detractor n. [also spelt detracterl di'tsaektd?. 

detriment n. (loss, damage, etc.) 'det^i-mant. 

detritus n. (disintegrated material ; debris) di'tsai-tss. 

detnr n. (prize of books) 'dii-t^z. 

dence n. two; two-spot [also spelt duce} djous; (dialect ally) 
dous. 

dence n. bad luck; mischief [also spelt duce; dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate doose"} djous ; (dialectally) dous. 

deneed adj. [also spelt deused; dialectal synenymous cog- 
nates doosed, 4oosid'\ 'djou-sid, djoust; (dialectally) 'dou- 
sid. 

dencedly adj. plaguily; confoundedly [also spelt deusedly] 
'djou-si-dh. 

dentzia n. (shrub) 'djout-si-a, 'djout-zi-a, 'deit-si-a, 'deit- 
zi-9. 

devastate v. (lay waste) 'dev3-stet, (rarely) di'vae-stet. 

devastation n. (wide-spred destruction) devd'stee-^sn. 

develop v. unfold; unroll [also spelt develope; past partici- 
ple and preterit developed, developti di'velap. 

development n. [also spelt developement} di'velap-mant. 

devest v. (strip; alienate; annul; convey away) di'vest. com- 
pare divest. 

device ». (ingenuity; contrivance; plot) di'vais. 

devil n. fiend, demon ; wretch, etc. [also, in sense of the 
Devil of the Bible, etc., spelt Devil"] 'deval, 'devil. 

devilisli adj. (diabolical) 'deva-hj, (rapidly) 'devhS. 

devisable adj. [also spelt deviseahlel di'vai-za-bal. 

devise v. (give by will ; contrive) di'vaiz. 

devise n. (the act of assigning by will) di'vaiz. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, ao now, bl*. ask, at kite; 

)engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sOMii^ \s \e>ti^L\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\x^ leWo^"Ltv^ s^^-aJcJifc* 



150 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

deTisee », (the person to whom property is devised by will) 

devi'zii, di-vai'zii. 
deviser n. (inventor, contriver) di'vai-z3?. 
devisor n. (one who gives by will) di'vai-za?, di'vai-ze:?. 
devoir n. (duty, business; dutiful act of civility or respect) 

da'vwe:?, de'vwe:?, 'de-vwe:?. 
devolve v. roll down ; fall as a duty [also spelt devolv ; past 

participle and preterit devolved, devolvd'\ di'velv. 
dew n. (small drops of water formed, as on the grass, from 

the condensation of vapor) djou, {dialec tally) dou. 
dextrin n. starch-gum [also spelt dextrinel Mekst£in. 
dextrous adj. deft of hand [synonymous cognate dexterous"} 

'dekst£9S. 
dey n. (former title of the governor of Algiers) dee. 
dlioney n. sailing-vessel of southern India [also spelt doney\ 

'doo-ni. 
diabetes n. (glucosuria; also, polyuria) dai-s'bii-tis, dai-s- 

Tjii-tiz. 
diablerie n. mischief; sorcery [also spelt diablery} di'a:- 

bl3-?i. 
diabolic adj. (devilish) dai-s'behk. 
diabolism n. witchcraft; deviltry; doctrin of devils; nature 

of a devil) dai'aeba-hzam. 
diabolize v. [also spelt diabolisel dai'aebs-laiz. 
diaeetin. n. dai'aesi-tin, dai-d'sii-tin. 
diaeresis n. see dieresis. 
diag^nose v. (ascertain from symptoms) dai-sg'noos, dai-sg- 

'nooz. 
diagnosis n. identification of a disease from symptoms 
^ [plural diagnoses'} dai-ag'noo-sis. 

dial v, measure with a dial [present participle dialing, dial- 
ling; past participle and preterit dialed, dialled, diald] 'dai- 

diallage n, (figure of speech) dai'aeld-dsi. 

diallage n. (green pyroxene) 'dai-a-hds, dai'aela-dsi. 

dialogic adj. (of dialog) dai-sledsik. 

dialogism n. (discussion in dialog form) dai'aela-dsizdm. 

dialogist n. dai'aeld-dsist. 

dialogize v. discourse in dialog [also spelt dialogise} dai- 

'ael3-d3aiz. 
dialogne n. colloquy [also spelt dialog} 'dai-a-leg. 
dialyze v. separate crystalloid from colloid thru a membrane 

[also spelt dialyse} 'dai-3-laiz. 

J ye, gcure; d the, Qth\n\ saxrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^ chew; 
wzahen; zjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, \3M.ioo\, \\\., \vscc; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut, o*. dooT, ootvo, t,\>c^, ^^%.oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 151 

diameter n. (chord thru the center of a circle, etc.) dai- 

diamine n. chemic compound [also, sometimes, spelt dia- 

min} 'dai-3-min, 'dai-a-main, dai'xmin. 
diamond n, (hard carbon crystal; lozenge) 'dai-a-mand, 

'dai-mand. 
dianoetic adj. (of thought) dai-3-no'etik. 
diapason n. (concord; melody; tuning-fork) dai-a'pee-zsn, 

dai-a'pee-san. 
diaper n, (fabric; clout) 'dai-9-p37. 
diaplianons adj, (transparent, pellucid) dai'sefs-nas. 
diaplLoresis n. (perspiration) dai-sfa'^ii-sis. 
diapliragm n. midrif; thin partition or septum [also spelt 

diaframl 'dai-9-f3xm. 
diapliragmatic adj, of the diafram [also spelt diafragmatic} 

dai-9-f3xg'msetik. 
diarrliea n. too frequent evacuation of the bowels [also 

spelt diarrhoeal dai-a'rii-a. 
diarrlieie adj. diarrhetic [also spelt diarrhoeic'\ dai-aVii-ik. 
diarrlietie adj. of diarrhea [also spelt diarrhoetic} dai-3- 

'eetik, dai-3'eii-tik. 
diary n. daily record, journal [ploral diaries'] 'dai-a-ri. 
diastase n. (ferment) 'dai-9-stes. 
diastema n. interval between teeth [ploral diastematal dai- 

d'stii-ms. 
diastole n. (dilatation; also, mark of separation) dai'aests-h. 
diastyle adj. (of a colonnade) 'dai-d-stail. 
diathesis n. predisposition [plural diatheses'! dai'seOi-sis. 
diatom n. (alga) 'dai-3-tom, 'dai-9-tem. 
diatribe n. (discourse; invectiv) 'dai-9-t£aib. 
dice n. (ploral of die ; also, a game with dice) dais. 
dieliotomize v, [also spelt dichotomise] di'kets-maiz, dai- 

'ket3-maiz. 
dieliotomy n. (division into two) di'ketd-mi, dai'kets-mi. 
dicliroism n. (the property of showing two colors) 'dai-k^o- 

izsm. 
diekens n. deuce, devil [also, formerly, spelt dickins; synon- 
ymous cognates dickons, dickings] 'dikinz. 
dieky n. he ass; bird; collar; bib [also spelt dickey, dickie; 

ploral dickies'] 'diki. 
diolinons adj. (having the two sexes separated : said of 

plants with unisexual flowers) 'dai-ki-i-nas, 'diki-i-nas, di- 

'ki-ai-nas, dai'ki.ai-nas. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somti^ \^ \ei^V> 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWoviiti^ «^W?;^^« 



152 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dictate v. (put into words to be written down ; give orders ; 

lay down the law) 'dik-tet, dik'teet. 
dietate n. (authoritativ order) 'dik-tet. 
dictati've adj. [also spelt dictativ'\ dik'tee-tiv, 'dikta-tiv. 
dictator n. (a ruler who dictates; one who dictates letters. 

etc.) dik'tee-t3?, 'dik-teta?. 
dictatory adj. (dictatorial) 'dikt3-t03i, 'dikt3-t33i. 
dictionary n. (word-book; lexicon) MikSa-neri, 'dikSd-ns^i, 

{rapidly) 'dik-jNen, 'dik-jNa^i, 'dik^Nsi. 
dictum n. saying; pronouncement; maxim [plural dicta, dic- 

tumsl 'diktam. 
Didacliist n. (writer of the Didache) 'didd-kist. 
didactic adj. (instructiv) dai'daektik, di'daektik. 
didactyl adj. having two fingers [also spelt didactyle'} dai- 

'daektil. 
didraclun n. (silver coin worth two drachmae) 'dai-draem. 
didyminm n. (metal) di'dimi-dm, dai'dimi-dm. 
die n. [ploral, in the sense of a small cube markt with spots, 

used in gaming, dice, in all other senses diesi dai. 
die V. cease to live [present participle dying; past participle 

and preterit diedl dai. 
diecions adj. see dioecious. 

dier n. one who dies [also, formerly, spelt dyer"} 'dai-33. 
dieresis n. division into two separate syllables; two-dot sign 

over a vowel [also spelt diaeresis; ploral diereses'\ dai'e^i- 

sis, dai'i:-?i-sis; {improperly) dai-a'^ii-sis. 
dies n. (day) 'dai-iz. 
diesis n. semitone, etc.; double dagger [also spelt diesis; 

ploral dieses'] 'dai-i-sis. 
dietary ». (course of diet) 'dai-i-teei. 
dietine n. (subordinate diet) 'dai-i-tin, 'dai-i-tin. 
dietist n. (one who diets, etc.) 'dai-i-tist. 
difference n. (diversity, etc.; quarrel) 'difa-^ans, {rapidly) 

'difsans. 
different adj. 'difa-eant, {rapidly) 'difsant. 
differentiate v. (make different; specialize) difa'^enji-et. 
difficil adj. difficult; unaccommodating [also spelt difficile] 

di'fisil, 'difi-sil. • 

diffidence n. (mistrust; shyness) 'difi-dns. 
difflnenoe ». (a flowing apart; deliquescence) 'difi-iu-ans. 
diffuse adj. (spread out; wordy) di'fious. 
diffuse V. (pour forth; intermingle) di'fiuuz. 
diffusive adj. [also spelt diffusiv] di'fiou-siv, di'fiou-ziv. 

J yc, gcure; d the, 6*liin; 5 azure, dj/oy; I shoe, tlcheyv; 
ww/ten; tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, \3\v.loo\, \\t, usee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, Abut, o*. doot, ;)Otvo, t\ie^, ^t^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 153 



digamy n. (second marriage) 'diga-mi. 

digest n. (summary; abstract) 'dai-dsest. 

digest V. (classify; consider; also, of food, prepare in the 
stomach) di'dsest, dai'dsest. 

digestible adj, [also spelt digestablel di'dsesta-bdl. 

digestion n. di'dsestSsn, di'dse^tSsn; dai'dsestSsn, dai- 
'dseJtSan. 

digitaUn. ft. activ principle of foxglove ; digitalia [also spelt 
digitalinel Midsitd-lin. 

digitalis n. (foxglove, etc. ; medicin) didsi'tee-hs ; {less prop- 
erly) did3i'ta:-hs. 

digitig^ade adj. (walking on the toes, as the lion : opposed 
to plantigrade) 'didsiti-gzed. 

diglot adj. bilingual [also spelt diglotti 'dai-glet. 

digxdtary n. (a person of high rank) 'digni-teri. 

digonons adj. (having two angles) 'digs-nss, 'dai-gs-nss, 
(rarely) dai'goo-nas. 

digression, n. (swerving; going astray) di'greSsn, dai'greSdn. 

dike n.,v. ditch; dam [also spelt dyke] daik. 

dilapidate v. (bring to decay or ruin) dilaepi-det, dailae- 
pi-det. 

dilatation n. (expansion) dai-ls'tee-Ssn, dils'tee-Ssn. 

dilate v. (widen, expand) dai'leet, dileet. 

dilation n. (dilatation) dai'lee-^dn, di'lee-^an. 

dilatory adj. (causing delay; of delay) 'dila-to^i; (also) 
'dil3t3-?i, (assumptivly) 'dila-ta^i, (rapidly) 'dilatji. 

dilemma n. (choice between two equally unfavorable alter- 
nativs; fix) dilema, dai'lema. 

dilettante n. lover of the fine arts [ploral dilettanti, rarely 
dilettantes'} dih'taenti, dih'ta:n-ti. 

dilettanti n. (plural of dilettante) dih'taenti. 

diligence n. (industry; assiduity) 'dih-d39ns. 

dilogy n. (ambiguity; repetition) 'dil3-d3i, 'dai-la-dsi. 

dilute v., adj. (thin, etc.) di'liout, dai'liout, (sometimes, an- 
teriorly) 'dai-liut; (dialectally) di'lout, etc. 

dilution n. diliou-Jan, dai'Hou-San. 

dilnvial adj. (of a deliige or flood) di'liou-vi-al, dai'Hou- 
vi-3l. » 

dilnvian adj. (diluvial) di'liou-vi-an, dailiou-vi-an. 

dimension n. (measurement) di'menjan, di'ment^dn. 

dimeter n. (a verse of two measures) 'dimi-ta?. 

dimissory adj. (dismissory) 'dimi-soei, di'miS3-?i. 

dimity n. (stout cotton fabric) 'dimi-ti. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, qo now, %*. a^V, ^\V\\r,% 

Jengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvR soMtv^ \^ \^tvv> 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ieWovjm?, ^^W^XJi^, 



154 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dingliy n. row-boat [also spelt dingey, dingy'\ 'diQgi. 
dingy adj. (tamisht, dusky) 'dindji. 

dinosanr n. extinct reptil [also spelt deinosaurl 'dai-nd-sc:r. 
diocesan adj. (of a diocese) dai'esi-ssn, 'dai-s-sisan, dai-9- 

'sii-san. 
diocese n. (district; bishop's sphere of jurisdiction) 'dai-9- 

sis, 'dai-3-sis. 
dioecions adj. having the unisexual flowers on separate 

plants; having the sexes distinct [also spelt dieciousi dai- 

'li-Sas. 
Dionysian adj. (of Dionysius, Bacchus, etc.) dai-a'nisi-sn. 
dioptric adj. (assisting vision; of refraction) dai'eptsik. 
diorama n. ^scenic representation) dai-dVai-ms, dai-s'ree- 

ma; {improperly) dai-sVsmd. 
dioxide n. [also, sometimes, spelt dioxidl dai'ek-said, (be- 
fore of) dai'eksid. 
diplienyl n. (hydrocarbon) dai'fenil. 
diplienylamine p. (crystallin substance) difi'nila-min. 
diphtlieria n. (diphtheritis) dif'9i:-ri-3, dip'Gii-^i-a. 
diphtheritic adj. difOi'ritik, dipOi'ritik. 
diphtlions n. (double sound; group of two consecutiv 

vowel sounds in one syllable) 'dif-Gerrj, (older) 'dip-Geirj. 
diphthongal adj. dif'6e:r|-g9}, dip'6e:r)-g9}. 
diphthong^e v. [also spelt diphthongise^ 'dif6ei}-aiz, 'dif- 

Geq-gaiz, 'dipGeq-aiz. 
diphycercal adj. (having a bipartite tail) difi'se^kdl. 
diploe n. spongy structure [also spelt diploel Mipz.o-i. 
diploidion n. garment [also spelt diplaidion; ploral diplo' 

idial dipto'idi-an. 
diploma n. state paper; certificate of a college degree 

[ploral diplomas, diplomatal di'ptoo-raa; (improperly) dai- 

'pioo-raa. 
diplomacy n. di'ptoo-ma-si, (rarely) di'pz.em3-si. 
diplomat n. diplomatist [synonymous cognate diplomatel 

'dipi-3-maet. 
diplomate n. (one who holds a diploma) 'dipL9-met. 
diplomatic adj. (of diplomas or diplomacy) dipLd'maetik. 
diplomatist n. (one engaged in diplomacy; crafty person) 

di'pi-oo-m3-tist. 
diplomatise v. [also spelt diplomatisel di'pLOO-md-taiz. 
diptych n. two-leaved tablet [also spelt diptycl 'diptik. 
dire adj. (dreadful) dai?. 
direct v. (address; aim; guide; order) di'rekt, dai'jekt. 

j\ve, Qcure; d the, Of/iin; jasuTe, 61^101 \ ^ sKoe, tS cfcew ; 
wzr^en; tj sing; u whoever, 1 react, xji«Ift., wiiooV \\V 'ft.^eeN 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, o-.do<it, ootlo, t\ie^> ^^^<i^fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 155 



direct adj, (straight, etc.) di'^ekt, daiVekt, {sometimes, by 
contrast, as in ^direct as well as indirect) 'dai-^ekt. 

direct n. (musical sign) di'zekt. 

directable adj, capable of being directed [also spelt direc- 
tiblel di'^ekta-bdh 

direction, n. di'zek^dn, dai'zek^dn. 

directive adj. [also spelt directive di'rektiv, dai'rektiv. 

directly adv, di'zektz,i, (occasionally) dai'^ektz^i. 

director n. one who or that which directs [also spelt direc- 
ter'\ di'zekt^z, 

directorial adj, dizzWtoi-zi-^l, dai-ztk^toi-zi'^h 

directory adj.,n. di'eekt3-?i, (rapidly) di'rektji. 

dirigible adj, capable of being directed ; steerable [also spelt 
dirigeable] 'dieidsa-ba! ; {less properly) di'jidsa-bal. 

disable v, (render unable; cripple) dis'ee-bal; {less properly) 
di'zee-bdt, 

disappoint v, (frustrate the expectation of; foil) disa'peint. 

disarnL v, deprive of arms; divest of armor [past partici- 
ple and preterit disarmed, disarmdl dis'a:em; {less proper- 
ly) di'za:7m. 

disaster n. (calamity) di'zaestsz, di'zai-std? ; {less properly) 
dis'aestd?. 

disband v, (break the band or company of; disperse) dis- 
'baend; {less properly) diz'baend. 

disburden v. remove a burden from; unload [synonymous 
cognate disburthenj dis'bei^-dn. 

disbnrse v. pay out [past participle and preterit disbursed, 
disburst"! dis'beizs; {less properly) diz'bei^s. 

disburtben v, dis'bB:z-dn, dis'bB:z-d9n, dis'bB:z-dn. same 
meaning as disburden. 

disc n. disk, see disk. 

disoant n. 'di-skaent. same meaning as descant. 

discard v, (throw out from the hand; reject; discharge) di- 
'sko'.zd, dis'ka:7d. 

discern v. distinguish [past participle and preterit discerned, 
discernd'\ di'zBirn ; {less properly) di'sBi^n. 

discernible adj, (perceptible) di'zBrnd-bdl. 

discerptible adj. (capable of being pluckt asunder; divisi- 
ble) di'sBepta-bal. 

discbarge v.,n. dis't^ai^ds, diS'tSa:7d3. 

disci n. (ploral of discus) 'di-sai. 

disciple n. (follower; pupil) di'sai-pal. 

discipline n.,v. drill, etc. [also spelt disciplin; as verb, past 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ex hoy\ a: for, qo now, ^"'. a?kV, ^\V\\fc\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding so>m^ \^ \^xv^\ 
tress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\o^\n^ s^>^2iJc\^' 



156 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

participle and preterit disciplined, disciplindj 'disi-pLin. 

disolosnre n. (discovery; exposure) dis'kz.30-39?. 

disooboliis n. discus-thrower [plural discoboW] di'skebd-lss. 

discolor v. [also spelt discolour; past participle and preterit 
discolored, discoloured, discolordi dis'kAld?. 

diseontinner n. (one who discontinues) diskon'tinju-d?. 

disoontinnor n. (the tenant in tail whose alienation of an 
estate has caused a discontinuance) diskdn'tinju-a^. 

diBconnt n. (deduction) 'dis-kaunt. 

diseonnt v. (deduct; pay or cash beforehand with a deduc- 
tion) 'di-skaont, dis'kaont. 

.disoourse n. (talk; conversation) di'skorzs; (less properly) 
'dis-koizs. 

disoonrse v, talk; converse; harangue [past participle and 
preterit discoursed, discoursfl di'sko:?s. 

difleonrteons adj, lacking in curtesy; rude [also spelt dis- 
curteousi dis'keeti-as, dis'ko:?-tQ3s, dis'ke^tgas. 

disoonrtesy n. [also spelt discurtesy"] dis^kezti-si, dis'ko:?- 
ti-si. 

disooiM adj. (disk-shaped) 'diskds. 

diseovery n. (disclosure; making known) di'skAV3-?i, {rap- 
idly) di'skAVjri. 

disereet adj. (judicious; cautious) di'sk^iit. 

disorepanee n. (discrepancy) di'sk^epans, 'disk^i-psns. 

diserepaney n. (disagreement; inconsistency) di'sk^epsn- 
si, 'disk^ipan-si. 

discrepant adj. (disagreeing) di'sk^epsnt, 'disk^i-psnt. 

discrete adj. (separate ; individual ; not coalescent : opposed 
to continuous) di'sksiit, disTc^iit. 

discretion n. (separation; power of deciding; prudence) 
di'sIraeSdn. 
' dis<mrsiTe adj. rambling; ratiocinativ [also spelt discursivl 
di'ske^siv, di'skerr-siv. 

discns n. disk, used for throwing [plural disci"] 'diskss. 

discnss v, debate [past participle and preterit discussed, dis- 
custl di'skAS. 

disdain n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit disdained, 
disdaind"] dis'deen; {less properly) diz'deen. 

disease n. (ailment, malady, disorder) di'ziiz. 

disembo^vel v. eviscerate, etc. [present participle disembow- 
eling, disembowelling; past participle and preterit disem- 
boweled, disembowelled, disemboweldl disam'bau-al. 

disenamor v. [also spelt disenamourl disa'naema?. • 

J ye, gcure; dthe, Q thin; 5 axrure, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tjr^ew; 
wwhen; Tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, uMiooX, \\\, \\scc; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: dooi, oot^o, t\bc^, ^^^oNan 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 157 

• 

disenfranoMse v, (disfranchise) dissn'fsam-tSaiz, disan- 
f3a:n-tSiz; disdn'f^sn-tSaiz, dissn^f^sent^iz. 

disenfraiLohiseiiLent n. obsolete (disfranchisment) dissn- 
'f^am-tSis-mant, diSdn'fsam-tSiz-mdnt. 

diseiLroll V. [also spelt disenroll dis9nV3o}. 

disentlirall v. set free from enthralment or bondage [also 
spelt disenthral', former synonymous cognates disinthrall, 
disinthrall disdn'Osc:!. 

disfavor n.,v, [also spelt disfavour; as verb, past participle 
and preterit disfavored, disfavord} dis'fee-va^. 

dlsfranoliise v, (deprive of citizen's rights; deprive of the 
franchise or voting-power) dis'fsain-tjaiz, dis'f3a:n-tSiz. 

disfranoliifliiLeiLt n, dis'f^am-tSis-mant, dis'fsain-tSiz-mdnt. 

dissorge v. (throw out from the gorge or throat ; vomit or 
empty forth) dis'ge:7d3; (less properly) diz'gei^ds. 

dissraoe ft. (disfavor; ignominy) disagrees; (less properly) 
diz'gzees. 

disg^nise n. (deceptiv garb) dis'gaiz; (less properly) diz'gaiz; 
(dialectally) dis'gjaiz. 

disgust n. (distaste; aversion) dis'gAst; (less properly) diz- 
'gAst. 

dishabille n. undress; negligee garment [synonymous cog- 
nate deshabillel disalDiil, disa'bil, 'dis3-bil. 

dishearte v. [also spelt disharten; past participle and 
preterit disheartened, dishartendl dis'ha^tn, dis'ha:?-tn. 

dishevel v. loosen and throw about ; disorder [present par- 
ticiple disheveling, dishevelling-, past participle and pret- 
erit disheveled, dishevelled, disheveld'\ di'Seval. 

dishonest adj. (lacking honesty; fraudulent) dis'onist; (less 
properly) di'zonist. 

dishonor n.,v. [also spelt dishonour; as verb, past participle 
and preterit dishonored, dishonord} dis'cna^; (less proper- 
ly) di'zons?. 

disinfectant n. (disinfecting-agent) disin'fektdnt. 

disinfeetor n. he who or that which disinfects [also spelt 
disinfecter} disin'fekta?. 

disinteg^rate v. (separate into component parts) dis'inti- 
gret. 

disinterested adj. (unbiast by personal interest; free from 
self-seeking) dis'inta-^estid, dis'intji-stid; di'zinta-^estid; 
(also, in America, less properly) dis-inta'^estid. 

disinvolve v, unroll; disentangle [also spelt disinvolv"! disin- 
'velv. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, aa now, a*, ask, a\k\i<i.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sovltv^ i^ X^x^V'. 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie ioWo-witi^ s^>\?W^e.. 



158 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

disjoin v. disunite [past participle and preterit disjoined, 
disjoind"] dis'dsein; {less properly) diz'dsein. 

disk n. discus; thin circular plate [also spelt disci disk. 

dislike v, (not to like) dislaik ; {less properly) diz'laik. 

dislimb v. cut off the limbs of; dismember [also spelt dis- 
/*m] dislim. 

dislimn v. obliterate the outlines of anything limned; ef- 
face; blot out; vanish [also spelt disliml dis'lim. 

dislodgment n. displacement [also spelt dislodgetnent] dis- 
'ledsmant. 

disloyal adj. (unfaithful) dislei-al; {less properly) dizlei-al. 

dismantle v. (strip) dis'maentl; {less properly) diz'maentl. 

dismast v, (deprive of masts) dis'ma:st; (less properly) diz- 
'nia:st. 

dismay v. appal ; daunt [past participle and preterit dis- 
mayed, distnaydl dis'mee ; {less properly) diz'mee. 

dismiss v. send away; discharge [past participle and pret- 
erit dismissed, dismist"} dis'mis, {often) di'sMis; {improper- 
ly) diz'mis. 

disorder n. (confusion; misdemeanor; riot; ailment) dis'e:?- 
dar; {less properly) di'zer^-dar. 

disorganize v. [also, rarely, spelt disorganisel dis'e:?-g3- 
naiz. 

disomm v. renounce, etc. [past participle and preterit dis- 
owned, disowndl dis'oon; {less properly) di'zoon. 

disparage v. (discredit; vilify) di'spae^ids. 

disparate adj. (separate in kind; unlike) 'disp9-?et, 'dispd- 
?3t; {erroneously) dis'par-eat. 

disparity n. (want of parity; unlikeness) dis'paejri-ti, di- 
'spae^i-ti. 

dispatek n. a sending on an errand; killing; speed [also 
spelt despatch; past participle and preterit dispatched, dis- 
patchtl di'spaetS. 

dispel V. disperse; dissipate [past participle and preterit dis- 
pelled, dispeldl di'spel. 

dispensable adj, (unessential; also, capable of being dis- 
penst) di'spens9-b3t, di'spentsa-bat. 

dispensary n, (place where medicins are dispenst, etc.) di- 
'spens3-?i, di'spents3-?i. 

disperse v. scatter [past participle and preterit dispersed, 
dispersti di'sperjrs. 

dispersion n. (scattering) di'sperjan, di'spB:zr-33n. 

displeasure n. dis'pLess?; {dialectally) dis'pz.ee-39?. 

/j/e, gcure; dthe, dth\n\ 5 a^rure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tSc/rew; 
wwhen; rjsing; u wh<?ever, i react, oiuVV, timIooV, \\\, \\sec; 
o poetic; o ov^r, . e aerial, Abut, o: door, ootvo, t.V^, ^,^^a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 159 

disposable adj. that may be got rid of; at disposal [also, for- 
merly, spelt disposeabWl di'spoo-za-bal. 

dispossess v. oust; rid of evil spirits [past participle and 
preterit dispossessed, dispossesf] dispa'zes. 

dispossession n. (ouster; exorcism) dispd'zeSon. 

dispread v, {archaic) spread abroad or out; expand; extend 
[also spelt disspread, dispredl di'spsed. 

disprovable adj. [also, formerly, spelt disproveablel dis- 

'p50U-V3-b3l. 

dlsproval adj. (disproof) dis'psou-val. 

disprove v, (prove false; refute) dis'psouv. 

disputable adj, (that may be disputed; controvertible) di- 

'spgou-ta-bal, 'disp^ota-bal. 
dispntant n. (one who disputes; debater) 'dispgo-tnt. 
dispntative adj. disputatious; controversial [also spelt dis- 

putativl di'sp9ou-t3-tiv. 
disqualify v. (render or pronounce unqualified) dis'kwe- 

li-fai. 
disrepntable adj, (discreditable; in bad repute) dis'zepgota- 

bal. 
dismption n. (bursting asunder) dis'zApSsn; (less properly) 

diz'zApSsn. 
disseizin v, dispossess wrongfully [also spelt disseise; past 

participle and preterit disseized, disseizd} di'siiz, dis'siiz. 
disseizin n. privation of seisin [also spelt disseisini di'sii- 

zin, dis'sii-zin. 
disseizor ft. [also spelt disseisor'\ di'sii-zs?, dis'sii-ze:?. 
dissemble v. (disguise; assume a false seeming) di'sembdl; 

{improperly) di'zembdl. 
disseminate v. (scatter abroad; spred about) di'semi-net. 
dissension n. discord; strife [also, formerly, spelt disscn- 

tion\ di'sen^sn, di'sentjan. 
dissent v. (withhold approval) di'sent. 
dissent n. (disagreement) dissent. 
disserve v, (serve badly, injure) di'ssrrv, dis'serrv. 
disservice n. [also spelt disservis} di'sBiz-vis, dis'ss'.jr-vis. 
dissidenee n. (disagreement; dissent) 'disi-dns. 
dissipate v. (scatter; squander; engage in dissolute plea- 
sures) 'disi-pet. 
dissociable adj. (not companionable; unsociable) di'soo-Ss- 

ba! ; (capable of being dissociated ; separable) di'soo-Si-a-bal. 
dissociate v. (disunite; withdraw from association) di'soo- 

$i-et. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, oa tvow^ ^\ a^, ^\V\\fc\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvft sOMtv^ \^ \«vi%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tkie ioWovim^ ^j^WaXiV 



(60 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dissoluble adj, (capable -of being dissolve! or disunited) di- 
'selio-bal, 'disdlio-bdl. 

dissolute adj. (loose; licentious) 'disd-liut; (dialectally) 
'dis3-lut. 

dissolvable adj, capable of being dissolvd [also spelt dis^ 
sohiblel di'zelva-bal. 

dissolve v. diffuse in liquid; cause to vanish [past participle 
and preterit dissolved, dissolvdl di'zelv. 

dissonant adj. (discordant in sound) 'diss-nsnt. 

dissyllable n. di'sild-bsl, 'disils-bdl, dis'sild-bsl. same mean- 
ing as disyllable. 

disssrmmetry n. (lack of symmetry; also, mirror-image sym- 
metry) di'simi-tji, dis'simi-tji. 

distensible adj. (capable of being distended) di'stensd-bsl. 

distiob n. couplet [also spelt distic; plural distichsl 'distik. 

distiobio adj. (of or like a distich; distichal) di'stikik. 

distiobons adj, (disposed in two opposit rows; two-rankt) 
'disti-kas. 

distil V. exude; pass gently; vaporize by heat and then con- 
dense [also spelt distill; past participle and preterit di- 
stilled, distildl di'stil. 

distingn^ adj. (distinguisht) dis-taeq'gee, dis'taeq-ge. 

distingnisbed adj, possessing distinction; eminent [also 
spelt distinguisht'\ di'stiqgwiSt. 

distrainor n. one who distrains or levies a distress [also, 
sometimes, spelt distrainer! di'stjee-na?, (also, especially 
in law, as the correlativ of distrainee) di'stjee-ne:?. 

distrait adj, (abstracted; absent-minded) di'stjee. 

distrangbt adj, (distracted; bewilderd) di'st£c:t. 
. district n. (division, province, region) 'distjikt; {dialectal- 
ly or vulgarly) 'dii-stjikt. 

distyle n, (porch with two styles or columns) 'di-stail, 'dai- 
stail. 

disuse n, (discontinuance of use) dis'jous, dij'jous. 

disuse V. (cease to use) dis'jouz, diS'jouz. 

disyllabic adj. containing two syllables [synonymous cog- 
nate dissyllabic"} disilaebik, dai-silaebik. 

disyllable n. word or foot of two syllables [synonymous cog- 
nate dissyllable"} di'sila-bal, dai'sila-bal, 'disila-bal. 

dital n. (thum-key on a guitar or lute) 'dital, 'dai-tal. 

ditbeism n. (doctrin of the existence of two supreme gods) 
'dai-0i-iz3m. 

ditber v.,n. (tremble) 'didar, 'di03?. 

/j^e, gcure; dthe, Qth\n\ 5 assure, ds/oy; \shot, tjc/jew; 
wwAen; tjsing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuu, omIooV, i\^, \\?»e€; 
o poetic; o oyer, e aerial, Abi*t, o: door, 00 no, e\ic^, ^«^^a\^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 161 



ditMonio adj. (having two sulfur atoms) diOi'enik, dax- 

Oai'enik. 
ditlLyrainb n. (choric song, etc.) 'diOi-zaem. 
dittany n. (plant) 'dits-ni. 
ditto n. (aforesaid; same) 'dito. 
ditty n, song, lay [ploral dittiesi 'diti. 
dinresis n. (excessiv uresis; too much urination) dai-jo'sii- 

sis. 
div n. in Persian myth, an evil spirit; demon; devil [also 

spelt dive, deev, dev, dewl diiv. 
diva n. (prima donna) 'dii-v3. 
divagation n. (a wandering about; digression) dai-va'gee- 

San. 
divalent adj. (bivalent) 'diva-lant, 'dai-vee-lant ; 'dai-va-lant. 
divan n. (council; council-chamber; long seat) di'vaen, dai- 

'vaen, 'dai-vaen. 
divaricate v, (stretch apart) di'vaeei-ket, dai'vae^i-ket. 
dive V. (plunge; sink deeply) daiv. 
diverge v. (branch off: the epposit of converge) di'veieds, 

dai'vareds. 
divergence n. di'vBs:d39ns, dai'vB2:d39ns. 
divers adj. (different, several, sundry) 'dai-v3?z. 
diverse adj. (different in kind; essentially different) di- 

'vb:?s, dai'vB:?s, 'dai-v3?s. 
diversely adv. di've^sLi, dai'vaesti, 'dai-vae-SLi. 
diversify v, (make diverse) di'vBzrsi-fai, daiVsesi-fai. 
diversion n. (a turning aside; pastime) di'vB^S^n, daiWsz- 

San; di'vB:?-33n, dai'vB:z:-39n. 
diversity n. (difference; variety) di'vB^si-ti, dai'vs^si-ti. 
divert v. (turn aside; amuse) di'vBirt, dai'vsi^t. 
divertible n. di'vBzta-bal. 

divertisement n. (recreation) di'vB^tis-mant, di'vB?tiz-mant. 
divertissement n. (divertisement; ballet) di-VB^tis'meq, di- 

vce'tis-mer). 
Dives n. rich man [ploral Divesesl 'dai-viz. 
divest n. (unclothe ; strip ; deprive) di'vest, dai'vest. 
divinize v, make divine; deify [also spelt divinise'] 'divi- 

naiz. 
divisible adj. (capable of being divided) di'viza-bal. 
divisive adj. (dividing; analytic; causing discord) di'vai-siv. 
divisor n. (quantity by which another quantity is divided; 

factor) di'vai-z3?. 
divorce n. (dissolution of marriage, etc.) di'vo:?s. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, © h^t, ei hoy\ a: for, qo now, ^\ a^, ^\V\\fc% 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtvd. \^ \^^V^ 

stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the ioWovjitvg, vj>^»^* 



162 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

divoreeable adj, capable of being divorced [also, formerly, 

spelt divorcibW] di'vo:?-s3-b3l. 
divoreee n. (divorced person) di-vo2:'sii. 
divulse V. (disclose; reveal) di'v^ds, dai'vAlds. 
dizen. v. dress, deck out, bedizen [also spelt dissen; past 

participle and preterit disened, disend'l 'dizdn, 'dizn, 'dai- 

zsn, 'dai-zn. 
diny adj. (giddy) 'dizi. 

do V, (impart to; perform, etc.) dou, {when less strest) du, du. 
do n. (in music) d30. 
dobby n. sprite; brownie; loom-attachment [also spelt dob- 

bie; plural dobbies'\ 'debi. 
dooent n. (teacher) ^doo-sdnt. 
dooible adj. (teachable; docil; tractable) 'dess-bdl. 
docile adj. teachable, tractable [also, sometimes, spelt docWl 

'desil, 'doo-sil, 'doo-sail. 
dootoress n. female doctor [synonymous cognate doctressl 

'dokta-ris, (rapidly) 'doktjis. 
doctrinaire n. (political theorist) dokt^i'ne:?. 
doctrinal adj, 'dekt£i-n}, (also, in Britain) dok'tsai-nl. 
doctrine n. teaching; dogma; theory [also spelt doctrini 

'dektsin. 
doe n. female deer [ploral does'] doo. 
does V. [indicativ present third person singular of do] dxz; 

(dialectally) doz. 
doff V. take off, as the hat; strip [past participle and pret- 
erit doffed, doft] dorf, def. 
dog n. (canine quadruped) de:g, dog; (dialectally) dc:g. 
dosal adj. (of a doge) 'doo-gdl. 

dogate n. dogeship [synonymous cognate dogeate] 'doo-get. 
dog-obeap adj. doig'tSiip, (assumptivly) 'deig-tSiip. 
doge n. (chief magistrate of the old republics of Venice and 

(jenoa) doods. 
dogeate n. 'doo-dset. same meaning as dogate. 
dogged V. past participle and preterit of dog [also spelt 

dogd] do:gd, degd. 
dogged adj. (obstinate, unyielding) 'do:-gid, 'dogid. 
dogged adv. (very) Moi-gid, 'dogid. 
doggedly adv. 'de:-gi-dh, Megi-dh. 
doggerel adj. of trivial, irregular or mean nature : said of . 

verse [synonymous cognates doggrel, dogrcll] 'degs-^al. 
doggy n. little dog [also spelt doggie ; ploral doggies'] 'dei-gi, 

'dogi. 

/ye, gcure; dthe, Qthin; saxrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwAen; tjsing; u whoever, i r^act, oiuu, oMfool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; oovfT, enerial, Abut, o;doot, ootio, t\ic^, t^%a\fc\ 



DICTIONARX, OF HARD WORDS 163 

dosS7 odJ» (dog-like; conversant with dogs) 'de:-gi, 'degi. 
dogma ft. belief; tenet, etc. [ploral dogmas, dogmata] 'dog- 
ma; (jdialectally) 'dcig-ms. 
dogmatise v, [also spelt dogmatise] 'degms-taiz. 
doloe adj, (sweet; soft-toned) 'dool-tji; {less properly) 'de!- 

tSi. 
doldmm n. dullard; in plural, dulness; becalmd state [ploz- 

al doldrums] 'deldrsm. 
dolman n. robe [plural dolmans] 'delmsn. 
dolmen, n. stone structure [synonymous cognate tolmen; 

plural dolmens] 'dolman. 
dolor n. pain, sorrow [also spelt dolour] 'dooA^z, 'dels?. 
doloroso adj, (in music, soft, pathetic) dola'soo-sa; {less 

properly) dels'zoo-so. 
dolorons adj, (painful; dismal; sad) 'dao-ls-zras, 'dols-^ss 
dolt n. (blockhead, numskull) doolt; {dialectally) dolt. 
donudn n. (lordship ; lands) do'meen ; {improperly) 'doo-men. 
domestioize v. [also spelt domesticise] da'mesti-saiz. 
domical adj. (dome-like; vaulted) 'doo-mi-kal, 'demi-ksl. 
domicile n. abode; house; home [also, sometimes, spelt 

domicil] 'demi-sil, 'demi-sail. 
Dominican adj, (of St. Dominic, etc.) da'mini-kdn. 
dominie n. schoolmaster, etc. [also spelt domine] 'demi-ni, 

'doo-mi-ni. 
domino n. cloak; oblong piece used in game [ploral domi- 
noes, dominos] 'demi-no. 
dona n. lady [synonymous cognate dona] 'doo-njs. 
donate v. (give) 'doo-net, {in Britain) do'neet. 
donative n. gift [also spelt donativ] 'dena-tiv, 'doo-na-tiv. 
donator n. (giver) 'd30-net93, do'nee-taz. 
done V. (past participle of do) dxn. 
donee ft. (one to whom anything is given; one to whom 

land is conveyed in fee tail; an appointee) do'nii. 
donjon n. 'dAudsan, 'dendsan. see under dungeon, 
donkey n. ass [also spelt donky; ploral donkeys, donkies] 

'deqki, 'dAqki. 
donor n. (giver) 'dao-na;, 'doo-ne:?. 

don't V. (do not) daont, {when less strest) dont, dant, dan. 
dook n. (wooden plug in a masonry wall, to hold a nail) 

duuk. 
doomsday n. day of the last judgment [synonymous cognate 

domesday] 'doumz-dee. 
door n. do:z; {locally) daa. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot^ ei hoy ; a: far, ao now^ a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedma sovitv^ \^ \^x^SL\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the iQWoyiitv^ s^W-aJaX^. 



164 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dor-bns n. [also spelt dorr-hugl 'de:?-bAg; {erroneously or 

dialectally) 'doir-bAg. 
dorla n. striped Indian muslin [also spelt doreal 'd3:-n-9. 
Dorian adj. (of Doris or Doria, a district of ancient Greece ; 

Doric) 'dD:-zi-9n. 
Doric adj. (Dorian; of dialects, rustic) 'derik. 
Dorioize v, render Doric [also spelt Doricisel 'de?i-saiz. 
Dorize v. imitate Doric manners etc. ; render Doric [also 

spelt Dorise'\ 'do:-zBiz, 
dormer-'window n. (vertical window projecting from a 

slanting roof) de:?-m3^'windo, 'deiz-ma^-windo. 
dormitory n, (sleeping-chamber; college building divided 

into sleeping-rooms) 'de:r-mi-tD^i, 'de:^-mi-tji. 
dormonse n. rodent [ploral dortnicel 'de:?-maos; {errone- 
ously or dialectally) 'do:?-maos. 
dorsad adj. (toward the dorsum or back) 'de:7-sxd. 
dory n. John-dory, a fish [also spelt doree; ploral doriesi 

'do:-zi. 
dory n. boat [also spelt dorey; ploral dories'] 'do:-zu 
dosage n. giving medicin in doses; the dosing of wine [also 

spelt doseagel 'doo-sids. 
dossal n. chair-back cover; hanging at the back of an altar 

[also spelt dosset] 'desal. 
dossil n. spigot; roll of lint or cloth [also spelt dossel] 

'desil. 
dost V, (indicatrv present second person singular of do) 

dASt. 

dotage ». (second childhood; senility) 'doo-tids; {improper- 
ly) 'detids. 

dotard n. (imbecil ; one who is in his dotage) 'doo-t3?d ; {im- 
properly) 'det3?d. 

dote V. be silly from age; bestow excessiv fondness [also 
spelt doatl doot. 

doth V, [indicativ present third person singular of dol dxd, 
doo6. 

donane n. (custom-house) du'a:n. 

donble-barreled adj. having two barrels, as a gun [also 
spelt double-barreldl dAb3}'bae?3}d, {assumptivly) 'dAba?- 
bae^ald. 

donbloon n. (Spanish gold coin) dA^bloun. 

donbt «. uncertainty [also spelt doutl daot. 

doubtful adj, [also spelt doutful} 'daot-fal. 

doubtless adv., adj. [also spelt doutlessl 'dao-tL3S. 

/.ve, gcure; d the, Q thin; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; xjsing^ u whoever, i react, oiuU, Ksuiool, itt, \\%ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, 0: doot, ;)0\io, ^V^, ^,^%o.\&% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 165 



domee adj. quiet, sober [also spelt douse"] dous. 

domcenr n. (conciliatory gift; bribe) du'se:?. 

domche n. (jet of water applied to some part of the body) 
douS. 

dovsl^ M* (paste of bread) doo. 

dousl&ty adj. (strong, valiant) 'dao-ti. 

donm n. palm [synenymous cognates doom, dome, dom\ 
doom, doum. 

donr adj. (hard, stubborn) do:?. 

doiise V. strike ; lower [also spelt dowse'] daos. 

douse n. blow, stroke [also spelt dowse] daos. 

doiuie V. extinguish [also spelt dowse] daos. 

domsepers n.pl, the twelve peers or paladins of Charle- 
magne [also spelt douse peers; synenymous cognate douce- 
peresi 'douz-pe:rz. 

dove n. (pigeon) dAv. 

dove V. (preterit of dive) doov. 

doTe«cot n. pigeon-house [synenymous cognate dove-cote] 
'dAv-ket. 

dove-cote n. 'dAv-koot, 'dAv-ket. same meaning as dove-cot, 

dovetail n. (tenon or joint resembling a dove's tail spread) 
'dAV-teeJ. 

dowel n, headless pin, peg or bolt; dook [also spelt dowell] 
'dau-9l. 

do'wn-l&earted adj, dejected [also spelt down-harted] daon- 
'haetid, (assumptivly) 'daon-haetid. 

domnry n. money or property the wife brings her husband in 
marriage; dower, tocher; dot [synenymous cegnate dowery; 
ploral dowries] 'don-zi. 

dozolosi>e v. address a doxology to [also spelt doxologise\ 
deks'eld-dsaiz. 

doifj n. beggar's trull or wench [also spelt doxie; ploral 
doxies] 'deksi. 

doyen n. (dean) dwe'jei]. 

drabler n. sail [also spelt drabbler] 'drxbld?. 

draolun. n. draem. same meaning as drachma, dram, 

draclmia n. coin; unit of weight [ploral drachmae, drach- 
mas] 'dtaekMd. 

draff n. (refuse, dregs, lees; swill; brewer's grains) dra:f. 

draft n. capacity of being drawn ; act of taking away a part ; 
levy; conscription; team of horses in a cart; the depth a 
ship sinks in water; written order; a current of air [also 
spelt draught] draift, dra:ft, drae:ft. compare draught, 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e h^t, ex hoy; a: far, qo now, «l*. a^V, ^\V\\fc\ 
Itngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somtvA. i^ \^ti%% 
fftreg^-mark (') jadicat^s chief stress on the loWo-wixv^ s^WaX^t^. 



166 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

draft v» draw off; draw up [also, rarely, in the sense of 

draw up, spelt draught'] draift, draift, drae:ft. 
draftsmaii ». [also spelt draughtsman; ploral draftsmen'} 

Mrarfts-man. 
drafty adj. exposed to drafts of air [also spelt draughty"} 

'dra:f-ti. 
drafty adj, (like draff; rubbishy; vile) 'dra:f-ti. 
drasomaii n. interpreter [ploral dragomans} 'draegd-msn. 
dragonade n. persecution [also spelt dragonnade, dragoo- 

nade} draega'need. 
drasoon n. (cavalry soldier) drd'goun. 
dram ». unit of weight [also spelt drachm} drxm. 
drama n. (a play; dramatic art, etc.) 'dra:-md, 'dra:-md; (less 

properly) 'dree-mo, Mcaemd. 
dramatis personae n,pl. 'drxms-tis-psT'soo-ni. 
dramatist n. (writer of dramas; playwright) 'draema-tist ; 

Xless properly) 'dree-ma-tist* 
dramatize v. convert into drama [also spelt dramatise} 

Mraema-taiz. 
drapery n. (textil fabrics, etc.) 'dree-p9-?i, 'dree-p3i. 
draught n. act of drawing ; haul ; load ; the act of drinking ; 

quantity drunk at one time; bow-shot [also spelt draft} 

4dca:ft, dra:ft, dxstih. 
dranglits n. checkers [also spelt drafts} dra:fts. 
draw V, pull, etc. [past participle drawn ; preterit drew} drc: , 

{when unstrest) drc. 
drawers n. (undergarment) 'drc:-9?z, drc:?z, 
dread v., n. fear [also spelt dred} dred. 
dreadfnl adj. [also spelt dredful} 'dredfal; {dialectally) 

Mrefal. 
dream v, [past participle and preterit dreamed, dreamd; 

dreamt, dremt} driim. 
dreamt v, past participle and preterit of dream [also spelt 

dremt} dremt. 
dreary adj. 'dri:-?i; {dialectally) 'drii-?i. 
dreg ». sediment, residue, [used mostly in the ploral, dregs} 

dregz ; {dialectally) dreegz. 
drenoli v. make to drink; soak [past participle and preterit 

drenched, drencht} drentj, {in Britain) drenj. 
drengage n. (tenure or service of a dreng) 'dreqids, 'dreq- 

gids. 
driblet ». small sum; petty portion [also spelt dribblet} Mri- 

blat, 'dribht. 

/ye, gcure; dthe, Q thin; 3 a£rure, dj/oy; S jfioe, tlchew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiuU, K5uioo\, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial. Abut, o: doot, ^iotio, t.\ic^, ^^%a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 167 



drier n. one who or that which dries; dessicator [also spelt 

dryerl 'drai-a?. 
drivel v. slaver [present participle driveling, drivelling; past 

participle and preterit driveled, drivelled, driveldl 'drival. 
driveler n. [also spelt driveller} 'drivd-ls?. 
drivelins adj, [also spelt drivelling} 'driva-hq, 'drivhq. 
droll adj, (comical, funny) dtiool. 
drollery n. action of a droll; fun [ploral drolleries} 'droo- 

}9-?I. 

dromedary n. light and fleet camel [ploral dromedaries} 
'dremi-deei, 'dremida-^i, 'drAmida-^i. 

droatie adj, (of a dromos or race-course) 'dremik. 

dromond n, (ship) 'dremdnd, 'dtAmand. 

drosliky n. vehicle [synonymous cognate drosky} 'dreSki. 

drosky n. 'dreski. same meaning as droshky. 

dross n. (scum; recrement; dreg) dr0:s, {rarely) dees; {dia- 
lectally) drc:s. 

drought n. (dry weather; thirst) draot. 

drouth n. dcaoG. same meaning as drought. 

dro'BViL V, suffocate by submersion in water [former synon- 
ymous cognate drownd; past participle and preterit drown- 
ed, drownd} draon; (dialectally and vulgarly) draond. 

dro'wned adj\ [also, sometimes, spelt drownd} dcaund; (dia- 
lectally and vulgarly) 'draon-did. 

dro'omiiig n., adj. 'drao-niri ; (dialectally and vulgarly) 
'draon-dig. 

drowse v. be drowsy or half asleep [also spelt drowse} dxaoz. 

drowsy adj. half asleep [also, formerly, spelt drousy, droii- 
zy, drowsy} 'drao-zi. 

dmdgery ». (occupation of a drudge; mean, dull work) 
'drAdsa-^i, (rapidly) 'dtAds^i. 

dryad «. wood-nymph [ploral dryads, dryades} 'drai-aed, 'dvai- 
dd. 

dryades n. (ploral of dryad) 'drai-s-diz. 

dryly adv, in a dry manner [also spelt drily} 'drai-h. 

dryness ». [also, rarely, spelt driness} 'drai-nis. 

dual adj. (of two) 'djou-al ; (dialectally) 'dou-al. 

dnbiety n. (dubiousness, doubtfulness) dju'bai-i-ti. 

dnbions adj. (doubtful; hesitating) 'djou-bi-as; (dialectally) 
'dou-bi-as. 

dnoal adj'. (of a duke or dukedom; of a doge) 'djou-kal; (dia- 
lectally) 'dou-kal. 

duoat n. (gold coin) 'dAkat. 

c: law, s: iur, x cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: for, qo now, a*. a^\s., «l\V.\\.^\ 

]engtb-mark (:) indjcates that the preceding sovmd \^ \«icv^\ 

stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the ioWovJiTi^ s^WaJt^^. 



168 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dvoliess n. wife of a duke, etc. [also, formerly, spelt dut- 

chessl 'dAtSis. 
dnohy n. dukedom [ploral duchies'i 'dxtSi. 
dnot n. (tube, ductus) dAkt. 
dnotible adj, (ductil) 'dAktd-bsL 
dnotile adj. pliable; that may be drawn; tractable [also, 

sometimes, spelt ductin 'dAktil, 'dAk-tail. 
dudgeon n. (anger; ill humor) 'dAdssn. 
dne adj. (owed; suitable; to be expected) djou; {dialectally) 

dou. 
dnel n. (single combat) 'djou-al; {dialectally) 'dou-al. 
dnel V. fight a duel [present participle dueling, duelling ; 

past participle and preterit dueled, duelled^ 'djou-al. 
dneler n. duelist [also spelt dueller"] 'djou-a-ld?. 
dnellst n. [also spelt duellisf] 'djou-d-list. 
duello n. (dueling; duelists' code) dju'elo. 
duenna n. (chief lady in waiting on the Queen of Spain ; el- 
derly chaperon, etc.) dju'ena. 
duet n. musical composition for two performers [also spelt 

duetti dju'et; (dialectally) du'et. 
duffel n. coarse woolen cloth; personal effects [also spelt 

duffle; synonymous cognate duff ill 'dAfal. 
duke n. (prince; ruler of a duchy) djouk; (dialectally) duuk. 
dulcamara n. (bittersweet) dA}kd'me:-2:d. 
dulce adj, (sweet) dAls. 

dulcet adj. (sweet, pleasing, as a tone) 'dAlsit. 
dulblana n. (organ-stop) dAlsi'aens, dAlsi'a:-n3. 
dulcimer n. (stringd instrument) 'dAlsi-ma?, 'dAltsi-mae. 
duldnea n. (mistress, sweetheart) dAl'sini-d, dAlsi'nii-3. 
dulla n. servitude ; service ; inferior worship : the epposit 

of latria [also, sometimes, spelt douleia"} djo^ai-a, du'lai-d, 

'djou-H-a. 
dullard n. (dull person; dolt) 'dAls^d. 
dully adj. (in poetry, dreary; faint; indistinct) 'dAli. 
dully adv, (in a dull manner) 'd^l-h. 
dully n. (dull or stupid person) 'dAlt. 
dulness n. [also spelt dullness"] 'dAlnis. 
dulse n. (edible seaweed) dA^s. 
dulTvilly n. (ring-plover) dAl'wih, MaI-wiIi. 
duly adv. (in due manner; fitly) 'djou-h. 
dumb adj., n. mute [also spelt dum] dAm. 
dumfound v. strike dumb; nonplus [also spelt dumbfound] 
dAm'faond. 

/j^e, gcure; d the, Qthin; jasute, d^ioy, ishoe, tJcAew; 
wzvhen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, ouiooV, \\\., \\%ce% 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: doot, :)Otlo, t\ie^, «.^%o\ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 169 

dnmniy n. dumb person; imaginary player; man of straw; 
counterfeit [also, rarely, spelt dumbyl 'dAmi. 

dnmose adj, (bushy) dju'moos, {assuntptivly) 'djou-mos. 

duneeon n. great tower or keep of a castle; strong cell; 
deep dark vault [also, especially in the sense of the great or 
inner tower or keep of a castle, somewhat archaically spelt 
donjon"] 'dxndsdn. 

duo n. (duet) 'djou-o, 'djou-o. 

duodeeimo n. book-size [ploral duodecimos] dju-o'desi-mo. 

duodeeyl n. (hydrocarbon radical) dju'edi-sil. 

duodenal adj, (of the duodenum) dju-o'dii-nl. 

duodenal adj, (composed of twelve numbers) dju-o'dii-nl. 

duodenary adj. (of twelve) dju-o'dena-ei, dju-o'dii-na-ri. 

dnodennm n. first part of the small intestin [plural duode- 
nal djuo'dii-ndm. 

dnologne n. dialog [also spelt duolog] 'djou-a-}eg. 

dnplez adj, (twofold) 'djou-pz.eks. 

dnplieate adj. (double; twofold) 'djou-pz^i-kst, {often) 
'djupz.i-k3t ; {less properly) 'djou-bh-kat; (dialectally) 'dou- 
pz.i-kdt. 

dnplioity n. (doubleness) djo'pz.isi-ti. 

dnroM n. restraint, compulsion [also spelt duresse] 'djo:-7is, 
djo'zes. 

durst V. (preterit of dare) dsi^st. 

dnst n. (mass of fine particles) dxst. 

duteons adj. (dutiful) 'djou-ti-as, {dialectally) 'dou-ti-as. 

duty n. (conduct due to a superior moral obligation; tax) 
'djou-ti; {dialectally) 'dou-ti. 

dnnoiTir n. one of a pair of co-equal magistrates [ploral du- 
umvirs, duumviri] dju'Amvae. 

d'warf n. pygmy [ploral dwarfs] dwczi. 

dwell V. abide, live [past participle and preterit dwelled, 
dweld, dwelt] dweL 

dyad n. (two ; couple ; substance whose atom has a combin- 
ing-power equal to two atoms of hydrogen) 'dai-aed, 'dai-sd. 

Dyak n. nativ of Borneo [also spelt Dayak] 'dai-aek. 

Dyas n. (Permian) 'dai-as, 'dai-aes. 

dyaster n. double star in cell-division [also spelt diaster] 
dai'aestd?. 

dyee adv. {sea-term) thus [also spelt dice] dais. 

dye n. color ; coloring-matter [also spelt die ; ploral dyes] dai. 

dyeing v. the process of impregnating with color [also spelt 
dying] 'dai-iq. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: for, aa now, a\ a^V., «aV.\\^\ 
}ength-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutvd \^ \Qtv%\ 
stress-mark (y indicates chief stress on the toWovjiti^ s^>\aX^s^» 



170 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

dyer n. (one whose occupation is to dye cloth, etc.) 'dai-az:. 

dying n. (death) 'dai-iq. 

dying adj. (approaching or pertaining to death) 'dai-iq. 

dynamic adj. (of force) dai'naemik, di'naemik. 

djmamism n, (doctrin of force) 'dai-na-mizam, 'dina-mizam. 

dynamitard n. (dynamiter) 'dai-n3mi-ta:?d. 

dsmamite n. (explosiv) 'dai-na-mait, 'dina-mait. 

dynamize n. strengthen [also spelt dynamise'] 'dai-nd-maiz, 

'dina-maiz. 
dynamo n. electric generator [ploral dynamosl 'dai-na-mo. 
dynast n. (ruler) 'dai-naest, 'dai-nast, 'dinast. 
dynastic adj. (of a dynasty) dai'nsestik, di'nxstik. 
dynasty n. (lordship; royal line) 'dai-na-sti, 'dina-sti. 
dyne n. (unit of force) dam. 

dyscrasia n. (dyscrasy; distemper) di'sksee-sa, di'sksee-si-a. 
dyscrasy n. (morbid diathesis; distemper) 'disksa-si. 
dysentery n. (inflammation of the large intestin) 'disan- 

teei, (rapidly) 'disan-tji; (also) 'di-senta-^i. 
dysodile n. greenish or yellowish coal which burns with a 

fetid odor [also spelt dysodyle"} 'disa-dil, 'dis3-dail. 
dyspepsia n. (indigestion) di'spepSa, di'spepsi-9, di'spepji-a. 
dyspepsy n, di'spepsi. same meaning as dyspepsia. 
dyspeptic adj., n. di'speptik. 

dysphagia n. (difficulty in swallowing) dis'fee-dsi-a. 
dyspnoea n. (difficulty in breathing) disp'nii-9. 
dysnry n. (dysuria) 'disQo-?i. 
dyvour n. bankrupt [also, sometimes, spelt divorl 'dai-va^, 

'dai-vaz. 
dseren n. antelope [also, sometimes, spelt dseron, dserin} 

'zi:-?9n, (pedantically) 'dzi:-?3n, 'dzi:-^en. 
dziggetai n. wild ass of Asia [synonymous cognate dzhig- 

getai] 'zigi-tai, (pedantically) 'dzigi-tai. 



eacli pron. (every, etc.) litj, (when unstrest) itj. 

n. surging of the tide [also spelt eagre, eygrel li-gae. 



'ce-g3?. 



eager adj» (keen) 'li-ga?. 

earing n. (the process of coming into ear, as of wheat) 



'it-nq. 



earing n. rope on the cringle of a sail [also spelt earring] 



'i:-zit). 



fye, gcure; dthe, Q thm\ sasure, d^^ioy, \ shoe, t^ chew; 
wzvhen; ijsinff; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, iiuiooV, \"\\., \\^cc\ 
o poetic; oover, e aerial, Abut, o*. door, ootvo, t\ic^, ^t^a\^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 171 

earl n. (count) b:zI. 

earldom n. (rank of an earl) 'sziddni, ^Bizl-dsm. 

V. (gain by labor; obtain by service; acquire) Birn. 

n. (action of gaining by labor or service ; amount 

acquired; income on capital) 'B?nii3, 'ei^-nir). 
earring n. ring for the ear ; also, fuchsia [also spelt ear-ringi 

'i:-?iq. 
easterner n, (dweller in the eastern or New England states) 

'li-sta-na?. 
east'ward adj. (toward the east) 'list-wdzd, 'lis-tiud^d, 'li- 

stwdsrd. 
easy-soing adj, li-zi'goo-iq, (assumptivly) 'li-zi-goo-iq. 
eat V. (consume as food; devour) lit, (when unstrest) it. 
eav n. water [ploral eaux"] do. 
eaiuc n. (ploral of eau) ooz. 
eaves n,pl. (lower edge of a roof) livz, 
ebb n, (reflux or falling of the tide ; decline) eb. 
Eblonite n. (one of a sect of Judaizing Christians of about 

the fourth century) 'li-bi-a-nait. 
ebony n. (hard black wood) 'eba-ni, (rapidly) 'ebni. 
ebnlllenee n. (a boiling or bursting forth; overflow) 

iTjAlians. 
ebullition n, (boiling; bubbling; agitation) ebd'h^sn. 
ebnrin n. imitation ivory [also spelt eburine} 'ebjo-^in, 

'li-bjo-^in. 
ebnmation «. (a becoming like ivory) ebae'nee-San, i-be?- 

'nee-San. 
ebnmine ». of ivory [also, sometimes, spelt ehurnini 'eba^- 

nin, 'eba^-nain, I'be^-nain. 
6oart6 n. (card-game) eka^'tee. 

eobole n. (digression; also, raising of a tone) 'ekba-h. 
eooe bomo inter j, (behold, the man!) eksi'hoo-m3, eki'hoo- 

mo. 
eooentrio adj, (not concentric ; out of center ; not circular) 

ek'sent£ik. 
eooentrioity n. (eccentric quality; oddity) ek-sen'tjisi-ti. 
eeebymosed adj. (affected with ecchymosis or blotches 

caused by extravasated blood) 'eki-most, eki'moost, eki- 

'moozd. 
eeelesiastio adj, (of the church) e-kz^izi'sestik. 
eodysis n. (sloughing off; molt) 'ekdi-sis. 
eobelon n. step-like formation of troops [also spelt echelloit} 

'eSa-len. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, qd now, a*. a^V, «l\V\,\s.\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sovitv^ \s» \«xv^\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\ovj\tv^ snjWvnJc^^* 



172 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eol&lnodenii n. (spiny-skind animal, as a sea-urchin) I'kai- 

n3-d8:?m, 'ekina-dei^m. 
eoliinlte n, (fossil sea-urchin) I'kni-nait, 'eki-nait. 
eolilnns n. sea-urchin ; ovolo molding [plural echini} I'kai- 

nss, i'kai-nss. 
eolio n. repetition of sounds, etc. [ploral echoes, rarely echos] 

'eko. 
^lair n. (oblong cream-cake) e'kz.c:^, (sometimes) 'ee-kz.e:?. 
eolalrolssement n. (explanation) e-kz.ez'siis-mer|. 
eolalrolze v. clear up [also spelt eclaircise} i'kz.e:z-saiz. 
6olat n. (dazzling effect ; sensation) e'kz.a: , (rarely) 'ee-kLo, 
eoleotlo adj. (selecting; choosing, etc.) ek'lektik. 
eclogue n. short poem; bucolic [also spelt eclogl 'ek-leg. 
eeloslon n, (an emerging, as of an insect from the pupa-case) 

i'ki.DO-33n. 
eolysls n. (lowering of a tone) 'ekz.i-sis. 
ecology n. science of animal and vegetable economy, life- 
history, etc. [also spelt oecologyl i'kela-dsi. 
economic adj. (of economy) li-ka'nemik, ikd'nemik, eka- 

'nemik. 
economical adj. (saving, thrifty; of political economy) li- 

ka'nemi-kal, eka'nomi-kal. 
economize v. [also spelt economise! I'kend-maiz. 
economy n. household management ; administration ; frugal- 
ity [also, but rarely now, spelt oeconomy} I'kena-mi. 
6cm adj. (unbleacht) e'k^ou, (sometimes) 'ee-ksu. 
ecstasy n. the state of being beside one's self; rapture [also 

spelt extasie, extacy; ploral ecstasies'! 'eksta-si. 
ectlilipsis n. (omission or suppression of a letter or sound) 

ek'6z.ipsis. 
ecthorenm n, the thread of a thread-cell ; cnidocil [also 

^pelt ecthoraeum; ploral ecthorea! ekOaVii-am. 
ectogenons adj, (produced outside the host) ek'tedsi-nas. 
6cn n. (shield ; coin) e'k^ou, 'ee-kgu. 
ecumenical adj. of the whole Christian church; catholic; 

world-wide; general [also spelt oecumenical! ekgo'meni-kal. 
eczema n. (skin-eruption) 'eksi-m9, 'ekzi-ma; (less properly) 

'egzi-ma; eg'zii-ma. 
eozematons adj. (of eczema) eg'zema-tas. 
Edam adj, (in *Edafn cheese) 'li-daem, i'da:m. 
eddy n. small whirlpool; vortex [ploral eddies! 'edi. 
edelweiss n. (white flower of the Alps and Pyrenees) 'ee-dl- 
vais, 'ee-dal-vais, 'edal-vais. 

/.re, gcure; b the, O^Mn; jasure, ds/oy; S sho^, \\cht^', 
wzt/'hen; rjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuW, iiuiooV, \*\\., \\%ec; 
o poetic; o over, e aerial, xbiit, o: door, ;)otvo, t\icei. tt%oXt\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 173 

edema n. swelling [also spelt oedema; ploral edemata} I'dii- 
edematoiui adj, of edema [also spelt oedematousi I'dems- 

t98. 

edged adj, (having an edge; sharp; borderd) edsd, {occa- 
sionally) 'edsid. 

edible adj, (eatable; esculent) 'edd-bsl. 

ediet n, (decree; proclamation; ordinance) 'li-dikt. 

edifice n, building [also spelt edifisi 'edi-fis. 

edile n. Roman magistrate [also spelt aedilel 'li-dail. 

edncate v. (rear; bring up; instruct; train) 'edss-ket, {older) 
'edjo-ket. 

education n. edsdlcee-^an, edjolcee-San. 

e'en adv» (even) lin. 

e'er adv. (ever) c:r. 

eerie adj, fearful, timid; weird [also spelt eery, eirie, eiry 
and, dialectally, airyl 'v.-zi. 

eerinesfl n. undefined fear; superstitious dread [also spelt 
earinessl 'i:-ri-ni8. 

eery adj. fearful, timid; fear-inspiring; weird [also spelt 
eeriel 'i:-?i. 

effect n. (result, consequence; appearance; in plural, goods 
and chattels) e'fekt, {rapidly) I'fekt. 

effecter n. he who or that which brings about an effect or 
result [also spelt effector'} e'fekta^, {rapidly) I'fekta^. 

effectible adj. (capable of being effected) e'fekta-bal, {rap- 
idly) I'fekta-bal. 

effective adj. productiv of results [also spelt effective e'fek- 
tiv, {rapidly) I'fektiv. 

efferent adj. (conveying outward; correlativ of afferent) 
'ef3-?ant. 

effervesce v. (bubble) cfae'ves. 

efferrescence n. (bubbling; ebullition) efs^'vessns. 

effete adj, (past bearing; worn out) e'fiit, {rapidly) I'fiit. 

efficiency n. (fitness to accomplish; efficacy) e'fiSan-si, 
{rapidly) I'fiSan-si. 

effigies n. (an effigy) i'fid3i-i:z. 

efflorescence n. .(blossoming out) efLsVesdns. 

,efflnTinm n. outflow, etc. [ploral effluvia and, formerly, ef- 

4 fluviums] c'fLou-vi-am. 

effort n. (voluntary exertion) 'efart, 'e-fo^t. 

effrontery n, (shameless audacity; unblushing insolence) 
e'fsAnt3-?i, c'fsAntjr. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a*, a^k, ^\Vi\\s.\ 
\zngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sowtv^ \^ \qxv^\ 
atreas-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVve io\\o'W\Ti% s^^^iX^^. 



174 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

effuse adj, (pourd out freely; spreding loosely) e'fious, 

(rapidly) I'fious. 
effuse v, (pour forth ; shed) e'f iouz, (rapidly) I'f iuuz. 
effnslve adj. overflowing [also spelt effusiv} e'fiou-siv, 

(rapidly) I'fiou-siv; (also) e'fiou-ziv, I'fiou-ziv. 
egad inter j. i'gaed. 

Egean adj. of the Atchipelago [also spelt Aegeani I'dsii-an. 
egg n. ovum [also spelt eg'\ eg; (dialectally) eeg. 
egg V. incite ; provoke [also spelt eg ; past participle and pret- 
erit egged, egd} eg. 
egg-nog n. drink [also spelt egg-nogg, eg-nog'\ eg'neg. 
egllops n. goat-eye; grass; oak [also spelt aegilops} 'edsi- 

leps, 'li-dsi-leps. 
eg^s n. shield [also spelt aegisi 'li-dsis. 
eglantine n. (sweetbrier; hip-tree) 'eglon-tain, 'eglan-tm, 

(rarely) 'eglan-tin. 
ego n. (I, self) 'li-go, 'li-gD ; 'ego, 'e-go ; 'ego, 'e-go. 
egoism n. (doctrin of the self, or of self-interest : the cor- 

relativ of altruism) 'li-go-izam, 'ego-izam. 
egoist n. (adherent of egoism) 'li-go-ist, 'ego-ist. 
egotism n. (the practis of putting one's self forward; exces- 

siv self-esteem) 'li-ga-tizam, 'ega-tizam. 
egotlze V, talk or write egotistically [also spelt egotise"] 'li-ga- 

taiz. 
eg^reg^ons adj. (distinguisht : gross) I'g^ii-dsas; (less prop- 
erly) i'g?ii-d3i-9s. 
eg^ress n. (going out ; exit) 'li-gres ; (formerly) I'g^es. 
egress v, (go out; depart) i'g?es. 
eg^ret n. (heron ; seed-poppus ; plumicorn ; mpnkey) 'ii-g?it. 

compare aigret, aigrette. 
ell interj. [also spelt eighl ee, (also, occasionally) e. 
elder-do'wn n. (down of the eider-duck) 'ai-dar-daon. 
eighteen adj., n. ee'tiin ; (sometimes, emphatically) eet'tiin ; 

(anteriorly; by contrast) 'ee-tin, 'eet-tin. 
eighth adj., n. eetO. 

either adj.-pron., noun-pron., adv,, conj. 'li-da^, 'ai-da?. 
eject V. (throw put ; expel) I'dsekt. 
eject n. (something ejected : a conscigusness inferred to 

exist in the non-ego : correlativ of object, etc.) 'li-dsekt, 

I'dsekt. 
elaborate adj. (produced by labor; workt out in detail; 

highly finisht; painstaking) i'laeb.-)-^3t, (rapidly) I'laebrot. 
elaeodlc adj. ricinoleic [also spelt elaiodicl eli'edik. 

J y^f Qcure; dthe, 0f/iin; 3 axrure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tSc/jew: 
wwhen; ij sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiu\\, iiuiool, i it, 11 see: 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, -DOtvo, «.\ic^, ^^^aN.vi\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 175 

^laeodoehon n, rump-gland of a bird ; uropygial gland [plur- 
al elaeodochal eli'edd-ken. 

elaidio adj, (of elain) ele'idik. 

elaidin n. chemic substance [also spelt elaidine] I'lee-i-din. 

elain n. olein [also spelt elainej I'lee-in; {improperly) I'leen. 

61an n. (impetuous rush; ardor; dash) e'leg. 

eland n. (Cape elk) 'li-ldnd. 

elastic adj, (resuming the normal form after being distorted) 
ilaestik, i1a:-stik. 

elasticity n. ilxs'tisi-ti, eld'stisi-ti. 

elate adj, (exalted, lofty) ileet. 

elate v. (lift on high; inspirit) I'leet. 

elater n. (spring, elasticity ; skip-jack, a beetle ; spore-dis- 
persing filament) 'ela-tdz. 

elater n. one who or that which elates [also spelt elatorl 
i'lee-t3e. 

Elean adj, (Eliac) 'li-li-sn. 

elecampane n. (plant; sweetmeat) eh-kaem'peen. 

elector n. (one who elects) ilekta?. 

electrician n. (one verst in electricity; one who makes or 
repairs electric apparatus) ilek'tjiSan, elek'tjijan. 

electricity ». ilek'tjisi-ti, elek'tjisi-ti ; {vulgarly) ilek'tsisti, 
lek'tjisti, ilek'tjizi-ti. 

electrize v. electrify [also spelt electnsel I'lcK-tjaiz. 

electrolier n. (cluster of electric lamps) i-lektjo'h:^. 

electrolyse v, decompose by electricity [also spelt electro- 
lyse} i'lektE3-laiz. 

electrotypy n. (the making of electrotypes) i'}ekt£3-tai-pi. 

eleemosynary adj, (of alms; charitable) eh'mosi-ne^i ; (al- 
so) eh'mesi-naei, eh'mesina-^i, eh'mesin-^i; {also) eh- 
'mezi-nezri, etc.; {also) eli-i'mesina-^i. 

elegant adj. (dainty; graceful; refined) 'eh-gant. 

elegiac n. (of an elegy) I'hi-dsi-aek, eh'dsai-aek, 

eleg^acal adj. (elegiac) eh'dsai-d-kdl. 

eleg^ambns n. a verse consisting of a dactylic penthemim 
and an iambic dimeter [ploral elegiambi} eh-dsai'aembas. 

elegiast n. (elegist) I'hi-dsi-aest, eh'dsai-aest. 

eleg^st n. (writer of an elegy) 'eh-dsist. 

elegise v. write an elegy; write an elegy on [also spelt ele- 
gise} 'eh-dsaiz. 

elegy n. (song of lamentation, etc.) 'eh-dsi. 

elementary adj, (of elements; rudimentary) eh'menta-^i, 
{rapidly) eh'mentEi. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao noxu, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditig soMtv^ \?» \^^?»\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWov^itig, s.^\\2i^^^« 



176 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

elenoh n. (a refutation; sophism; elenchus) I'iegk. 
elenoliie adj. (elenctic) ilegkik. 
elenotio adj, (of refutation) I'iegktik. 
elephantiasis n. (skin-disease) eh-fxn'tai-9-sis. 
elephantine adj. (of elephants; clumsy) eh'faen-tin, eh- 

'fantin, eh'fan-tain. 
elephantoid adj. (elephant-like) eh'faen-teid, 'eh-fsen-teid. 
Elensinian adj. (of Eleusis) eliu'sini-an. 
61dve n. (pupil) e^ev. 
eleven adj., n. I'levan ; (dialectally, colloquially, vulgarly) 

I'lebm, levan, 'Icbm. 
elf n. sprite ; fairy ; goblin [ploral elvesl elf. 
Eliao adj, (of Elis; Elean) 'li-li-sek. 
elicit V, (draw out; gain) I'hsit. 
eligible adj. (fit to be chosen; suitable) 'ehdsd-bdl; (assump- 

tivly) 'eh-dsabal, (rapidly) 'ehdsbal. 
elision n. (a cutting off; the suppression of a vowel sound 

or of a syllable) ilisan. 
elisor n, (one of two persons who select a jury) 'eh-zsz, 

61ite n. (a choice or select body; best part) e'hit. 

elixir n. (preparation for changing metals into gold, or for 

prolonging life; sovereign remedy) I'hksa?. 
Elizabethan adj. (of Elizabeth) i-lizs'bii-Oan, i-hzd'beOsn, 

i1iz3-be0an. 
ell n. (measure) el. 

ellipse n. regular oval [ploral ellipses'] ilips. 
ellipses n. (ploral of ellipsis) I'hp-siz. 
ellipsis n. rarely, an ellipse; usually, an ommission; a sign 

of ommission, as a dash, or a series of stars or periods 

[ploral ellipses'] ilipsis. 
elm n. (tree) elm; (dialectally) 'elam. 
eloention n. (art of speaking, etc.) eld'kQou-Sdn. 
eloontive adj. of elocution [also spelt elocutiv] ilek^o-tiv, 

'ela-k^utiv. 
61og;e n. (panegyric) eloos. ' 

elog^nm n, elogy ; funeral oration ; eloge, [ploral elogia] 

i1oo-d5i-9m. 
elogy n. obsolete (explanatory inscription; characterization; 

elogium; eulogy) 'ela-dsi. 
Elohist n. (writer of the parts of the Pentateuch in which 

"Elohim" is used instead of "Yahveh") elDO-hist, 'elo-hist, 

'elo-ist. 

jyc, gcure; bthe, f/iin ; 3 a^rure, ds/oy; \ shoe, tSc/iew; 
wzvhen; tjsing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuVV, iiuiooV, \\t, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, ootvo, t\ic^, t^^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 177 

eloin. V, abscond; convey out of the jurisdiction of the court 
or sheriff [also spelt eloign, eloitie, eloigne} I'lein, 

elongate v. (prolong; lengthen) i'ie:i]-get, 'ii-ler|-get. 

elongate culj, (long, slender) ileig-get. 

elimnenee ». (fine speaking) 'eU-kiudns. 

else adj. els, elts. 

elsewhere adv, (somewhere else) 'els-we:?, els'we:;. 

elnde v, (escape or avoid by artifice; evade) I'Houd. 

eludlble adj. (capable of being eluded) I'Hou-da-bal. 

elnsive adj, [also spelt elusivl I'liou-siv, iliou-ziv. 

elnsory o^^j- (tending to elude; hard to get hold of) iliou- 
S9-ZI, (rapidly) i1iou-S3i; {also) i'liou-z3-?i. 

Elysian adj. (of Elysium; beatific; glorious) ilisan, ilizi-sn, 
i1i3i-3n, (rarely) ilisjan. 

elytron n. sheath; wing-cover, elytrum [ploral elytral '^li- 
tjan, 'ch-tjen, ilai-ts^n, 

elytmm n. wing-cover; elytron [ploral elytra"] 'ch-tjam. 
n, tjrpe [also spelt Elziver] 'elzi-va?, 'elzi-vi:?. 
n. (unit of tjrpe-measurement) em. 
pron, them [also spelt em] sm. 

emaciate adj, (make lean; deprive of flesh) I'mee-^i-et. 

emasenlate v. (castrate; enfeeble) I'maeskgo-let. 

embalm v. (preserve from decay by means of spices, etc.) 
em'baim. 

embarkation n. action of embarking [also spelt emharca- 
tion] em-boz^ee-Ssn. 

embarrass v, (hamper; disconcert; complicate [pest parti- 
ciple and preterit embarrassed, embarrast] em'baezas. 

embassador n. em'baess-dd?. same meaning as ambassador, 

embassy n. (function of ambassador; residence of an am- 
bassador, etc.) 'embd-si. 

embed v. [synonymous cognate imbed] cm'bed. 

embellisb v. beautify; ornament [past participle and prete- 
rit embellished, embellisht] em'behS. 

embezzle v. (divert fraudulently to one's own use) em'bezsl. 

embitter v, [synonymous cognate imbitter] em'hitdz. 

emblazon v, (portray conspicuously) em'blee-zdn. 

emblema n. inlaid emblem; mosaic ornament [ploral emble- 
mata] em'blii-md. 

emblematist n. (one who invents emblems; emblem-writer) 
'embhma-tist, em'Wema-tist. 

emblematize v. represent by an emblem [also spelt emble- 
matise] 'cmMima-taiz, em'blema-taiz. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, qo noiw, ^^ a^V., «L\VA\fc\ 
}ength-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvR somtv^ \% \«tv.%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo^iTi^ «fC«W^^ 



178 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

embonpoint n. (fleshiness) er)-ber)'pu)aer). 

embosom v. [synonymous cognate imbosom'] em'bozdm. 

emboss v. cause to bulge; adorn with bosses [past participle 
and preterit embossed, embosti em'bois, (rarely) em'bes. 

embonobure ». (mouth of a river; mouthpiece) oqbu'So:?. 

embowel v, remove the viscera from; disembowel [present 
participle emboweling, embowelling ; past participle and 
preterit emboweled, embowelled, emboweldl em'bau-al. 

embrace v. (clasp in the arms; accept gladly) em'b^ees. 

embracer n. one who attempts to corrupt a jury [also spelt 
embraceor, embrasor"] em^zze-ssz. 

embrasnre n. bevel at the sides of an opening ; beveld open- 

. ing [also, formerly, spelt embrasure'^ em'b^ee-33^, em'b^ee- 
zJ9?, {rarely) embea'zjo:?, cmbra'sorr; {sometimes, in mili- 
tary use) 'emb?3-53?. 

embroglio n. em'bzooH^) em^broo-li-o. same meaning as 
imbroglio, 

embryo n. (fetus; germ) 'cmb?i-o. 

embryonal adj. (of an embryo) 'embzri-a-nl. 

emend v. (remove errors from; correct) I'mend. 

emendate v. (remove errors from; correct) 'li-men-det. 

emendation n. (correction) imen'dee-$3n, emsn'dee-Sdn. 

emendator n. (corrector) 'emsn-deta?, 'li-man-detar. 

emeritus adj, (honorably discharged from service) I'me^i- 

t9S. 

emersion n. (coming out; emergence) I'me^S^n; {improperly) 

i'mB:?-33n. compare immersion. 
entery n, (impure corundum used for grinding and polishing) 

'em3-?i; {anteriorly) 'emari, {rapidly) 'em^i. 
emetieise v. cause to vomit [also spelt emeticisel I'meti- 

saiz. 
emetine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt emetini 'emi-tin, 

'emi-tain. 
6mente n. (riot, outbreak) e'matt. 

emigrant n. (one who quits one country to settle in an- 
other: distinguisht from immigrant) 'emi-g^ant. 
emigrate v. 'emi-gzet. 
eminent adj. (high in rank, conspicuous) 'emi-nant; {as- 

sumptivly) 'eminant, {rapidly) 'emnant. 
emir n. [also spelt emeer ; synonymous cognates ameer, amirl 

I'mi:?, e'mi:?, 'li-ma?. 
emissary n, (person sent; also, outlet; duct) 'emi-se^i. 
emission «. (an emitting or sending out; discharge) I'mijan. 

J ye, gcure; dthe, O^Mn; sasure, d^/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
wwhen; tjsing', u whoever, i react, oiuVV, oulooV, \Vl, \\^ee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, 0: door, -aotvo, «.\ic^, t^^oX.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 179 

emit V. (send foitli; Tcnt; discharge) x'mit. 
emmeaagocme u. xnedicixi ial&o spelt cmmcnagog\ I'mcnd- 

geg, I'mii-n^-gog. 
e]ii.<illia.te r. (.soften; render feminin) I'meti-et. 
emolliemt adj. softening lalso spelt cmolicnt\ i'nio)i.>nt. 
emolvaaemt «• (profit from office; salar>') I'motiu-nidnt. 
empanel n. em'paeid. same meaning as impanel. 
emperor n. (ruler of an empire) 'cmp^rdz:. 
empliasis fi. vigor of statement; stress [plural cmphascs\ 

'emfd-sis. 
emphasise v. stress [also spelt emphasise'^ "cnifa-saiz. 
empjbrie n. (one who relies on experience; quack) cm'picik. 
empirieisBt n. (empiric method) cm'pin-sizdin. 
employ^ s. eq-pLiDo'jee, em^tei'ee. same mcaninj; as cm- 

ployee. • 

employee n. one who is employed or works for waf^cs or 

salary [also spelt employe; synonymous cognates cmplnyu^, 

employee'^ em-pz^i'n. 
employee n. (a female employee) eg-pLu^o'jec, cin-pi.oiVo. 
employer n. (one who employs or uses; one who employs 

servants or working-people) em'pLoi-dz. 
empress n, (consort of an emperor; woman who rules an 

empire) 'emp3is; {dialectally) 'emp-p-sis. 
empressemeat s. (eagerness; cordiality) oq'psrs-moi]. 
emprise n. undertaking; enterprise; mariial pruwcss [also 

spelt emprise} em'p\aiz. 
empty adj. (void; vacant; meaningless) 'cmpti. 
empty-l&eaded adj. [also spelt cmpty-hcdcd] cmpti'hrdid, 

{assumptivly) 'empti-hedid. 
empyema n, (pyothorax) empi'ii-ma; {less properly) rm- 

pai'ii-ma. 
empyreal adj. (of the empsrrean; celestial; sublime) cm- 

'pi3i-3l, empiVii-9}, em-pai'rii-al. 
empyrean n. (the highest heaven; the firmament; cosmic 

space) empi'gii-an, em'piei-an, em-pai'ni-on. 
empyrenma n. the burnt-smell of heated animal or vege- 
table matter [plural empyreumata} empi'rDu-mo. 
emn n. three-toed ratite bird [also spelt emeu, emew] 'li-mju. 
emulsion n. (milky liquid) I'mAl^on. 
emnlsive adj. [also spelt eniulsiv] I'mxlsiv. 
enallase n. (substitution of one grammatical form for an 

other) I'nxta-dsi, e'naela-dsi. 
enamel v. [present participle enameling, enamelling; past 



c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, qo nou\ a*. a^k> ^\k\\ft\ 
Izngtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutv<i \% \^tvV> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the toWoN«iti^ «^\VaXi^^. 



180 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

■ 

participle and preterit enameled, enamelled, enameldl 
I'naemdI. 

eiLameler n. [also spelt enameller} I'naemd-ld?. 

enamor v, inspire with love [also spelt enamour; past par- 
ticiple and preterit enamored, enamord} e'naemaz. 

enarthrosis n. (ball-and-socket joint) en-az'Osoo-sis. 

encage v, confine in a cage [synonymous cognate incagej en- 
'keed3. 

encase v. en'kees. same meaning as incase. 

enceinte n. (enclosure) eg'seent, er)'sxr)t. 

enceinte adj. (pregnant) eg'seent, eg'saegt. 

encenia n. dedication-festival [also spelt encaenia; ploral 
encenial en'sii-ni-a, 

enceplialic adj. (of the encephalon) ensi'faehk, en'^sefs-hk. 

enceplialon n. contents of the skull; brain [ploral encepha- 
/a] en'sefd-lsn. 

encbant v, (bewitch) en'tSa:nt, en'tSaint, en'tSaemt. 

encbiridion n, handbook; manual [ploral enchiridions, en- 
chiridia} enki'zidi-sn, en-kai'zidi-sn. 

enclasp v. [former synonymous cognate inclasp} en'kLa:sp. 

enclave n. (shut-in territory) en'kteev, ei)'ki^:v. 

enclave v. have a dove-tail border : said of an ordinary 
[synonymous cognate inclave} en'kteev, oi]'ki.a:v. 

enclisis n. (pronunciation as an enclitic; inclination) 'cnkz.i- 
sis. 

enclose v. surround, envelop; insert in an envelop [synon- 
ymous cognate inclose} en'kLOoz. 

enclosure n. [synonymous cognate inclosure} en'kL30-337. 

enconiinm n. eulogy; panegyric [ploral encomiums, encomia} 
en'koo-mi-sm. 

encompass v, surround [past participle and preterit encom- 
passed, encompastl en'kAmpss. 

encore n. (call for a repetition; repeated performance) 'erj- 
ko:z, eq'ko:?. 

enoonrage v, (inspire; incite; countenance) en'kszids, en- 
'kA^ids. 

encrinite n. (fossil crinoid) 'enlcsi-nait. 

encumber v. hamper; burden; block up [former synony- 
mous cognate incumber} enlcAmbd?. 

encnmbrance n. [synonymous cognate incumbrance} en- 
'kAmbrsns. 

encyclical adj. (intended for extensiv circulation) en'sikz.1- 
kal, en'sai-kti-kal. 

JJ^c, gcure; dthe, Bthin; 5 asure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tlchew; 
wwAen; t)sing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\> \iuiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; d Qver, eaerialy A but, o*. doot, -ao-n-o, t.\ic^, ^.^^oX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 181 

enoyelopedia n. circle of learning; book [also spelt ency- 
clopaedidl en-sai-kLa'pii-di-a, (anteriorly) en-sai-ki^a'pii-dja. 

enoyolopedio adj. [also spelt encyclopaedic^ en-sai-kz.3'pii- 
dik, en-sai-kLd'pedik. 

enoyolopedist n. [also spelt encyclopaedist} en-sai-kLs'pii- 
dist. 

enoyst v. (enclose in a cyst, capsule, or bag) en'sist, 

endeaTor n. effort ; try [also spelt endeavour, endevor ; past 
participle and preterit endeavored, endevord"} en'devae. 

endeictic adj. (serving to show; probativ) en'daik-tik. 

endive n. (succory, etc.) 'en-daiv, 'endiv. 

endogen. n. (inside-growing plant, as a palm) 'ends-dsin. 

eadogenoiis culj. (growing from within; internal) en'ded3i- 
nss. 

endopodite n. (inner division of a crustacean's limb) en- 
'dep9-dait. 

endorse v, write on the back of [synonymous cognate in- 
dorse; past participle and preterit endorsed, endorsf} en- 
'deizs. 

endorsement n. [synonymous cognate indorsement} en- 
'dei^s-mant. 

endorser n, [synonymous cognate indorser} en'de:z:-s97. 

endosmose n. (transmission of a fluid inward thru a sep- 
tum; endosmosis) 'endss-mos, 'en-dez-mos. 

endne v. bring in; assume; clothe; invest [synonymous cog- 
nate indue} en'djou. 

enema n. clyster; injection [ploral enemas, enemata} I'nii- 
m9, 'eni-ma. 

enemata n. (ploral of enema) I'nems-td. 

enemy n. hostil person; opponent [plural enemies} 'eni-mi. 

energize v. [also spelt energise} 'enszr-dsaiz. 

energ^men n. (demoniac; one possest) endz'gjuu-mdn. 

enervate v, (weaken) 'ena^-vet, I'nerzr-vet. 

enfeoff v, invest with a fief; hand over as a fief; sur- 
render; enfief [former synonymous cognate infeoff} en'fef. 

enfief v. en'fiif. same meaning as enfeoff, 

enfilade n. (suite; raking fire) enfi'leed, 'enfi-leed. 

enfold V. en'foold. same meaning as infold. 

enforceable adj. capable of being enforced [also spelt enfor- 
cible} en'foiz-sa-bal. 

enf rancldse v. (free, release ; confer citizen's rights or vot- 
ing-power upon) en'f3a:n-tSaiz, en'fsain-tjiz, en'fsaen-tSaiz, 
en'f^aentSiz. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, oi boy; a: far, ao noTW, Bl*. a?k, «aV.\\.^% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souiv^ \s \^xvv, 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\o^Mlti% ^^WsiJ^^.. 



182 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

enfrancMsement n. en'f3a:n-tSis-m9nt, en'f3a:n-tSiz-m9nt, 

en'fsaentSiz-mant. 
engine n. contrivance, machine [also spelt engin} 'endsin; 

{dialectally or vulgarly) 'in-dsain, 'indsin. 
engineer n. znd^i'nv.z. 
enginery n. engins collectivly, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt en- 

ginry'} 'end3in-ei, 'endsina-zi. 
English adj.,n.,v. 'iqglish; (in Ireland) 'eqghS; {improper- 
ly, among German- Americans, etc.) 'iqhS. 
engraft v. en'g^aift. same meaning as ingraft. 
engrain v. en'g^een. same meaning as ingrain. 
engrave v. (carve on a surface ; incise) en'g^eev. 
engross z>. write in large letters; absorb; monopolize [past 

participle and preterit engrossed, engrost} en'gz^oos. 
engnlf v, plunge into a gulf or abyss [synonymous cognate 

ingulf; past participle and preterit engulfed, engulf t} en- 

'gAlf. 
enhance v. (raise; intensify; increase) en'hams. 
enigma n. riddle [also, formerly, spelt aenigma} i^nigma. 
enig^matic adj. (of an enigma) enig'msetik, inig'maetik. 
enisle v. [synonymous cognate inisle] e'nail. 
enlighten 7/. (throw light on ; instruct) en'lai-tn. 
en masse adv, in mass; bodily; all together [also spelt en 

mass} oq'ma:s, orj'mats, eq'mais. 
enneagon n. (nine-angled polygon) 'eni-3-gen. 
ennoble v. (give the rank of nobility to ; make noble) en'noo- 

bsl, e'nDo-bal. 
ennni n. (mental weariness ; boredness ; tedium) orj'nwii, '013- 

nwi. 
ennny6 adj. (affected with ennui; bored) ©qnwi'jee. 
enough adj. (sufficient) I'nAf. 
enquire v. zn'kwajz. same meaning as inquire. 
enquiry n. en'kiuai-^i. same meaning as inquiry, 
en rapport adv. (in relation or connection) eq-zrae'po:?. 
enrol v. write on a roll or list; register; enter among" the 

rolls; form into a roll [also spelt enroll] past participle and 

preterit enroled, enrolled, enrold} en'zool. 
enrolment n. [also spelt enrollment} en'rool-mant. 
en route adv. (on the way; upon the road) orj'rout. 
ensconce v. (establish in a place, as for concealment or com- 
fort) en'skonts, (in Britain) en'skens. 
ensemble n. (all the parts taken together ; general effect) 

©ij'sombg}, erj'sembi.. 

JJ^^f gcure; d the, f/iin; sarure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/rew; 
wzt/hen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, o iu\\, viMioo\, \\t, ixsec, 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abtit, o: door, ;)otvo, «,\ie^, ^^^(3l\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 183 

ensign, n. (sign; emblem; badge; banner; flag; standard- 
bearer) 'en-sain. 

ensign v. (distingtiish by a sign such as a cross, coronet, or 
miter) en'sain, 'en-sain. 

ensigncy n, (rank of an ensign) 'en-sain-si. 

ensilage n. (preserving of fodder in a silo or pit) 'ensi-lids. 

ensile v, (put into a silo) en'sail, 'en-sail. 

ensnare v, en'sNe:z:. same meaning as insnare. 

ensue v. (be subsequent; follow; result) en's^ou. 

en snite adv, (in a set; forming a series) eg'siuiit. 

ensnre v, en'^o:?. same meaning as insure, 

entasis n. (swelling of the shaft of a column) 'ent9-sis. 

enteleoliy n. (realization; soul) en'teh-ki. 

enter v. go or come in, etc. [past participle and preterit 
entered, enter dl 'entaz. 

enteric adj. (intestinal) en'tezrik. 

enteritis n. (inflammation of the intestins) enti'^ai-tis. 

enteron n, intestin [plural enteral 'enti-^en. 

enterprise n. undertaking [also spelt enterprize"] 'entsr-psaiz. 

enterprising adj. [also spelt enterprising^ 'ent37-p3ai-.zir|. 

enthrall v. make a thrall of ; hold in thrall ; enslave [also 
spelt enthral', synonymous cognates inthrall, inthral; past 
participle and preterit enthralled, enthraldl en'93c:l. 

enthrallment n. [also spelt enthralment ; synonymous cog- 
nate inthralment'i en'93c:l-m9nt. 

enthnsiasm n. (possession by a god; rapture) en'Ogou-zi- 
aezdm. 

enthymeme n. (argument based on probability; syllogism in 
which one premis is supprest) 'en0i-mim. 

entirety n. completeness; whole [synonymous cognate cn- 
tiertyl en'taiz:-ti, (often) en'taia?-ti. 

entitative adj. of mere existence; real [also spelt entitativ} 
'enti-tetiv, 'entita-tiv. 

enton&olog:y n. (science of insects) entd'mols-dsi. 

entourage n. (surroundings; environment; attendants of a 
superior) erjtu^za:^. 

entozoon n. internal parasite; entozoan [also spelt entozo- 
on; plural entozoal enta'zoo-an. 

entr'acte ». (interval between two acts of a play) eq'tjakt. 

entrail n. (internal organ; bowel; intestin; gut) 'en-t£el. 

entrance ». (a coming or going in ; door, etc.) 'entjans. 

entrance v. (throw into a trance-like state) en'tja:ns, cn- 
't£a:ns, en'tjaems. 

c: low, b: f«r, as cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, qd noiu, a*. asV, ^\V\\^% 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souxv^ -l^ X^^-^' 

stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on the ioWoYJins s^\\;)X>\' 



184 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

entrant n, (one who or that which enters; beginner) 'en- 
tfisnt. 

entree n. action of entering ; admission ; made dish servd be- 
tween courses [also spelt entri'\ eg'tjee, 'en-tje. 

entremets n,pL (side-dishes, etc.) er)t£9'mee. 

entreneh v. cn't£ent$, en'tsenS. same meaning as intrench. 

entre nons adv. (between ourselves) er)t£9'nou. 

entrepdt n. (deposit of goods; storehouse; distributing-cen- 
ter) 'eqtj3-po. 

entresol n. mezzanine story [synonymous cognate entersole, 
intersolel 'entaz-sel, 'oi]t£3-seh 

entrust v. en't£Ast« same meaning as intrust. 

entTvlne v* [synonymous cognate intwinej en'twain. 

enunciate v, (express definitly; proclaim; pronounce) I'uAn- 
Ji-et, I'nAnsi-et. 

enunciation n. i-nAnSi'ee-San, i-nAnsi'ee-Sdn. 

enurny adj. charged with beasts: said of a bordure [also 
spelt enurneyl en'seni. 

envelop n. wrapper; covering [also spelt envelope} 'enva- 
lop, 'env3-lop, en'velsp, 'eqva-lop; (rapidly) 'envlap, etc. 

envelop v, wrap; cover [also spelt envelope; past participle 
and preterit enveloped, envelopt} en'velap. 

envious adj. (full of envy) 'envi^ss, 'envjas. 

environment n. (that which environs; surrounding condi- 
tions collectivly) en'vai-^an-mant. 

environs n.pl, (outskirts; surrounding districts) en'vai-i:9nz, 
'env9-?anz. 

envoy n. (messenger) 'en-vei; (less properly) 'en-vei. 

envoy ». (postscript, ending) 'en-vei, en'vei, 

enivall v. en'w'c:!. same meaning as inwall. 

enx^rap v. en'zaep. same meaning as inwrap. 

enzym n. ferment; levend bread [also spelt ensymel 'cnzim. 

Eocene n, (division of the Tertiary) 'li-a-sin. 

Eolian adj. of Aeolis or Aeolia; eolic; also, of Aeolus, the 
wind-god [also spelt Aeoliani i'oo-li-9n, i'oo-lian. 

Eolidae n. pi, i'eh-di. same meaning as Eolididae. 

Eolididae n.pl. family of mollusks [also spelt Aeolididae; 
synonymous cognates Eolidae, Aeolidae} i-alidi-di. 

eoUpile n. rotary steam toy [also spelt aeolipile, aeolipyle, 
eolipylel 'li-ah-pail, i'eh-pail. 

eon n. age, era, cycle; eternity [also spelt aeoni 'li-en, 'li-an. 

eonian adj. everlasting [also spelt aeonian"] i'oo-ni-sn. 

eonic adj. cyclic; eternal [also spelt aeonic} i'enik. 

/jfe, g cure; d the, thin ; 5 asrure, ds joy ; S ^^oe, tS cheyr ; 
wze/hen; tj sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuVV, \5Mioo\, \\l, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: door, oQt^o, t.\)c^, \i,e^^a\&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 185 

eosin n. red dye [also spelt eosine} 'li-d-sin. 
Eozoio adj. (of early animal life) i-9'z3o-ik. 
epact n. (intercalated day or days) 'li-paekt, 'e-pxkt. 
epanlet n. shoulder-piece [also spelt epaulette"} 'ep9-49t, ^epd- 

let. 
epanlment n. earthwork [also spelt epaulement} e'pcil-mdnt. 
epenceplialic adj, e-pensi'faehk, epen'sefs-lik, ep-en'sefs-hk, 
epencephalon n. hind-brain; metencephalon [plural epen- 

cephalal epen'sefa-lan. 
epenthesis n. insertion of a letter or syllable; transference 

of a semi-vowel to the preceding syllable [ploral epentheses} 

i'pen0i-sis, i'pent9i-sis. 
epergne n. (center-dish for a table) i'pB:?n. 
ephah n. Hebrew dry measure [also, formerly, spelt ephal 

'ii-f9. 
ephebe n. (young man; ephebos) I'fiib, 'e-fib. 
ephemera n. day-fly; ephemerid; something transitory [plor- 
- al ephemerae, ephemeras} I'fema-es. 
ephemeral adj, I'fems-rdl, {rapidly) I'izraz^X, 
ephemerie adj, (ephemeral) I'fems-rik, efi'mezik. 
epbemeris n. astronomic almanac [ploral ephemeridesl 

I'fems-^is. 
ephod n. (priestly vestment) 'e-fed, {rarely) 'c-fod. 
ephor n. (magistrate) 'efs?. 

epibole n. figure of speech [also spelt epiboly} i^pibd-li. 
epiboly n. gastrulation [also spelt epibole} I'piba-li. 
epielesis n. invocation : a part of the prayer of consecration 

[also spelt epiklesis} epi'kLii-sis. 
epionre n. (one who is choice and dainty in regard to food) 

'epi-k^o:?. 
epienrean adj.,n. epi-kgo'zii-sn. 
Epienrean n. (disciple of Epicurus) epi-k^o^^ii-dn ; {less 

properly) epilkgor-ri-an. 
epieyemate adj, (having the embryo on a large yolk: said 

of certain fishes and batrachians) epi-sai'ii-met. 
epideieiio adj. epi'daik-tik. same meaning as epidictic, 
epidentle adj, (temporarily prevalent among a people) epi- 

'demik. 
epidermis n. (outer skin; cuticle; scarf-skin) epi'dei^-mis. 
epidieiio adj, demenstrativ [synonymous cognate epideictic, 

epideiktic} epi'diktik. 
epigeal adj. epigeous ; living near the ground [also spelt epi- 

gaeal} epi'dsii-al. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a*. a^V, ^\V\\.^\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvg soutv^ \^ V>x\^ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the lo\\o\«\n^ s>jW;jX:\ 



186 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

epigeons adj. just above ground; epigean [also spelt epigae- 
ous\ epi'd3ii-9S. 

epiglottis n. leaf-like cartilage forming the lid of the glot- 
tis [ploral epiglottidesi cpi'glotis. 

epigram n. (short poem; pithy saying) 'epi-g^aem. 

epigraphy n. (inscriptions collectivly; study of epigraphs) 
I'pig^a-fi. 

epig3rxLoii9 adj, (on the top of the ovary) I'pidsi-nss. 

epilepsy n. (falling-sickness) 'epi-lepsi. 

epilogize v. (use epilogs) 'epil3-d3aiz, I'pils-dsaiz. 

epilog^ne n. concluding part of a literary work; appendix 
[also spelt epilogj 'epi-leg. 

epilog^nize v, {obsolete) deliver an epilog; put an epilog to 
[also spelt epiloguise'\ 'epi-leg-aiz. 

Epiphany n. (festival commemorating the manifestation of 
Christ to the Gentiles in the persons of the Magi) I'pifs-ni. 

epiphany n. (manifestation or appearance of a divine or 
supernatural being) I'pifa-ni. 

epiphysis n. a portion of bone which has grown from a dis- 
tinct center : distinguisht from apophysis [ploral epiphyses} 
I'pifi-sis. 

epiploce n. (interweaving of clauses; climax) i'pipL3-si. 

episode n. (incidental narrativ or part) 'epi-sod; (less prop- 
erly) 'epi-zod. 

episodic adj. (of episode; incidental) epi'sedik. 

epistle n. (letter) I'pisal, I'pisl; (erroneously) I'pisth 

epistler n. letter-writer; one who reads the epistle in the 
communion service [synonymous cognates epistoler, epis- 
toller} i'pisi.3?, i'pistL3^. 

epistolize v. [also spelt epistolise} I'pists-laiz. 

epistolizer n. letter-writer [also spelt epistoliser"] I'pista-lai- 
za?. 

epistoma n. a part on or in front of the mouth ; epistome ; 
epistom [ploral epistomata'l I'pista-ma. 

epistrophe n. (a figure of speech in which each clause ends 
with the same word; cyclic composition) i'pist£3-fi. 

epistrophy n. (reversion to a normal form) I'pistja-fi. 

epitaph «, (inscription on a tombstone) 'epi-ta:f, 'epi-ta:f 
'epi-tae:f. 

epithalaminm n. nuptial song [plural epithalamiums, epi- 
thalamia'] epiGa'lee-mi-ara. 

epithelium n. (superficial layer of cells of mucous mem- 
branes, etc.) epi'Gii-H-am, (anteriorly) epi'Gii-Ham. 

J ye, gcure; d the, 9 f ^in ; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tjc/iew; 
wzt/hen; ij sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuVV, ouiool, lit, lis^^; 
o poetic; o over, e serial, Abtit, o;dooT, ootvo, t\ie^, «.^^a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 187 

epitome n. (abridgment; summary) I'pita-mi; {erroneously) 

'epi-tom. 
epitomize v. [also spelt epitomise'} I'pits-maiz. 
epizootic n. a disease temporarily prevalent among animals; 

plague among animals [also spelt epizootic'} epi-zo'etik; 

{erroneously) epi'zou-tik. 
epizooty n. epizootic [also spelt epizooty} epi'z30-9-ti. 
epocli n. (point of time; period) 'e-pek, 'epak, 'li-pek. 
epode n. (a kind of lyric poem; part of a lyric ode) 'e-pod. 
eponym n. (one who gives his name to a people, place, or 

institution; eponymus) 'epa-nim. 
eponymie adj. (of an eponym) epa'nimik. 
eponsrmons adj. (that gives his name) i'peni-m9s. 
epopee n. (epic poem; epic poetry) 'epo-pi, epo'pii. 
epos n. (an epic poem; an epopee) 'e-pes. 
epsilon n. (Greek letter) 'epsi-lan, ep'sai-len. 
epnral adj. on the tail [synonymous cognate epiural} I'pQo:- 

Epyomis n. gigantic fossil bird [also spelt Aepyornis, Epior- 

nis} ipi'e:?-nis. 
eqnable adj. (uniform; tranquil; equally proportiond) 'ekwa- 

bal, 'li-kiua-bal. 
eqnal v. [present participle equaling, equalling; past parti- 
ciple and preterit equaled, equalled, equald} 'li-kujal. 
equality n. (condition of being equal, etc.) i'kiuoh-ti. 
equalization n. [also spelt equalisation} ikiudh'zee-Sdn. 
equalize v, [also spelt equalise} 'li-kwd-laiz, (often) 'ikws- 

laiz. 
equally adv. 'li-kiua-h, (often) 'ikioa-h. 
equanimity n. (evenness of mind or temper; unruffledness) 

iku)9'nimi-ti. 
equate v. (make equal) I'kujeet. 
equate adj. (smooth) 'li-kiuet. 
equation n. (action of making equal; statement or formula 

of equality) I'kiuee-San, I'kioee-san. 
equatorial adj. (of the equator) ikw^'toi-zi-^l, 
equery n. [also spelt equerry; ploral equeries} 'eku)3-ei, 

I'kwezi. 
eques n. Roman knight [plural equites} 'li-kiuiz. 
equestrian n. (of horse-riding; mounted) I'kiuestEi-an. 
equestrienne n. (horsewoman; female equestrian) i-kiuestEi- 

'en. 
equiangular adj. (having all its angles equal ; having its 

c: law, b: fur, a cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, qo no-u), Bl*. a^V, ^\V\\.^\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sovin^ \^ V>x\^*. 
tress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\0N«\xi?» s^N^aSc^^ 



188 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

angles equal respectivly to the angles of another figure) 
ikwi'aeggju-ldz. 

eqniform adj, (identical in form; shaped alike) 'li-kwi- 
fei^m. 

eqnilibrant n. (system of forces which would equilibrate an- 
other system) I'kioih-teant, ikujilai-teant. 

equilibrate v. (balance) ikiuilai-b^et. 

equilibration n. iku)ih'b?ee-S9n, ikwi-lail)?ee-S3n. 

equilibrist n. (rope-walker; acrobat) I'kwih-bzrist, ikwi'lai- 
brist, {rarely) ikujilibeist. 

equilibrium n. (balance) ikwilibn-dm. 

equilibrize v. [also spelt equilibrise'} I'kiuih-b^air. 

equine adj. (of a horse; horse-like) 'li-kiuain. 

equinoctial adj. (of the equinox) iktui^nek^dl, ekiui'nekSd}. 

equinox n. (the point or the time at which the sun's path 
crosses the equator) 'li-kiui-neks, 'ikuji-neks, 'ekuji-neks. 

equipage n. (equipment; appurtenances; horse and car- 
riage) 'ckuji-pids; (erroneously) I'kiripids. 

equipoise n. (perfect balance; counterpoise) 'ekwi-peiz, 
'li-kioi-peiz, 'ikuji-peiz. 

equipollent adj. (equal in power; identical in effect) ekiui- 
'pelant, ikioi'pelant. 

equitable adj. (fair; just) 'ckiuita-bal ; (improperly) I'kujita- 
bal. 

equites n. (ploral of eques) 'ekwi-tiz. 

equivalent adj. (equal in value; tantamount) I'kiuiva-lant. 

equivoke n. pun ; word-play ; ambiguity [also spelt equi- 
voque'} 'eku)i-vok, 'ii-ku)i-vok. 

era n. period, age ; date [also spelt aera ; ploral erasi 'r.-z^ ; 
(dialectally) 'li-zrs. 

erasable adj. that can be erased [also spelt erasible} I'zee- 
sa-bdl. 

erased adj. [also, sometimes, spelt erased! I'reest, I'reezd. 

erasion n. (erasure) I'^ee-ssn. 

Erasn&ian adj. (of Erasmus) I'zrsezmi-dn, I'^aesMi-sn. 

erasure n. (action of erasing) I'zee-sar, I'ree-zja?, I'zee-^dz. 

ere adv., prep., conj. (before) e:z. 

erecter n. one who or that which erects [also spelt erector'} 
I'^ektar. 

erectile adj. capable of being erected or set upright [also 
spelt erectill I'^ektil, (rarely) I'^ek-tail. 

erector n. a muscle which erects; erecting-glass [ploral erect- 
ors, erectores} i^ztkt^z, 

J ye, gcure; d the, 0^/iin; 5 asure, dj^/oy; Wioe, tjc/iew; 
wzt/Aen; xjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, \5Mioo\, \\V, \\^ec% 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abwt, o*. door, ooivo, t\ic^, ^^^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 189 

ereloas (^^v, (before long; soon) eizleit), (when less strest) 
ce'leii). 

eremaeansis n. (slow combustion) ezima'kci-sis. 

eremite n. (recluse; hermit) 'ezi-mait. 

erethism n. excitement; over-activity [also spelt erythisml. 
'esri-Gizsm. 

ergo conj. (therefore) 'B:?-go, 'siz-go. 

ergot n. (stub; morbid growth) 'eie-get, 'sir-gst 

ermine n. the stroat or its fur [also spelt ermin\ 'B:?-min. 

erne n. eagle [also spelt earn] Birn. 

err v. go astray [past participle and preterit erred, erdi b:z, 

errand n. (mission) 'ez^nd. 

erratum n. error [ploral errata] e'i:ee-t3m, e'i:a:-t3m. 

errhine n. (nose-medicin) 'czin, 'e-^ain. 

erroneous adj. (containing error; incorrect) eVoo-ni-as. 

error n. (action of erring; mistake; wrong-doing) 'e?3?. 

emea n. (larva; caterpiller) i'?ou-k3. 

erndite n. (learned; scholarly) 'ezro-dait. 

erudition n. (learning; scholarship) ero'di^dn. 

eruginous adj. I'rou-dsi-nss. same meaning as aeruginous. 

eruption n. (a bursting forth; outbreak; breaking out) 
I'rApSan. 

erysipelas n. (febril disease; the rose) eri'sipi-las, {rapidly) 
ezi'sipz.3s; {less properly) i^i'sips-las. 

escalade n. (a scaling of walls) esksleed. 

escallop n. [also spelt escalop; former synonymous cognate 
escollopi e'skadsp, e'skeldp. same meaning as scallop. 

esoalloped adj. having the edge cut in scallops or segments 
of circles; also, of oysters, scallopt [also spelt escaloped, 
escalop tl e'skxlspt, c'skelapt. 

escapade n. (act of escaping; caper) esks'peed. 

escape v, (gain one's liberty by flight ; issue ; find egress) 
e'skeep, {rapidly) I'skeep. 

escliatology n. (doctrin of final things : namely, death, judg- 
ment, heaven, hell) cska'tela-dsi, 

esobeat n. (lapsing of land to ruler or state) es'tjiit, {rapid- 
ly) is'tSiit. 

eschenv v. avoid; shun [past participle and preterit es- 
chewed, eschewdi cs'tSou, {rapidly) is'tSou. 

escort n. (armd accompaniment; gard) 'e-ske^t. 

escort V. (accompany, etc.) e'skorrt, {rapidly) i'ske:?t. 

escritoire n. writing-desk [also spelt escritoir"] esk^i'tiuorr, 
eslrai'tujc:?, esk^i'tiua:^ ; 'esksi-tiue?. 

c: law, b: fur, x cat, e h^t, ei hoy; a: far, ao noiu, bl*. q^V.> ^\V.\\.^% 
\cngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souxv^ \^ V>xvv* 
tress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWovjitv^ «^WaiX\e:. 



190 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

escntclieon n. (shield with armorial bearings) e'skAtS^n, 

(rapidly) I'skAtSan. 
eserine n. alkaloid [also, sometimes, spelt eserini 'ess-rin, 

'es3-?ain. 
esker n. post-glacial gravel-ridge [also spelt eskar, escarl 

'eskazr. 
Esldmo n. one of an arctic race [also spelt Esquimau', plo?- 

al Eskimos, Eskimo, Esquimaux'] 'eski-mo. 
esnecy n. inheritance-right of first-born daughter [also spelt 

aesnecyl 'esNi-si. 
esophageal adj. of the esophagus [also spelt oesophageal"] 

isD'faedsi-al. 
esophagus n. gullet [also spelt oesophagus] I'sefs-gas. 
esoteric adj. (inner; for the select few; secret; profound) 

css'te^ik. 
espalier n. (trelliswork; lattice) e'spxl'idz. 
especial adj, (special; preeminent) e'spejal, (rapidly) I'spe- 

S3l. 
espial n. (action of espying; fact of being espied) e'spai-sl, 

(rapidly) I'spai-al. . 
espionage n. spying; employing spies [also spelt espionnage'\ 

'espi-3-nid3, espi-a'nars, 'espi-9-na:3. 
esplanade n. (level space) espz.9'need. 
esprit n. (spirit, wit, aptitude) e'spsii. 

esqnamate adj. (not squamate; without scales) i'skiuee-met. 
Esqnin&an n. [ploral Esquimaux] 'eski-mo. same meaning as 

Eskimo. 
Esquimanx n. (ploral of Esquimau) 'cski-mo. 
esquire n. (gentleman of rank) e'skwaiz, (rapidly) I'sktuoi?, 

(anteriorly, especially as a title) skiuai?; (also, vulgarly) 

'e-skiuai?. 
ess n. letter [also spelt es, S; ploral esses] rs. 
essay n. trial; test; attempt; dissertation [ploral essays] 

'e-se. 
essay v, (try; test; undertake) 'e-se, e'see. 
essayist n. (one who essays: essay-writer) 'e-se-ist. 
essence n. (entity; substance; extract") 'rsans. 
Essene n. (one of a Jewish sect in Palestine in the second 

century before Christ) e'siin. 
essential adj. (that is such by essence ; necessary ; of the na- 
ture of an extract) e'senSal, e'sentSal. 
essoin n. excuse for non-appearance [also spelt essoign] 

p/sein. 

/ ve, Q cure : d the. 9 ^^in ; 3 a^ure, d^ joy ; 5 shoe, \\ chew; 
wwAen; tjsinff; u wh<?ever, i react, d^uVl, owiool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; a over, e aerial, Abut» o*. doot, ;iOtvo, ^>Qe^, tt^oX.t\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 191 

estaf et n. mounted courier [also spelt estafette"} estd'fet. 
estate n. (state; condition; status; rank; interest; class; 

property) e'steet, (rapidly) I'steet; (vulgarly) 'e-stet. 
estkete n. one who appreciates beauty; person of artistic 

sense [also spelt aesthete'} 'es-6iit, 'lis-Oiit. 
estbetio adj. of appreciation of beauty; tasteful [also spelt 

aesthetic} es'Getik, (rapidly) I'sGetik; (also, in Britain) 

li'sOetik, (and, less often) es'0ii-tik, li'sGii-tik. 
estival adj. of summer [also spelt aestivall 'csti-vsl, e'stai- 

vsl, i'stai-v3l. 
estivate v, pass the summer [also spelt aestivatel 'esti-vet, 

'li-sti-vet. 
estiTation. n. [also spelt aestivation} esti'vee-S^n, li-sti'vee- 

$9n. 
estuary n. (tidal inlet, creek, or river-mouth) 'est^u-ezi, 

'est5u-3-ri. 
eta n. (Greek letter) 'li-ts, 'ee-ts. 
etacism n. (the Erasmian pronunciation of Greek eta as ee 

instead of li) 'ee-ts-sizam. 
^tagdre n. (piece of furniture with shelves) Qt^'iz'.z. 
et cetera phrase, n. and the rest ; and so forth ; and so on 

[also spelt et caetera, etcetera ; plural, when used as a noun, 

etceteras} et'seta-^a, (rapidly) it'setja. 
etcli V. engrave by corroding [past participle and preterit 

etched, etcht} etj. 
eternize v. make eternal ; perpetuate ; immortalize [also spelt 

eternise} i'tB?-nai2, 'li-tazr-naiz. 
ethene n. (hydrocarbon) 'e-6in, 'ii-9in. 
ether n. sky; air; spatial medium; volatil liquid [also spelt 

aether} 'li-Ga?. 
ethereal adj. of ether; airy; celestial [also spelt etherial and, 

formerly, aethereal} i'Qv.-z\-^\. 
etherealize v, [also spelt etherialise and, formerly, aetherea- 

lize, aetherealise, aetherialize, aetherialise} i'6i:-z:i-a-}aiz. 
etherean adj. ethereal [also spelt etherian, aetherean, aethe- 

rian} i'0i:-d-3n. 
etherene n. ethylene [also spelt etherine} 'li-Qs-zin. 
ethereons adj. [also spelt etherious} i'9i:-ri-3s. 
etherization n. [also spelt etherisation, aetherisation} li- 

63ri'zee-S3n, li-Ga-jrai'zee-S^n. 
ethide n. [also, sometimes, spelt ethid} 'eOid, 'e-8aid, 'ii-6aid. 
etliine n. [also, sometimes, spelt ethin} 'e6in, 'e-6ain, 'ii-9in, 

'ii-6ain, 'e-6in, 'ii-6in. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, qo tvcwj, bl*. a^, ^\V\\.^\ 
\Bngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somw^ \^ \^xvsk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\ovi\tv^ s^^^iJ^^' 



192 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Etliiopio adj. (of Ethiopia; Ethiopian) ii-9i'epik. 
etlinoKrapliy n. (description of the races of mankind) eO- 

'neg?3-fi. 
ethyl n. radical [also, formerly, spelt ethyle"] 'c9il. 
etiolate v, (render pale; blanch) 'li-ti-s-let. 
etiology n. study of causes [also spelt aeHology} li-ti'ets-dsi, 

cti'ela-dsi. 
etiqnette n. (polite behavior, etc.) 'cti-ket, eti'ket. 
Etnean adj. of Mount Etna [also spelt Aetnean} et'nii-an. 
^tnde n. (study, lesson) e'tgoud. 
^tni n. 3mall case [also spelt etweel e'tu^ii. 
etsrmologry n. (word-study; word-history) eti'mela-dsi. 
encalsrptiis n. (tree; shrub) jukaliptas. 
encharist n. (communion; thanksgiving) 'jou-k9-?ist. 
enchre n. card-game [also, formerly, spelt eucre'\ 'jou-kae. 
linelidean adj, of the Greek mathematician Euclid [also, 

sometimes, spelt Euclidian} jo'kMdi-an, jukti'dii-an. 
Enelidean adj. of Euclid or Eukleides, Archon Eponsrmos of 

Athens [synonymous cognate Eukleideani jo'kLidi-an, 
eudemonism n. doctrin of happiness [also spelt eudaemo- 

nisml jo'dii-ma-nizam. 
enhen&erism n. doctrin that the Greek gods were deified 

heroes [synonymous cognate euemerisml jo'hii-ma-rizam. 
enlogia n. (eucharist, etc.) jo'loo-dsi-d. 
enloginm n. eulogy [ploral eulogiumsl jolDO-dsi-am. 
enlogize v. extel, praise [also spelt eulogise! 'jou-la-dsaiz. 
enlogy n. (commendatory speech; praise) 'jou-la-dsi. 
ennncli n. (castrated person of the male sex; harem-atten- 
dant; singer) 'jou-nak. 
enpheiiiism n. (fair speech; pleasant expression) 'jou-fi- 

mizsm. 
enplionic adj. (sounding well; of euphony) jo'fonik. 
enphony n. (pleasantness of sound ; ease of pronunciation) 

'jou-fa-ni. 
enphrasy n. (eyebright, a plant) 'jou-f^a-si. 
enphroe n. crowfoot deadeye [also spelt uphroel 'jou-fso. 
enplmism n. (highflown language) 'jou-fiu-izsm. 
enpliiiistic adj. (like euphuism; highflown) jufiu'istik. 
enpione n. oily liquid [also, sometimes, spelt eupioni jo'pai- 

an, 'jou-pi-3n, jo'pii-3n, jo'pai-on, 'jou-pi-on. 
Enrasian adj. (of Eurasia, or Europe and Asia taken to^ 

gether) jo'^ee-Jan, jo'zee-$^n. 
enreka interj. (I have found it !) joVii-ka. 

/.ve, Qcure; d the, Q thin-, jasure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; rfsittff; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, vjMiooV, \\\, \\^€€; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, Abut, o*. doot, t^oivo, t\ic^, ^^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 193 

enripiM n. strait or sea-channel in which the currents are 

violent [plural euripi"} jo'?ai-p3s. 
Enroelydon. n. (levanter; northeaster) jo'zekz.i-d9n. 
European adj, (of Europe) jojs'pii-sn; (improperly) jo'roo- 

pi-an. 
Eostacliiaai adj, (of the Italian anatomist Eustachio) jo- 

'stfce-ki-an; (erroneously) jo'staetSi-an. 
entazy n. obsolete (good order) 'jou-taeksi. 
enthanaaia n. (gentle and easy death, etc.) ju63^nee-S3) 

ju93'nce-53, juGs'nee-si-s, juOs'nee-zi-a, juOs'nee-Ji-a, juOa- 

'nee-si-a; (rarely) ju03'na:-si-3, juOs'nxsi-d. 
entbanasy n. (euthanasia) jo'Saens-si, 'juu-63-nezi. 
evanesoe v, (fade away; disappear) evs'nes. 
eTansel m. gospel [also spelt evangilel I'vaendsil. 
evangelio adj. (of the gospel) ivccn'dsehk, evdnMsehk. 
evangelisation n. [also spelt evangelisationi i-vaendsih'zee- 

Ssn, i-vandsi-lai'zee-Ssn. 
evangelise v, [also spelt evangelisel I'vxndsi-laiz. 
evaporate v, (turn into vapor) i'vaep9-?et. 
evasion n. (escape ; subterfuge) I'vee-ssn. 
evasive adj. [also spelt evasivl I'vee-siv, I'vee-ziv. 
eve n. (evening; time just preceding an event) liv. 
even adj, (flat, plain, smooth, uniform) 'ii-v9n. 
evening n. (close of the day) 'liv-niq ; (improperly) 'li-va- 

niq. 
evening n., adj. (making even) 'li-va-niq, 'liv-niq. 
evenness n. (quality of being even ; smoothness) 'li-vsn-nis. 
eventual adj. (like an evetit; that will arise or take place in 

a particular contingency) I'ventju-al, i'ventgu-9l. 
everlasting adj. (lasting forever; eternal; incessant) evss:- 

laz-stiq, (assumptivly) 'evazr-lai-stiq. 
evermore adv, (for all future time) evs^'mo:?, (sometimes, 

anteriorly) 'eva^-mo:?. 
eversion n. (a turning outward, or inside out) i'vB7$9n. 
every adj. (each, etc.) 'ev^i, (less often) 'ev3-?i. 
everybody n. 'ev?i-bedi, (when less strest) 'ev^i-badi; (also, 

rarely) 'cvari-bedi. 
every-day adj. evzi'dee, (assumptivly) 'evei-dce, (rarely) 

'evari-dee, (when less strest) 'ev?i-de, 
everyvrbere adv, (in every place) 'evzi-wtiz, (rarely) 'eva^i- 

voziz. 
evident adj. (obvious; clear; plain) 'cvi-dnt, 'evi-dant, 
evil fi. (bad, wicked, etc.) 'li-val, (less properly) 'li-vil. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, 01 hoy ; a: far, ao now, b:. ask, ^\V.\\fc\ 
\Bngth-mark (:) indicates that the precedmv^ souiv^ \s \^xv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress On ^^ ioWovJiti^ s^>\;s5s^e.' 



194 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

evilly adv. (in an evil manner) 'li-val-h. 
evil-ininded adj. li-varmain-did, 'li-vdl-main-did. 
evilneM n. 'li-val-nis, 'ii-vi}-nis. 

evincible adj. that may be evinced; demonstrable Ealso, for- 
merly, spelt evinceablel I'vinsa-bal. 
eviscerate v. (remove the viscera from; disembowel) I'vi- 

sO'zet. 
evolntion. n. (unrolling* unfolding; development) evaliou- 

San; {dialectally) cvalou-San. 
evolve V, unfold; open out; extract; develop [also ispelt 

evolv; past participle and preterit evolved, evotvdl I'velv. 
emre n. (female sheep) jou. 
emrer n. (water-pitcher) 'jou-sr. 
exacerbate v, (embitter; aggravate; provoke) eg'zaesa^-bet, 

ek'saesar-bet. 
exact v„ adj. eg'zaekt ; {less properly) ek'saekt. 
ezacter n. one who enforces or exacts pay ; extortioner [also 

spelt exactor^ eg'zaektar. 
exactor n. (one who exacts, tax-collector, extortioner; exac- 

ter) eg'zaekta?. 
exaggerate v. (magnify; stretch, overcolor) eg'zaedsa-eet. 
exalt V. (raise high; elevate; extel) eg'zcrlt. 
exaltation n. egzcl'tee-^sn. 

examen n. (examination ; investigation) eg'zee-man. 
examination n. eg-zaemi'nee-$3n. 
examine v, test, investigate, question [also spelt examin\ 

past participle and preterit examined, examindl eg'zaemin. 
example n. (typical instance ; specimen ; warning) eg'zarm- 

pal, eg'za:m-p3l, eg'zaempal. 
exantbema n. skin-affection; exanthem [ploral exanthetna- 

tal eks3n'0ii-m3. 
exarcb n. (ruler of a distant province; prelate, legate) 'eks- 

a:^k, 'ek-sa:rk. 
exarcbate n. (office or province of an exarch) 'eksa?-ket, 

eg'zaizr-ket, ek'sa:r-ket. 
exarillate adj, (having no aril) eks'aeri-let ; (less properly) 

eksa'nlet. 
exasperate v, (embitter; intensify; enrage) eg'za:-sp3-ret, 

eg'z3esp3-ret. 
exasperation n. cg-zar-spa'ree-Han, eg-zjespa'^p.e-^an. 
excarnificate v. (obsolete) eks'kaizr-nifi-ket, ekskar'nifi-ket. 
exceed v, proceed beyond ; be greater than, surpass, outdo 

[also spelt excedel ek'siid. 

) ve, ccure; bthe. fftin; s asure, dxioy: S shoe, t^chew; 
ww^en; rising: u wh<?ever, i react. oii*\\, vjMiool, \\t, it see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, oidoor, •:iOTvo, t>ac^, ^e^^o.\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 195 

excel V, surpass others; outdo [present participle excelling', 

past participle and preterit excelled, exceld} ek'seL 
excellent adj, (that excels; extremely good) 'ekss-lsnt. 
excelsior adj, (higher, loftier) ek'selsi-ez, ek'se}si-3z. 
excelsior n. (shredded-wood packing-material) ek'selsi-9?, 

ek'selsi-e^, ek'selsi-oe. 
except V. (leave out; exclude; object) ek'sept, (rapidly, 

often) ik'sept, ksep, sep. 
excepter n. (obsolete) one who excepts or takes exception 

to [also spelt exceptor} ek'septs?. 
exceptor n. obsolete (an excepter; also, shorthand-writer; 

Roman officer) ek'sept^?, ek'sept^^. 
excerpt n. (extract; selection) ek'sei^pt, 'ek-SB3pt. 
excerpt v, (cull out; extract; quote) ek'sB:?pt, 'ek-sorpt. 
excess n. (outrage; intemperance; preponderance; surplus) 

ek'ses, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'ek-ses. 
exchange n. (interchange ; barter, etc.) ' eks't^eends, ek^^ 

'tjeends; (vulgarly) 'eks-tjends, 'ekJ-tSends. 
exchangeable adj, eks'tSeen-dsd-bs). 
exchequer n. (department and court of revenues; finances) 

eks'tjekar. 
excisable adj. dutiable [also spelt exciseablel ek'sai-zs-bdl. 
excisable adj. (fit to be excised or expunged) ek'sai-zd-bdl. 
excise n. (toll, tax, duty) ek'saiz ; (less properly) ek'sais, 'ek- 

saiz, 'ek-sais. 
excise v. (cut out, expunge) ck'saiz. 
exciseman n. [plural excisemen} ek'saiz-man. 
excitant adj, (that excites; stimulating) ek'sai-tnt, ^ 'eksi-tnt. 
excitation n. ek-sai'tee-Jan, eksi'tee-Jan. 
excitative adj. [also spelt excitativ} ek'sai-ta-tiv. 
exclamation n. (act of exclaiming, etc.) ekskL9'mee-$9n. 
exclaniatory adj, (that exclaims; noisy, etc.) ek'sktaema- 

t^^I, ek'sktaemata-^i, ek'skn-aema-tji. 
exclusive adj, [also spelt exclusivl ek'sktou-siv, ek'sktou- 

ziv. 
excrement n. (excreted substance; feces) 'eksk^i-mant. 
excrescence n. (outgrowth; superfluity) ek'slreesans. 
excretal adj. (excremental) ek'sksii-tl, 'ek-slreitJ. 
excrete v. (sift out; throw off; eliminate) ek'sksiit. 
excretin n. [also spelt excretine} ek'sksii-tin, 'eksksi-tin, 

'ek-sk^itin. 
excretive adj. [also spelt excretiv} ek'sksii-tiv, 'eksk^i-tiv, 

(rarely) 'ek-sk^itiv. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, © hot, ei hoy; a: for, qo ivotu, a.*. a^V, ^A.V\\fe% 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somtv^ a.^ \^tw^ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the i©\\o>«iTi% t;^\\^\^. 



1% DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

excretory adj, 'cksk:si-t03i, ek'sksii-ta-ri. 
ezomoiate v. (torture mentally) ek'sksou-Ji-et. 
exculpate v. (free from blame) ek'skA}-pet» 'eksksl-pet. 
ezcnrsion n. (a running out; expedition; deviation) ek'sksz- 

San, ek'skoi^-San, ek'skoir-san. 
ezonsable adj. ek'skguu-zd-bs}. 

ezcnse v. (apologize for; justify; pardon) ek'sk^ouz. 
execute v. (carry out; perform; put to death) 'eksi-kgut. 
ezecnter n. one who performs or carries into effect; a doer 

[also spelt executor'[ 'eksi-kQutae. 
ezecntion n. eksi'kQou-Ssn. 
ezecntive adj, [also spelt execuHv'\ eg'zekQo-tiv, {anteriorly) 

eg'zekgotiv. 
executor n. rarely, an executer or doer; usually, a person 

appointed to execute a will) eg'zekQo-tae, ek'sekQo-ta?. 
ezecntriz n. female executor [plural executricesi eg'zekgo- 

tjiks. 
ezedent adj, (eating out; consuming) 'eksi-dnt. 
ezedra n. portico; outdoor platform with steps [also spelt 

exhedra; ploral exedrael 'eksi-dra, ek'sii-dra. 
exegesis n. (explanation, interpretation, especially of Scrip- 
ture) eksi'dsii-sis. 
ezegete n. (expounder, interpreter) 'eksi-dsit. 
ezegetic adj. (of exegesis) eksi'dsetik. 
exemplar n. (example, model, type) eg'zempi-a?. 
exemplary adj, (typical; model) eg'zempL3-?i, (anteriorly) 

eg'zempta^i; (also) 'eksam-pi-eri, 'eg-zempL^-^I. 
exemplify v. (serve as an example of) eg'zempLi-fai. 
exempt adj. (free, clear, dispenst) eg'zempt. 
exemption n. (freeing; freedom) eg'zemp^sn. 
exequatur n. (recognition or authorization of an agent) 

eksi'ktuee-ta?. 
exeqny n. in the plural, funeral rights, obsequies; in the sin- 
gular, funeral hymn [ploral exequies'] 'eksi-ktui. 
exercisable adj. [also spelt exercisedble and, formerly, ex- 

ercisiblel 'eksae-sai-za-bal. 
exercise v. (put in action; employ, etc.) 'eks3?-saiz. 
exergue n. (small space or inscription outside the main work 

on a coin or medal) eg'zerrg, 'ek-serg. 
exert v. (put forth, bring into action) eg'zBirt. 
exertion n. (action of exerting or exercising; effort) eg- 

'zB^San, eg'zBir-Jan. 
'exeunt v. (they go out) 'eksi-Ant. 

j ye, Q cure ; 5 the, 9 thin ; 3 axrure, 6$ joy ; S shoe, tj cheyv ; 
wwAen; 13 sing; u wh<?ever, i react, o full, ouf<?ol, i it, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over ^ e aerial, Abut, o: doot^ :)oxvo, t\ie^, ^^^a\.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 197 



ex facie adv. (from the face; on the face; so far as appears 

from the document itself) eks'fee-Ji-i: . 
exhalation n. (action of exhaling; effluvium) eks-hs'lee-Ssn, 

eksa'lee-San, egza'lee-San. 
exkale v, (give forth in vapor; breath out) eks'heel; Qess 

properly) egz'heel, eg'zcel. 
exbalent adj„ n. eks'hee-tsnt. 
exliaast v. (draw out ; use up ; empty) eg'zc:st. 
exhaustible adj. eg'zc:-st9-b3}. 

exhanstion n. eg'zc:s-t$9n, eg'zc:S-tS3n, eg'zc:s-tg3n. 
exhaustive adj, [also spelt exhaustivl eg'zc:-stiv. 
exhibit v., n. (show, display) eg'zibit. 
exhibition n. (show, display, exposition) eksi'biSdn. 
exhibitive adj, [also spelt exhibitivl eg'zibi-tiv. 
exhibitor n. [also spelt exhibiterl eg'zibi-ta?. 
exhibitory adj. eg'zIbI-t^^I ; (also) eg'zibita-ei, (assump- 

tivly) eg'zibi-tari ; (rapidly) eg'zibi-tji. 
exhilarate v, (cheer; enliven) eg'zi}9-?et. 
exhort v. (urge, admonish) eg'zeiet, egz'herrt. 
exhortation n. (act of exhorting; incitement) ekse^^tee-^an, 

egzer'tee-San. 
exhortative adj. [also spelt exhortativ"] eg'zeir-ta-tiv. 
exhorter n. (one who exhorts) eg'ze:7-t37. 
exhnme v. (dig out of the ground; unearth) eks'hgoum, eg- 

'zjoum. 
exigeant adj. (exacting) egzi'sei], eksi'ser). 
exigence n. exigency [plural exigences'^ 'eksi-dsans. 
exigency n. pressing need [ploral exigencies^ 'eksidssn-si. 
exigible adj. (that may be exacted) 'eksidss-bsl. 
exigvity n. (scantiness, littleness) eksi'gjou-i-ti. 
exiguous adj. (scanty; small) eg'zigju-as, ek'sigju-as. 
exile n. (banishment) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail ; (formerly) eg'zai!. 
exile n. (banisht person) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail. 
exile V. (banish) 'ek-sail, 'eg-zail ; (formerly) eg'zail. 
exilian adj. (exilic) eg'ziH-sn, ek'sili-sn. 
exilic adj, (of exile) cg'zihk, ek'sihk. 
exility n. (shrunken condition; thinness; refinement) eg- 

'zih-ti, ek'sili-ti. 
exin&ious adj, (excellent; eminent) eg'zimi-ds. 
exinanition n. (an emptying ; exhausted condition ; humili- 
ation) egzina'niSan. eksina'nijan. 
exist V. (having being; be; live) eg'zist; (improperly) ek- 

'sist. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, qo now^ a*, a^, ^\VA,\.^\ 
lcngtb-in<jr/r (:) indicates that the preceding somu^ \s \e>xv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo-w^x^^ s^>\?iJc\^« 



198 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ezistenoe n. (being, etc.) eg'zistns, eg'zistdns. 
existential adj, (of existence) eksi'stent$9}, egzi'stent^s}; 

{in Britain) eksi'sten^d}, egzi'stenS?}. 
ezistible adj. (that can exist) eg'zista-bd}. 
exit n. (a going out) 'eksit; (improperly) 'egzit. 
ezitial adj, obsolete (fatal; dangerous) eg'ziSs}. 
ex libris n. from the books of [also spelt ex-librisl ekslai- 

bris. 
exogamy n. (marriage outside the clan) eks'egd-mi, ek'segs- 

mi. 
exogen n. (plant whose stem grows on the outside, in succes- 

siv concentric layers) 'eksa-dsin. 
exogenous adj, (growing on the outside; having the nature 

of an exogen) eks'edsi-nss, ek'sedsi-nss. 
exomis n. (tunic, chiton) ek'soo-mis. 
exonerate v, (relieve; free from blame; exculpate) eg'zens- 

zet. 
exonerator n. (one who exonerates) eg'zen^-zttsz. 
exoneretnr n. [in law, an order discharging the bail from 

liability [synonymous cognate exoneraturl eg-zena'rii-tar. 
exorable adj, (capable of being moved by entreaty) 'ekssrs- 

bal. 
exorbitant adj, (abnormal; grossly excessiv) eg'zeie-bi-tnt. 
exorcism n. (action of exorcizing or expelling evil spirits by 

conjurations, etc.) 'ekse^-sizam, eg'zoir-sizam. 
exorcist n. 'eksoe-sist, eg'zeie-sist. 

exorcize v. [also spelt exorcisel 'ekso^-saiz, eg'ze:r-saiz. 
exordium n. beginning, proem, prelude, preface [ploral ex- 
ordiums, exordial eg'z©:^-di-^m. 
exoscnlate v. (kiss) eg'zeskgo-let. 
ezosmose n. (exosmosis) 'ekses-mos, 'eksoz-mos. 
exosmosis n. (passage of a fluid outward thru a membrane) 

ekses'moo-sis, eksez'moo-sis. 
exoteric n. (external; open; popular) ekss'te^ik. 
exotic adj. (foreign) cgfzetik; (Jess properly) ek'setik. 
expansible adj, (that can be expanded) ek'spxnsd-bdl. 
expansile adj. that can be expanded; dilatable [also, some- 
times, spelt expansill ek'spaensil, ek'spaen-sail. 
expatiate v, (roam at large; speak at length; enlarge) ek- 

'spee-Si-et. 
expatriate v. (banish; leave one's nativ country) eks'pee- 

tji-et, eks'paetji-et. 
expede v. (send out) ek'spiid. 

JJ^e, gcure; d the, Qthin; sasure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^ chew; 
wwAen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, uiuu, \iMioo\, \\V ^v^ec; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o:doot, ootio, t\ic^, ^^^a\s.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 199 

expedient adj, (advantageous; advisable) ek'spii-di-dnt. 
expel V. drive or thrust out [present participle expelitng; 

past participle and preterit expelled, expeld} ek'spel. 
expense n. (money spent or paid out; disbursement; cost) 

ek'spents, ek'spens. 
experiment n. (tentativ procedure; test) ek'spe^i-nidnt. 
experimentalise v. [also spelt experimentalise} ek-spezri- 

'mentl-aiz. 
expert adj, (experienced; skilful) ek'spoi^t, (assumptivly) 

'ek-spB3t. 
expert n. (skilful person; specialist) 'ek-spsrt, ek'spB:zt. 
expirant n. (supposed breathing-organ in plants) ek'spai- 

zrsnt. 
expiration n. (breathing out; end, close) ekspd'ree-Ssn. 
expiratory adj, of expiration [in phonetics, spelt also ex- 

spiratory} ek'spai-?9-t3zi. 
expiry n. (death; end) 'ckspa-ei, ek'spai-?i. 
expli^n V, make plain ; interpret [past participle and preter- 
it explained, explaind} ek'spLeen. 
explanate adj. (spread out flat) 'ekspLS-net. 
explanation n. ekspLd'nee-Ssn. 
explanatory adj. (serving to explain) ek'sp^xna-tozi ; (also) 

ek'spLxnstd-^i, (assumptivly) ek'spi^aena-tari. 
expletive adj, serving to fill out; redundant [also spelt ex- 

pletivl 'ekspti-tiv, ek'spi-ii-tiv. 
explicable adj. (explainable) 'ekspLiks-bdl ; {improperly) ek- 

'spz^ikd-bdl. 
explicative adj, serving to explicate, unfold, or explain 

[also spelt explicativl 'ekspti-ketiv. 
explicatory adj. (explicativ) 'ekspi^ik^-tozi. 
explicit V, (it is unrolled; finis) 'ek-spLisit. 
explicit adj, (developt; definit; clear; express) ek'spLisit. 
exploit V, (work; make capital out of) ek'spz.eit. 
exploit n. (achievement; feat) 'ek-spz^eit, ek'spLeit. 
explorative adj. of exploration; inclined to explore [also 

spelt explorative ek'spLD:-23-tiv. 
exploratory adj. (of exploration or searching) ek'spz^o:-??- 

to^I, (assumptivly) ek'spLO-.-ra-tan ; {also) ek'spte^ata-ei. 
explorator n. (explorer) 'ekspi.o-zet9z. 
explosive adj. tending to explode, etc. [also spelt explosivl 

ek'spi-oo-siv, ek'spLoo-ziv. 
exponent n, (one who or that which explains; index) ek- 

'spoo-nant; {improperly) 'ek-sponant, 'ekspa-nant. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, go noiu, a,*. asV, ^\V.\\.^\ 
length-mark. (:) indicates that the preceding soun^ \^ \ati%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on th^ CoWo^itx^ s^\\a\>\e.* 



200 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ezponible adj. (that admits or requires explanation) ek'sp30- 

ns-ba}. 
export V, (send out or ship from one country to another) 

eks'pDirt, ek'spo:^t; (less properly) 'ek-spoet. 
export n. (exported article; exportation) 'ek-sport. 
exporter n. ^ek-spozt^z, eks'po:r-t3r, ek'spoiz-tsz. 
ezpos^ n. (recital of facts; exposure) ekspo'zee. 
expository adj. (of exposition; explanatory) ek'spezi-toei. 
expressible adj. capable of being exprest [also, formerly, 

spelt expressablel ek'spsesa-bal. 
exprobrate v. (obsolete) reproach, blame, condemn [syn- 
onymous cognate exprobatel eks'psoo-beet, 'ekspsa-bzet. 
expngnable adj. obsolete (that may be taken by force) ck- 

'spgou-na-bal, ek'spAgna-bal, 
expunge v. (strike out, erase, efface) ek'spAnds. 
expurgate v, (purify; purge; expunge) 'eksp3?-get, ek'spe:?- 

get. 
expnrgator n. 'ekspar-getd?, ek'spB:7-get3?. 
expnrgatory adj. (of expurgation) ek'spBir-ga-tori. 
exquisite adj. choice, elaborate, intense [also spelt exquisitl 

'ekskuji-zit, (assumptivly) 'ek-sktuizit ; (occasionally) ek- 

'skiuizit. 
exsert v. thrust forth; protrude [former synonymous cognate 

e.rertl ek'sBi^t, eks'sext. 
exsert adj. [former synonymous cognate exert} ek'sB:^t, eks- 

'sB:^t. same meaning as exserted. 
exserted adj. stretcht lorth; protruded; exsert [synonymous 

cognate exerted"] ek'sBre-tid, eks'sBisr-tid. 
exsiccant adj. (drying) ek'sikant. 
exsiccate v. (dry) ek'siket, 'eksi-ket. 
exsiooative adj. [also spelt exsiccativl ek'siks-tiv, eks'siks- 

tiv, 'eksi-ketiv. 
extant adj. (standing out; protruding; now being; still ex-: 

isting) ek'stsent, 'ek-staent. 
extemporization n. [also spelt extemporisation'] ek-stem- 

pan'zee-Jan, ek-stempa-^ai'zee-San. 
extemporize v. [also spelt extemporise] ek'stempa-^aiz. 
extempore adv. (on the spur of the moment; offhand) ek- 

'stempa-^i, eks'tempa-ri ; (improperly) ek'stempo?. 
extendible adj, (capable of being extended ; extensible ; also, 

subject to seizure under a writ of extent) ek'stenda-baJ. 
extensible adj. (capable of being extended; extensil, pro- 

trusil) ek'stensa-bal. 

j\ve. gcure; dthe, Qthin; sa^ure, ds/oy; ^ shot, tjc/jew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, Diu\\, \iMioo\, \\t, it see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, ootio, «.>oc^, «.^^a\s.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 201 



extension n. (action of extending; range) ek'sten^dn. 

extent n. (valuation; seizure; size; scope) ek'stent. 

extern adj, (outer, external) ek'stsi^n. 

extinct adj. (put out; extinguisht; that has died out) ek- 
'stiqkt, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'ek-stiqkt. 

extirpate v. (root out, eradicate) 'ekstar-pet, ck'starpet. 

extirpator n. 'ekst9?-pet37, ek'stsr-pets?. 

extol V. raise aloft; praise; eulogize [present participle ex- 
tolling ; past participle and preterit extolled, extoldl ek'stel, 
ek'staoi. 

extra adj., n,, adv. 'ekstja ; (dialectally) 'ckstji. 

extract n. (essence, tincture; excerpt) 'ek-stsaekt 

extract v. (draw out; pick out) ek'stsaekt. 

extraditable adj. ekstssMai-td-bdl. 

extradite v. (give up; deliver up) 'ekstja-dait. 

extrados n. (outer or upper curve of an arch) ek'stgee-des. 

extraordinary adj. (out of the ordinary; unusual, excep- 
tional) ek'st jeir-dn-eei ; (less properly) eksti^'eiz-dn-ezi. 

extravaganza n. (extravagant or fantastic composition; bur- 
lesque) ek-st£aev3'gaenz3, ek-stjaeva'gaendza. 

extravasate v. (let out; escape) ek'stsaeva-set. 

extrorse adj. (turned outward) ek'stjei^s. 

extmde v. (thrust out ; ex^el ; protrude) ek'stjoud. 

exnberant adj, (prolific, overflowing, diffuse) eg'zjou-ba- 
33nt, ek'sQou-b3-23nt, eg'sou-ba-^ant. 

exndate n. (exude) 'eksgo-det, ek'sgou-det; (less properly) 
'egzjo-det. 

exudation n. an exuding [also, formerly, spelt exsudation"] 
eksgo'dee-San. 

exnde v. (ooze out) eg'zjoud, ek'sgoud. 

exnlcerate v, (ulcerate; aggravate) eg'zAlsa-zret. 

exnlt V, (rejoice; triumph) cg'zxlt; (improperly) ek'sAlt. 

exultant adj. (exulting) eg'zAltnt. 

exultation n. eksAl'tee-Ssn, egzAl'tee-$9n. 

exultingly adv. cg'zAltir)-h. 

exuviae n. pL (cast skins, etc.) eg'zjou-vi-i: , ek'scou-yi-i: . 

exuviate v. (shed exuviae; mold) eg'zjou-vi-et, ek'sgou-vi-et. 

eyas n. (young hawk; nias) 'ai-9s. 

eye n. (organ of vision) ax. 

eye v. fix the eye on ; view [present participle eying, eyeing ; 
past participle and preterit eyed"] ai. 

eyelet n. (small hole ; loophole ; small eye) 'ai-lat. 

eye-'witness n. [also spelt eyewitness"] 'ai-witNis, ai'witNis. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, au now, a*, osk, %\V\\fc\ 
]engtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutvd \^ \e>Tv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the foWovjitis s^W^X^e* 



202 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

eyot n. 'ee-9t. same meaning as ait. 
eyra n. (wild cat, Felis eyra) 'ai-^a. 
eyre n. (journey, circuit) e:z. 

eyry n. [also spelt eyrie} 'ei-zi, 'ii-zi, 'ai-zi. same meaning 
as aery. 



f abif orm adj, (bean-shaped) 'fee-bi-fe:;m. 

fabulist n. (one who relates fables) 'fsebjo-hst. 

fabnlize v, invent fables, etc [also spelt fabulisel 'faebjo- 
laiz. 

facade n. (face ; principal front) f a'said, fae'sa:d, f se'seed. 

facet n. little face [also spelt facette'\ 'fsesit. 

facet V, cut facets on [present participle faceting, facetting; 
past participle and preterit faceted, facetted"] 'faesit. 

facetiae n. pi, (humorous sasrings ; witticisms) fs'sii-Si-i: • 

facetious adj. (jocular; waggish) fa'sii-S^s. 

facial adj. (of the face) 'fee-Sal, 'fee-Si-al. 

facient n, (one who does anything; doer) 'fee-Jant, 'fee-Ji- 
ant, 'feeS-jant. 

facies n. aspect, appearance [ploral facies] 'fee-Si-i:z. 

facile adj. easy; yielding; dextrous [also spelt facill 'faesil. 

facility n. (ease; opportunity; dexterity) fa'sih-ti. 

facsimile n. copy; counterpart [ploral facsimiles'] faek'simi- 
h, (older) faek'simi-H. 

factions adj. (given to faction; seditious) 'faekSds. 

factitious adj. (got up; artificial) fxk'tiSds. 

factory n. (trading-station; manufactory) 'faekta-n, (anteri- 
orly) 'faektari, (rapidly) 'faektji. 

f acnla n, bright spot on the sun [ploral faculael 'faek^o-la. 

faeces n, pi. 'f li-siz. see feces. 

faecnla n. 'fekgo-ld. see fecula. 

faerie n. archaic [also spelt faery"} 'fee-a-ri, 'fe:-?i. same 
meaning as fairy. 

fagot n. bundle of sticks or twigs [also spelt faggot} 'faegat 

Fabrenbeit adj. 'faeran-hait, 'fa:-?3n-hait. 

faience n. pottery [also spelt fayence} fa'jeqs, 

faikes n. rock [also spelt fakes} feeks. 

faille n. (ribd silk) feeJ, 'fa:-i. 

fain adj, (glad) feen. 

faineancy n. (quality of being faineant; sloth) 'fee-ni-an-si. 

faineant n. idler, loafer [also spelt faineant} fene'eq. 

fj'e, gcure; d the, Q thin] jastLte, d-sjo^; ^sKo^, t^c^ew; 
wwhen; T)sing\ u whoever, 1 react, \3iu\V ^m^ooV \'\V \\^ec\ * 
o poetic; 9oveT, e aerial. Abut, o;dooT, ;>otio, t\icd, ^«i^o!«:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 203 

faint adj, (feeble, inclined to swoon) feent. 

fair adj. (beautiful, favorable, honest) fe:?. 

fair M. (market, sale, exhibition) ie:z, 

fairy n,, adj. [also, sometimes, archaically spelt faerie, faeryi 

'fc:-3i; {dialectally) ^itt-zi; (formerly) 'ice-^-zi. 
faker n. (one who fakes; surf man who fakes the shot-lines 

in a faking-box) 'fee-kar. 
faker n. (thief; one who deals in fakes; street-vender; 

theatrical hanger-on) 'fee-ka?. 
fakir n. Mohammedan mendicant ; Hindu ascetic ; yogi [also 

spelt fakeer, faquirl 'fee-ka?, fa'ki:?, ix'kiiz. 
falcate adj, (like a sickle; hookt) 'fsel-ket. 
falckion n. (sword) 'fc:}-tS3n, 'fc:l-$9n. 
falcon n. (hawk, etc.) 'foksn, 'fcil-ksn, 'fa^ksn. 
falconer n. (one who hunts with or trains falcons) 'fc:-k9- 

n^z. 
falconet n. (piece of ordnance; shrike) 'fc:-k3-n3t, 'fxlks- 

nat, 'fc:l-k3-n3t. 
faloonine adj, (like a falcon or hawk) 'faelks-nain, 'fselks- 

nin. 
falconry n. (hawking) 'fc:-k<3n-zri. 
fall V. (drop, descend, etc.) fc:l, (when unstrest) fcl. 
fallaoions adj. (containing a fallacy) fs'lee-^as. 
fallacy n. (deceptivness ; error) 'faela-si. 
fallal n. piece of finery ; trifling ornament ; affectation [also 

spelt fal-lal] ixTlxl, falal. 
fallen adj. (that has dropt; mind) 'fc:-lan, 'fc:-ln. 
fallible adj, (liable to err; unreliable) 'faeld-bsl, (anteriorly) 

'faelabal. 
fallomr n. (uncropt ground, etc.) 'faelo. 

false adj, (erroneous; deceitful; spurious) fcrls, fcilts; fels. 
falsetto n. (forced voice; head voice) fcl'seto. 
familiar adj. (of one's family; intimate; well-known; free) 

fa'miHar. 
familiarity n. fa-mirjaeri-ti, fa-miU'a^i-ti. 
familiarization n. [also spelt familiarisation'] fs-milid^i- 

'zee-Jan, fa-miHa-rai'zee-San. 
familiarize v. [also spelt familiarise] fa'miHd-^aiz. 
family n. (household-group; kindred) 'faemi-li, (anteriorly) 

'faemih, (rapidly) 'faemh. 
famine n. scarcity of food; hunger; starvation [also spelt 

famin] 'faemin. 
fanatic n. (unreasoning enthusiast; visionary) fa'naetik. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, ^^ ask, ^^V.\\fc% 
lengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ somtv^ \^ \^xv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress oti t\ie io\\o^\x^^ «^3>\?;!^^ 



204 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

f anatioize v. render fanatic ; act as a fanatic [also spelt fa- 

naticise'i fa'naeti-saiz. 
fanaticism n. (excessiv enthusiasm) fs'nseti-sizdm. 
fancy n. (imagination; notion; liking) 'faensi, 'faentsi. 
fandango n. dance, tune, ball [ploral fandangos'^ faen'dxi]- 

go, faen'daeq-go. 
fane n. (temple) feen. 

fanfare n. (flourish, call, tune) 'faen-fe:?, faen'ferzr. 
fanfaronade n. brag; ostentation [also spelt fanfaronnadel 

faenfara'need, faenfae^a'need. 
fantasia n. (fanciful composition) faentd'zii-s, fxn'ta:-zi-3. 
fantasied adj. fanciful [also spelt phantasied] 'fxntd-sid. 
fantassin n. (heavy-armd foot-soldier) 'faenta-sin. 
fantast n. visionary [also spelt phantast"} 'faen-taest. 
fantastic adj. fanciful; capricious [also spelt phantastici 

faen'taestik. 
fantasy n. imagination ; whimsical notion ; caprice [also 

spelt phantasy; ploral fantasies'] 'faenta-si. 
fantoccini n,pL (puppets) faente'tSii-ni. 
f aqnir n. 'f ee-ka?. see fakir, 
far adv. at or to a great distance ; largely ; widely [compara- 

tiv farther, further; superlativ farthest, furthest] ia:z, 

(when unstrest) far; {dialectally) fe:?. 
farad n. (electric capacity-unit) 'fae-zraed, 'fae^ad. 
Faradaic adj, (of the English physicist Michael Faraday) 

fae?3'dee-ik. 
faradic adj. (of inductiv electricity) fa'^aedik. 
fare n. (price of passage) fe:?. 
faremrell adj. (of a farewell; good-by) fei^'wel, (assumptiv- 

ly) 'fe:?-weJ. 
far-fetched adj. brought from afar; straind [also spelt far- 

fetcht] fair'fetSt, (assumptivly) 'fa:r-fetSt. 
farina n. (starch, fecula; pollen) fsVai-ns. 
farina n. (a granular preparation of white maize, finer than 

hominy) fa'^ii-na. 
farinaceons adj. (of flour; starchy; mealy) fae^i'nee-Sos. 
farinose adj. (yielding farina; starchy; floury) fae^i'noos, 

(assumptivly) 'fae^i-nos. 
farmstead n. [also spelt farmstedl 'for^m-sted. 
faro n. card-game [also spelt pharaoh, pharoah, pharo] 'izi- 

zOy 'fe:-?o. 
f ar-of f a(f/. fa:^'e:f, (assumptivly) 'fa:?-e:f. 
farrago n. (medley; hodgepodge) fa'^ee-go, fa'^ee-go. 

J ye, pcure; bthe, Q thin; $ azure, d^/oy; ^ shoe, tSr/tew; 
wze/Aen; 13 sing; u wh<7ever, i react, oiuU, oMiool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; oover, e aerial. Abut, o: door, 00 no, t,>ac^, t.e^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 205 

farrier n. (one who shoes horses) 'ixzi-sz. 

farther adv, (comparativ of far) 'iaiz-d^z; {dialectally) 'fa:- 
da^. see far. 

fartltingale n. (hoopt petticoat) 'fa:7-din-gee}, 'fa:7-dio-gceL 

fasces n. (ploral of fascis) 'fx-siz. 

fasoet n. (rod used in glass-making; also, faucet) 'fxsit. 

fascia n. band [ploral fasciae and, in architectural senses, 
also fascias] 'faeja, 'faeji-a, 'faeSja. 

fasciflil adj. (of the Roman fasces) 'faeSal, 'faeSi-al. 

fasciation n. (binding with fasciae; fascia) fae$i'ee-$3n. 

fascicle n. (bunch, bundle, cluster) 'fsesi-kal. 

fasoinatioii n. (enchantment) fsesi'nee-^an. 

fascine n. (fagot) fa'siin. 

fascis n. bundle [plural fascesl 'fsesis. 

fasldonable adj. (conformable to fashion; stylish) 'fae^dnd- 
bal, (assumptivly) 'faeSa-nabal ; (rapidly) 'faeSNa-bal, {assump- 
tivly) 'faeSNsbaJ. 

fast adj. (firm; rapid) fa:st, fa:st, f£:st. 

fasten v. make fast; fix [past participle and preterit fas- 
tened, fastendl 'fa:-s3n, 'fa:-san, 'fae:-s3n. 

fastener n. (one who or that which fastens) 'fa:-s9-n97, 'fa:- 

SN3?. 

fastening n. 'fa:-s3-nir), 'fa:-sNii]. 

fastidious adj. (squeamish; over-nice) faes'tidi-as. 

fata Morgana n. (mirage) fa:-t9-me?'ga:-n9. 

fatal adj. (like fate ; fateful ; deadly) 'fee-tl, 'fee-tal. 

fate n. (destiny) feet. 

father n. (male parent) 'fa-.-dar; (dialectally) 'fai-dar. 

fatig^ne n. (weariness) fa'tiig. 

fatnity n. (folly) fa'tgou-i-ti. 

fatnons adj, (foolish; idiotic) 'faetju-as, 'faetQu-as. 

fanbonrg n. (suburb) 'foo-bo^g, 'foo-bo?. 

f ances n. pi. (throat, gullet) 'fc:-siz. compare faux. 

faucet n. barrel-tap; stop-cock; spigot [dialectal synony- 
mous cognates fascet, fossetl 'fc:-sit; (dialectally) 'faesit, 
'fesit. 

fangh inter j. (expressing disgust) fc: . 

fanlt n. (defect; error; culpability; break) fc:lt; (dialectal- 
ly) felt. 

fann n. (rural deity) fc:n. 

fanna n. the total of the animal life of a region or period 
[ploral faunae, faunas'^ 'fc:-na. 

fanx n. (singular of fauces) fc:ks. sam e meaning as fauces. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a. osk, ^\V\\.^^ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound \^ \^W\ 
stress-mark () indicates chief stress on the foWovjiiis s^\\^\iVv^ 



206 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

f anx pas n. (false step, mistake) fo'po: . 

favor n. good will ; etc. [also spelt favourl 'fce-v^r. 

favorable adj, [also spelt favourable] 'fee-vssa-b^, (rapidly) 

'fee-vra-bal. 
favorite n., adj. [also spelt favourite, favorit] 'f ce-va-eit, 

(anteriorly) 'fee-varit, (rapidly) 'fce-v?it. 
faDTn t/. show fondness; cringe [past participle and preterit 

fawned, fawndl fc:n. 
faDTn n, (young deer) fc:n. 
fay n. (fairy, elf) fee. 
fay n. (faith, religious belief) fee. 
fay n. surface-cleanings from soil; dross [also spelt feigh, 

feagh, fee, feyl fee. 
fay v. (fit; fill up; suit) fee. 
fay V, (local) clean out, as a ditch ; clean ; winnow [also spelt 

f^y* feigh and, formerly, feel fee. 
fayalite n. (mineral) 'fee-a-lait, 'fai-3-lait, fai'a:-lait. 
faze V. disturb [also spelt phase] feez. 
fealty n. (fidelity to a lord; loyalty) 'fii-al-ti. 
fear n. (alarm, etc.) fi:?, fia. 
feasible adj. (practicable) 'fii-za-bal. 
feat n. (exploit) fiit. 

featber n. plume, etc. [also spelt f ether] 'fcda?. 
febrifugal adj. fi'b^ifio-gal, 'febri-fiugal, febri'fioti-gd!. 
febrifuge n. (medicin that reduces fever) 'feb^i-fiuds. 
febrile adj. of fever [also spelt febril] 'fii-b?il, 'febril. 
February n. (month) '{ehzu-tzi; (also) 'febru-a-ri, (anterior- 
ly) 'ichzu-^zi; (also, erroneously) 'febju-e?i, 'febu-8?i. 
f eoal adj. of feces [also spelt faecal] 'fii-kal. 
feces «. pi. sediment ; excrement [also spelt faeces] 'f li-siz. 
fecit V, ( . . . made it : an expression used after the artist's 

signature on works of art) 'fii-sit. 
fecnla n. starch [also spelt faecula; ploral feculae] 'fekgo-la. 
feonlenoe n. foulness [also, formerly, spelt feculance] 'fe- 

kgo-lans. 
fecnnd adj. (prolific; fertil) 'fe-kxnd, 'fii-kAnd, fi'kAnd. 
fecundate v. (render fruitful; impregnate) 'fekan-det, 'fii- 

kan-det, fi'kAndet. 
f ecnndation n. fekan'dee-Ssn, fikdn'dee-Jdn. 
federalization n. [also spelt federalisation] fedd-rsli'zee- 

San, (rapidly) fedrah'zee-San ; (also) fedazra-lai'zee-San. 
f ederiUize v. [also spelt federalise] 'feddrs-laiz. 
feet n. (ploral of foot) fiit. 

} ye, pcure; d f/»e, 8 */iin;^ 3 axrure, dsf'oy; ^ sho^, tScfcew; 
wwhen; rising', u whoever, i react, xiiuu, \iMioo\, T\t, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, ;>: doot, 00 no, «.\ie^, tt^oJ«:\ 






# 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 207 

reign. V, invent, simulate [past participle and preterit feigned, 
feigndl feen. 

feignedly adv, 'fee-ni-dh. 

feint adj, counterfeit, feigned [also, but rarely now, spelt 
fainf] feent. 

feldspar n. mineral [also, sometimes, spelt felspar] 'fe!- 
spa:?, 'feld-spa:?. 

felicity n. (happiness, bliss) fi'hsi-ti. 

feline adj. (of cats; cat-like) 'fii-lain, {rarely) 'fii-hn. 

fellah n. peasant [plural fellahs, fellaheen! 'fela. 

feller n, (one who or that which fells) 'felae. * 

felloe n, [ploral felloes] 'feb. same meaning as felly, 

fellomr n. (comrade; person) 'fclo; (dialectally and vulgarly) 
'fela. 

felly n. the rim of a wheel [synonymous cognate felloe ; plor- 
al fellies'! 'feh. 

female adj, (of the sex which bears offspring; of women) 
'fii-meel, {when less strest) 'f li-mel. 

femerel n. lantern, louvre, or dome over a kitchen [also 
spelt femerell; synonymous cognate fumerelll 'fema-^al. 

femineity n. (female nature; feminality) fcmi'nii-i-ti. 

feminine adj. female, etc.; womanly [also, sometimes, spelt 
feminin} 'femi-nin; {less properly) 'femi-nain. 

femoral adj, (of the femur or thigh) 'fema-ral; {improperly) 
'fii-m3-?3l. 

femnr n, thigh-bone [ploral femurs, femoral 'fii-ma?. 

fence n. fents, fens. 

f enoible adj, capable of making defense ; strong ; belonging 
to the corps called fencibles [also, formerly, spelt fensible, 
fensablej 'fensa-bal. 

Fenian n. one of the warriors or champions of Ireland in 
the time of Finn [also, sometimes, spelt Fennian ; synony- 
mous cognate Finniani 'fii-ni-an, 'feni-an; (member of the 
brotherhood founded in New York in 1857) 'fii-ni-an. 

fennec n, African fox [also spelt fennels'] 'fenik. 

fennel n. (plant) 'fenl. 

fenugreek n. plant [also spelt foenugreek ; synonymous cog- 
nate fenugreek] 'fenjo-g^iik. 

feod n, fgoud. see feud. 

feoff V. invest with a fief, fee, or feud; enfeoff; present [al- 
so, formerly, spelt feff] fef, fiif. compare fief, n. 

feoffee n. (person who is enfeoft) fe'fii. 

feoffer n. one who enfeoffs [also spelt feoffor] 'fefa?. 

c: law, b: iur, x cat, &hot, ei hoy ; a: far, qo now, a,*, a^, «l\\?a\s.\ 

lengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somtv^ \^ \^xv^*. 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\o^\T^^ s^>\iJ^' 



208 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

feoffment n. (action of feoffing or enfeoffing) 'fefMant. 
ferine adj, (of wild animals; beast-like) 'fi:-rain, 'fi:-rin. 
ferison ». (mood of the third figure of syllogism) fs'^ai-sen, 

fa'eai-san. 
ferment n. (leaven, yeast) 'feir-ment, 'ferr-mant. 
ferment v. (undergo fermentation; foment) fee'ment. 
fermentative adj. [also spelt fermentativl fee'menta-tiv. 
ferocity n. (fierceness) fi'resi-ti. 
ferret n. (polecat) 'ferit. 
ferret n. (stout tape) 'ferit. 

ferriage n. action of ferrying; conveyance over a ferry [al- 
so spelt ferry age'i 'feei-ids; (improperly) 'fe^ids. 
ferrier n. ferryman [also spelt ferryerl 'fe^i-ar. 
ferrooyanide n. salt [also, sometimes, spelt ferrocyanidi fe- 

ro'sai-3-naid, feeo'sai-a-nid. 
fermle n. ring or cap of metal [also spelt ferule and. for- 
merly, ferrel, ferril} 'fe^al, 'fe^il, 'fe-^ul, 'fer-jul. 
fertile adj\ fruitful, prolific [also, sometimes, spelt fertill 

'faetil, (assumpHvly) 'fertl; (also, in Britain) 'fs^-tail. 
fertileness n. [also, sometimes, spelt fertilnessl 'feertl-nis, 

'fsetil-nis, 'fee-tail-nis. 
fertility n. (fertilness) foe'tih-ti. 
fertilization n. [also spelt fertilisation'^ fa^tl-i'zee-Jan, fe?- 

tih'zee-San, fazrti-lai'zee-San. 
fertilize v. [also spelt fertilised 'fortl-aiz, 'fe^ti-laiz. 
fertilizer n. [also spelt fertiliserl 'fe^tl-ai-zar, 'fs^ti-lai-zazr, 
femle n. cane, rod, ruler [also, formerly, spelt ferrule"} 

'feeul, 'feril, 'fer-jul. 
fervor n. intense heat ; warmth ; glow ; zeal [also spelt fer- 

vourl 'fsi^-var. 
/ fesone n. pointer [also spelt fesque and, formerly, feskue, 

fescul 'fe-skgu. 
fesse n. banded ordinary, a bearing [also spelt fess"] fes. 
fetal adj, of a fetus [also spelt foetal"] 'fii-tl. 
fetch V. bring; go and bring [past participle and preterit 

fetched, fetchtl fetj. 
fdte n. (feast, holiday) feet. 
fetial adj, of the fetiales; heraldric ambassadorial [also 

spelt fecial"] 'fii-Jal. 
fetiales n,pl, (college of priests in ancient Rome) fiSi'ee-Hz. 
feticide n. the action of destroying a fetus or causing 

abortion [also spelt foeticide] 'fii-ti-said, 'feti-said. 
fetid adj. stinking [also spelt foetid] 'fii-tid, 'fetid. 

/j^e, ^cure; dthe, thin; 3 asure, d^ioy; ^ shoe, t^cheyr; 
wzc'/ien; x)sing; u wh<7ever, i react, ^siuu, \3Mioo\, \\\., t\scc\ 
o poetic; ^ over, e aerial. Abut, o: door, ootvo, t\ic^> ^t^oX^*, 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 209 

teHmh n. object of awe or blind devotion [also spelt fetich, 

fetiche} 'fii-tij, 'fetij. 
f etisl&eer n. sorcerer [synonymous cognate fetisher, fetisseri 

fiti'Si:?, feti'Ji:?. 
fetishism n. [also spelt fetichistn\ 'fii-ti-$izam, 'feti-Sizsni. 
fetisUst n. [also spelt fetichist} 'fii-ti-Sist, 'feti-Sist. 
fetisliistic adj, (of fetishism) fiti'Jistik, feti'$istik. 
fetor n. stench [also spelt foetor} 'fii-tae, 'fii-tDZ. 
fetns n. young animal in the womb; embryo [also spelt foe- 
tus; ploral fetuses'} 'fii-tds. 
fen n. feudal land-tenure; holding; fief [also, formerly, 

spelt few\ fiou. 
f euar n. one who holds land upon feu [also spelt feur, fewar 

and, formerly, feuer} 'fiou-ae. 
fend n. (bitter and lasting mutual hostility) fioud. 
fend n. fee, fief [also spelt feod} fioud. 
f endalism n. 'fiou-dl-izam, 'fiou-da-lizdm. 
fendalisation n. [also spelt feudalisationi fiudl-i'zee-Jan, 

fiudl-ai'z^-Jsn. 
fendalixe v. [also spelt feudalise! 'fiou-dl-aiz. 
f endary n. feudal tenant ; vassal ; servant [also spelt feo- 

daryl 'fiou-da-ri. 
f enilleton n. (the bottom part of a newspaper, ruled off and 

devoted to serial stories, criticisms, etc.) fei-i'toq, fBl'toq, 

'fei-lia-toq. 
f everf eur n. plant [also spelt feverfuel 'f ii-vD2-fiu, 
f enr adj, (not many) fiou, {when unstrest) fiu. 
f eivmet n. see futnet. 

fey adj. fated to die ; doomd ; dying [also spelt fay\ fee. 
fez n. Turkish skull-cap [ploral fezzes} fez. 
fianc6 n. (man or youth who is betrotht) fi-ei]'see. 
fiancee n. (woman or girl who is betrotht) fi-eq'see. 
fiasco n. (flask; ignominious failure) fi'a:-sk3, fi'sesk3. 
fiat n. (command ; order) 'f ai-at, 'f ai-aet. 
fiber n. filament [also spelt fibre} 'fai-ba?. 
fibriform adj, (formd like a fiber; thread-like) 'fai-bzi- 

fo:rm. 
fibril n. (small fiber) 'fai-b^il; {improperly) 'fibnl. 
fibrilla n. fibril [ploral fibrillaej fai'b^ila. 
fibrillar adj. (of the nature of a fibrilla) 'fai-bnlajr. 
fibrillary adj, (fibrillar) 'f ai-b^i-leri ; {less properly) 'fibri- 

lezi. 
fibrillate v, (having fibrillae) 'fai-bri-let. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a; ask, ^\\sa\s.\ 
length-mart (:) indicates that the preceding soMxvd. \^ \^^^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ieWo-wixi^ «fCv?i5^^« 



210 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fibrillose adj, coverd with or composed of fibrils [also spelt 

fibrilosel fai-bei'loos, (assutnptivly) 'fai-bei-los. 
fibrilloufl adj. (full of fibrils) 'f ai-b^i-las ; (less properly) 

fai'bnlds, fi'brilas, 'fibzi-las. 
fibrin n. (nitrogenous substance) 'fai-b?in. 
fibrine adj, fiber-like [also, sometimes, spelt fibrini 'fai- 

brin, 'fai-b^ain. 
fibrinosen n. (proteid) 'f ai-beina-dsen ; (improperly) fai- 

'b^ina-dsen. 
fibrinous adj. (full of fibrin) 'fai-bzi-nas, (less often) 'fi- 

bri-nas. 
fichn n. (triangular piece of fabric worn by women on the 

neck, throat, and shoulders) 'fi-Ju, fi'Jou. 
fico n. (fig) 'fii-ko. 
fictile adj. plastic [also, sometimes, spelt ficHl\ 'fiktil, {as- 

sumptivly) 'fiktl. 
fiddler n. (one who plays on the fiddle) 'fidla?, 'fidl-oe. 
fidelity n. (faithfulness, loyalty) fai'deh-ti, fi'deh-ti. 
fidget n. (condition of spasmodic movement) 'fidjit. 
fidncial adj. (of trust) fi'djou-Sal, fai'djou-Si-al. 
fiduciary adj. (in trust; of trusteeship) fi'djou-Si-C2i, fai- 

'djou-Si-a-ri, fi'djou-Ja-ri. 
fie inter j. [also spelt fy, fyel fai. 
fief n. (feoff, fee, feud) fiif. compare feoff, v. 
fieldfare n. (bird) 'fiild-fe:r. 

fiery adj. (of fire) 'fai-a-zi, 'iai-zi; (also, often) 'faia-^i. 
fife n. flute-like instrument [ploral fifes} faif. 
fifteen adj.,n. fif'tiin, (anteriorly; by contrast) 'fif-tin. 
fig^nline adj. made by a potter; plastic [also, sometimes, 

spelt figulini 'figjo-hn, 'figjo-lain. 
fig^nre n. (form; image; numeral) 'figja^; (in Britain, often- 

er) 'figs?. 
fig^nre v. (depict; imagin; use figures) 'figj'a?, 'figar. 
fig^nrine n. (small figure or image) figjo'riin. 
Fijian adj. of Fiji [also spelt Feejeeani 'fii-dsi-an, fi'dsii-an. 
filacer n. officer [synonymous cognates fyliser, filaserl 

'fila-sa?. 
filament n, (thread-like body; fiber) 'fila-mant. 
filander n, wallaby, a short-taild kangaroo [also spelt phi- 

landerl filaendar. compare philander. 
filander n. membrane scraped from gut in making catgut 

[also spelt filandrel fi'laenda?. 
filander v. filaenda?. see philander. 

J ye, gcure; d the, GMin; samre, d$joy; I shoe, tlchew; 
wwhen; i)sing; u wh^^ever, i react, oiu\\, uMiool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; d over, e aerial. Abut, o; door, ;>oivo, t>Qc^» ^^^cJ«,\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 211 

filanders n. worms; disease [former synonymous cognate 

felandersl fi'isenddrz. 
filch V. steal; pilfer; rob [past participle and preterit filched, 

filcht'i filtj, (also, and in Britain normally) filj. 
filet n. (thread-like part or thin line in a design; fillet) fi- 

'lee. 
filial adj. (of a son or daughter) 'fili-dl, 'filidt 
filibeg n. kilt [also spelt fillibeg, philibeg, phillibegl 'fili- 
beg. 
filigree n. tracery-work in metal [also spelt filligree ; synon- 
ymous cognate fillagreel 'fih-g^i. 
Filipino n. nativ of the Philippine Islands [ploral Filipinos^ 

fih'pii-no. 
fillet n. (head-band; strip; roll, as of meat; molding) 'fiht. 
fillip n. finger-jerk; stroke; stimulus [also, formerly, spelt 

/i7i>] 'fihp. 
fillip V. to strike as by a fillip [also, formerly, spelt filip\ 

past participle and preterit filliped, fillipi\ 'fihp. 
fillipeen n. fih'piin. see philopena. 
film n. (thin skin; fine thread) film; {vulgarly) 'filam. 
filoplnnie n. (thread-feather) 'fai-19-pz.oum. 
filose adj, (ending in a thread) fai'bos, (assumptivly) 'fai- 

los. 
f iloielle n. ferret or floss-silk ; grogam yarn [also spelt filo- 

sel, filoselll fila'zel, 'fila-sel, fai-la'zel. 
filter n. liquid-purifying device [also spelt filtrel 'filtae. 
filum n. thread, filament [ploral filal 'fai-ldm. 
fin n. (swimming-organ) fin. 
finable adj. [also spelt fineablel 'fai-nd-bdl. 
final adj. (ultimate; conclusiv) 'fai-nal, 'fai-nl. 
finale n. (last part or scene) fi'na:-li. 
finance n. (management of money, etc.) fi'naens, 'fai-naens, 

fai'naens; (also) fi'naents, etc. 
finance v. (conduct financial operations; furnish capital for) 

fi'naens, fai'naens; (also) fi'naents, etc. 
financial adj. (of finance) fi'nsen^al, fai'naenSsl. 
financier n. (one skild in finance) fai-nsn'si:?, finsn'si:?, 

(in Britain, oftener) fi'naensi-ar. 
financier v. act as a financier; furnish capital for [also 

spelt f inane eer'i finan'si:?, fai-nan'si:?. 
finch n. (bird) fintS, (in Britain) fin J. 
fineiie n. (delicacy; skill; artifis; trick) fi'nes, fi'nes. 
fing^go n. (climbing shrub) 'fiqg^i-go, fiq'g^igo. 

c: law, b: f«r, a; cat, e h^t, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*, ask, a\V.\\^e.\ 

\BTjgth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soun\ \s \©ti%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioUoviintS s^\\«^A.!ei 



212 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

finicking adj. fastidious; mincing; also, paltry [also spelt 

finnicking; synonymous cognates finikin, finnikini 'fini-kii]. 
finii n. (the end ; conclusion) 'fai-nis. 
finite adj, (bounded; limitec^ 'fai-nait. 
Finn n. Finlander [also spelt Fin} fin. 
finnan n. finnan-haddock [also spelt finnon ; synonymous 

cognates findhorn, findram, fintrum, findoni 'finan. 
finooliio n. (fennel) fi'nok-i-o, fi'nDo-ki-o; (improperly) fi- 

'noo-tji-o. 
fiorin n. (white or marsh bentgrass) 'fai-a-zin. 
fiorite n. (sinter) 'fgoi-rait, 'fai-3-rait. 
fir n. (tree) fa:?. 

f irk V. drive, force [also spelt ferki {s'.zk. 
firkin n. (small cask) 'farkin. 

firmament n. (vault of heaven; the heavens) 'fair-md-mdnt. 
fimian n. decree, edict [ploral firmans} 'fair-man. 
fiic «. treasiiry [also, in Scottish law, spelt fisk} fisk. 
fiscal adj. (of the fisc or treasury) 'fiskdh 
fish n. [ploral fishes] collectivly, fish] fij. 
fissile adj. cleavable [also spelt fissil} 'iisiX. 
fissle V. russle; whistle; fidget [also spelt fistle} 'fisal. 
f issura n. fissure ; cleft ; sulcus [ploral fissurae} f I'sgoi-^a. 
fissural adj. (of a fissure) 'fiSjo-eah 
fissure n. (cleft, rift) 'fija?. 
fistula n. (pipe-like ulcer; pipe; wine-tube) 'fistSo-la, 'fiStJo- 

la, 'fistgo-la. 
fixed adj. placed firmly; fast; firm; stable [also spelt fixt} 

fikst. 
fixedly adv. (in a fixt manner) 'fiksi-dh. 
fixedness n. (state of being fixt) 'fiksi-dnis. 
fizgig n. frivolous woman; squib; gimcrack [also spelt fis2- 

gig, fisgigl 'fizgig. 
fizz V. hiss; splutter [also spelt fijs; past participle and pret- ^ 

erit fizzed, fizd} fiz. 
fjord n. arm of the sea between cliffs [also spelt fiord, fyord} 

iqeizd, {qo'.zd, fi'eizd. 
flaccid adj. (limp; flabby; drooping) 'fLaeksid; (erroneously) 

'fLaesid. 
flagellant n. (one who whips or scourges himself for re- 
ligious disciplin) 'fLaedsi-lant, fLa'dselant. 
flagellate v. (scourge, whip) 'ftaedsi-let. 
flageolet n. wind-instrument [also spelt flagelet} 'fLsedsa- 

let, ftaedsa'let; (improperly) 'ftaedsi-a-let. 

jjfe, g cure; d the, 9 th\n\^ 3 axrure, ds /oy ; S shoe, tj c/tew; 
wze/Aen; ijsinff; u whoever, i react, Diu\\, \jMiool, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 oyer , e aerial^ Abut, o;doot, 00 no, ^>ae^^ ^^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 213 

flagitioas adj, (criminal; wicked) fz^a'dsiSss. 

flagon n. large bottle or vessel [also, formerly, spelt fl<ig- 
gon\ 'fz^gdn. 

flae^rant adj, (blazing; raging) 'fz.ee-gz9nt. 

flagitaff n. (flagpole) 'fLxg-sta:f. 

flambean n. torch [ploral flambeauxl 'fz^m-bo. 

flamboyant adj. (flaming; wavy; showy) fz^m'bei-9nt. 

flamingo n. bird [ploral flamingos, flamingoes} ii^'mit)go. 

flanoh n. flange [synonymous cognates f launch, flanquel 
fLaintS, fLQintS, fz^:ntS; (in Britain) it.B'.nl, fLa:n$, iu^-.n^, 

flannel n. (woolen stuff) 'f ^aendl, 'f ^aenh 

flask n. (powder-flask; bottle; frame) f^aisk, fz.a:sk, fz^:sk. 

flasque n. (flanch-like bearing) fz.a:sk. 

flat-iron n. (sad-iron, iron) 'fz.aet-ai-97n. 

flatulent adj. (windy; puft up; vain) 'ftaetSo-tent, 'fi^tQo- 
Idnt. 

flannt v. wave smartly; display [former synonymous cog- 
nate flantl fLc:nt, fz^amt, fz.a:nt. 

flavor n. smell, fragrance; quality of taste; savor [also spelt 
flavour"] 'fiee-vae. 

flay V. skin ; excoriate ; strip ; plunder [past participle and 
preterit flayed, flaydl fLee. 

flay V. put to flight ; frighten [also spelt fley ; past participle 
and preterit flayed, flaid, flaydl fi^e. 

flea n. (insect) fz^ii. 

fledgling n. young bird just fledged -[also spelt fledgeling"] 
'ftedshq, 

flee V. (run away) fui. 

fleeceable adj. (that may be fleeced; cheatable) 'fLii-sd-bdl. 

flench V, cut up the fat of ; skin [synonymous cognates flinch, 
flense, flence, flinse] fz^entS, (in Britain) fz.enS. 

fleur-de-lis n. iris [also, formerly, spelt fleur-de-lys; syn- 
onymous Qognate flower-de-luce; ploral fleurs-de-lis] {i.b:z- 
di'hi, (often, especially anteriorly) 'ftei^-di-li, 'iL.B:z-dl-i. 

fleur V. (preterit of fly) fz^ou. 

flexible adj. (pliable; pliant) 'fz^eksa-bdl. 

flexile adj, flexible, pliant; mobile [also spelt flexil] 'fz.ek- 
siX. 

flexion n. bending, curvature [also, except in the physiolog- 
ic sense, spelt flection] 'fz.ekS3n. 

flexuose adj» (flexuous, winding) fz.ekSu'3os, (assumptivly) 
'fz.ekSu-os; (also) fz-eksQu'oos, (assumptivly) 'fz.eksgu-os. 

flibbertigibbet n. (imp; flighty person) 'fz,ib97ti-d3ibit. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy; a: for, aa now, a\ asVi, ^\V.\\s.\ 
length-niorlr (:) indicates that the precedinc sound \^ \«knVt 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress qix the foWoviixi^ «^>\aXJ^t^ 



214 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

flier n. see flyer. 

flight n. (action of flying; series of stairs) fz^ait. 
flight n. (action of fleeing; hasty departure) f^ait. 
flimiy adj, (frail; paltry) 'fz^imzi; (dialectally) 'fi.imsi, 

'ftimpsi. 
flinch V. (give way; shrink; wince) ftintS, (also, and in 

Britain normally) ftinj. 
flippant adj, (talkativ and forward) 'fz^ipsnt. 
flitch n. (side of bacon; halibut steak; plank, slab) fz.itS. 
floatage n. action of floating ; flotsam ; floating vessels col- 

lectivly; buoyancy; that part of a ship above the water-line 

[also spelt flotage) 'ftoo-tids. 
flocci n. (ploral of floccus) 'fz.ek-sai. 
floocose adj. fte'koos, (assumptivly) 'fte-kos. 
floccnlose adj, ftekgoloos, (assumptivly) 'ftokgo-los. 
floccuB n. flock, tuft [ploral flocci"] 'fz.ek9s. 
floe n. (sheet of floating ice ; ice-floe) f ldo. 
flookan n. cross-course of clay [also spelt flucan; synony- 
mous cognate flooking"] 'ftou-kan. 
floor n. fiLo:?, fz.39. 

flora n. the total of the plant life of a region or period [plor- 
al florae, floras'! 'fiLo:-?3. 
floral adj. (of a flower or flowers ; of a flora) 'fi-o:-ral ; (in^- 

properly) 'ftezal. 
Florentine adj. (of Florence, Italy) 'fteran-tin, 'fi-e^Dn-tin, 

'fte^an-tain. 
floreicence n. (flowering; flowers collectivly) fz^d'^esdns, 

fto'eesans. 
floret n. (little flower; floweret) 'fLo:-rit. 
floriated adj. decorated with floral ornament [also spelt 

floreated} 'fto:-?i-etid. 
floriculture n. 'fte^i-kAltSar, 'f to-.-^i-kAltSa^ ; {i.ezi^Alti;9z, 
florid adj. (flowery; rosy; blooming) 'fte^id; (improperly) 

'ftDi-^id. 
floridity n. (floridness) fta'ridi-ti, fte'^idi-ti, ftD'ridi-ti. 
florin n. (gold coin) 'fLo^in; (improperly) 'fto:-?in. 
floriit n. (flower-grower, flower-dealer) 'ftezist, 'fiLD:-?ist. 
floM n. (floss-silk; stuff) fteis, (rarely) ftes. 
flotation n. action of floating [also spelt floatation"! flo'tee- 

San. 
flotsam n. floating wreckage [also, formerly, ispelt flotsam, 

flotsom, flotsome, flotsum; synonymous cognate flotson! 

'fiLotsam. 

/yc, gcure; d Me, Min ; 3 ajsrure, dj/oy; ^shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwlien; tjsing; u whoever, i react, iiiuu, \jMioo\, iit, lis^^; 
o poetic; o ov^r, e aerial^ Abut, o;doot, ;iotio, ^\>e^, ^.^w,cJ«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 215 

flour n. (fine meal ; powder) flaoz, 

flo'W n« (streaming; current) fi^o. 

flourer n, (blossom) 'fLOU-dz, (often) 'fz.ao7. 

flue n. fishing-net, flue-net [also spelt flewl fz^ou. 

flue n. flocculent substance, as down; fluff [also spelt flew} 

flue n. (a duct, as in a chimney) fz.ou. 

flue n. (the fluke of an anchor or harpoon) fz^ou. 

fluency n. (easy flow ; readiness of utterance) 'fz.ou-9n-si. 

fluid adj, (flowing; liquid or gaseous) 'fz^ou-id. 

fluke n. flatfish ; worm [also spelt flook} fz.uuk. 

fluke n. (triangular plate on the arm of an anchor; barbd 

head) fz.ouk. 
flume n. (artificial water-channel; ravine with a stream in 

it) ftoum. 
flunky n. male servant in livery [also spelt flunkey; plural 

flunkies, flunkeysl 'fi.Ai]ki. 
fluoreicenie n. (self-luminosity under the direct action of 

luminous and ultraviolet rays) ftu-a'^csans. 
fluoric adj, (of fluor or fluor-spar) ftu'erik. 
fluoride n. compound [also, sometimes, spelt fluoridl 'fz.ou- 

9-zaid, 'f tou-a-rid. * 
fluorine n. element [also, sometimes, spelt fluorinl 'ftou-3- 

zin 'ftou-a-?ain, 'ii.ou-3-zin. 
fluor-ipar n. (fluorite, fluor) 'fz.ou-37-spa:?. 
flute n. (wind-instrument) fz^out. 
fluviatile adj. of a river or rivers [also spelt fluviatill 

'flLOU-vi-3-tll. 

fluxible adj. (fluid; fusible; fluctuating) 'fLAkss-bsl. 

fly n. winged insect [ploral flies'} fi-ai. 

fly n. act of flying ; flight ; light carriage [ploral flies but, in 

the sense of carriage, flys} ftai. 
flyer n. bird, insect, or man that flies; flying-machine [also 

spelt flier} 'ftai-ae. 
foal n. (colt, filly) fool. 

focalize v. focus [also spelt focalise} 'foo-kd-laiz. 
foci n. (ploral of focus) 'fDO-sai. 
focuB n. point of convergence; center of activity [ploral foci, 

focuses, focusses} 'foo-kas. 
focuB V, converge [present participle focusing, focussing; 

past participle and preterit focused, focussed, focust} 'foo- 

kds. 
foetus n. 'fii-tds. see fetus. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, go noTW, ^•. a^, ^-vVW^N 

^Bngtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtvd \s \^xv\?»\ 

fitress-mork (') indicate^ chhi atress OU tU^ l^Wo^^ti^ s^W^aJoV 



216 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fogy n. old-fashiond person; out-of-dater [also spelt fogey; 
plural fogiesl 'foo-gi. 

f ohn n. warm dry south wind in the valleys of the northern 
Alps [also spelt foehn, fdn\ fern. 

foliaceouB adj, (leaf-like) foH'ee-Sss. 

foliage n. (leafage) 'foo-li-ids; (rarely) 'fool-jids. 

folio n. leaf of paper, etc.; book-leaf; page-number [ploral 
folios'] 'foo-li-o, 'fool-jo. 

foment n. (warm lotion ; fomentation) 'foo-ment. 

foment v. (bathe with warm lotions; cherish; instigate) fo- 
'ment. 

fomentation n. fom^n'tee-Ssn. 

font n. (basin for baptismal water; fount, fountain) font. 

font n. (the act or process of casting; founding; also, a 
fount, or complete assortment of type of any one face) font. 

fontanel n. a space between bones or muscles ; an outlet for 
the discharge of pus [also spelt fontanelle ; synonymous cog- 
nate fontinell fenta'nel. 

fontinel n. (little fount or fountain; also, fontanel) 'fenti- 
nel. 

food n. (aliment; victuals) foud. 

foot n. pedal extremity; base; measurfe; group of syllables 
[ploral feet, and, m the sense of bottoms, dregs, foots} fot. 

foppery n. (coxcombry, dandyism) 'fepa-^i. 

for prep, (representing; in favor of; with a view to, etc.) 
fe:^, (when less strest) iez, fae, iz. 

for conj. (for the reason that, because, since) feiz, (when less 
strest) fez, far. 

forage n. (fodder, provender) 'fe^ids. 

foramen n. orifice, hole [ploral foratninal fd'zee-man. 

foramina n. (ploral of foramen) fa'^aemi-na. 

foraminiferoni adj. (having foramina) fd-zraemi'nifd-zds. 

foray n. (act of foraging; a raid) 'ie-ze, fo'zee. 

forbad v, (preterit of forbid) far'baed, far'baeid. 

forbade v. far'baed, fae'beed. same meaning as forbad. 

forbear n. forefather, ancestor [synonymous cognate fore- 
bear] foz'be:?, 'foiz-beiz; iez^eiz, 

forbear v, refrain [past participle forborne; preterit for- 
bore] iez'hziz, i^z'he'.z. 

forbid V. bid not to do; prohibit [past participle forbidden, 
forbid; preterit forbad, forbade] fa^'bid. 

forby prep, hard by, near; past; besides [also spelt forbye; 
synonymous cognate foreby] fa^'bai. 

fye, gcure; dthe, 6 *fiin ; 5 asure, ds/oy; S shoe, tlchew; 
ww^en; T)sing; u whoever, i react, \3iu\\> vsm.1oo\, \\V \\aee; 
o poetic; sover, e aerial, a. but, o: doot, ^otio, ^\>c^, ^^^cSw.-^ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 217 

forby adj, along, past; besides [also spelt forbye; synony- 
mous cognate forebyl f^z^hai. 

forceable adj. (that may be forced) 'toiz-s^-hsl, 

forcedly adv. (in a forced manner) 'f3:7-si-dli. 

forcible adj. done by force; strong; telling [also, formerly, 
spelt forceablel 'fore-ss-bal. 

fordo V. kill; do away with [synonymous cognate foredd\ 
foe'dou. 

fore adj„rt, (front) foiz, 

fore prep., adv. (before) io:z. 

forearm n. (antebrachium) 'foiz-aizm. 

forearm v. (arm beforehand for attack) foz'a'.zm. 

forebear n. 'fo:z-he:z, fo^lbe:?. same meaning as forbear, 

f oreby prep., adv. fozr'bai. same meaning as forby. 

forecast n. (foresight ; prudence ; predetermination ; prophe- 
cy) 'fD:?-ka:st. 

forecast v. cast or contrive beforehand; predetermin [past 
participle and preterit forecast, forecasted^ fo2'ka:st. 

forecastle n. front deck; fore part of a ship [dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate fo*c*sle1 'foie-kai-sal, fo'.z^kscsdl; {dialec- 
tally) 'fook-s9l, 'fook-sl. 

f oredo v. {oz'dau. same meaning as fordo. 

forefatber n. (forbear, ancestor) ^ioiz-iai-d^z. 

forego Vm (go before ; precede) fo^'goo. 

forego V, for'goo. same meaning as forgo, 

foregoing adj. (going before, preceding; antecedent) ioz- 
'goo-iq, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'foi^-goo-iq. 

foregone adj. (that has gone before, past; former; prede- 
termind) fo^'gein, (assumptivly) 'fo:r-gen. 

f orebead n. fore part of the head ; brow [also spelt forehed} 
'iezid; (rarely) 'fo:?-hed. 

foreign adj. not one's own; alien [also spelt foreni 'fe^in, 
(assumptivly) 'feean. 

foreigner n. alien [also spelt forenerl 'fezi-nx. 

foreignness n. [also spelt forenness} 'fe?in-nis, 'iez^n-nis. 

forejudge^ v. (judge beforehand) for'dsAds. 

forejudge' v. foz'd$Ad$. same meaning as forjudge, 

forel n. parchment [also spelt forrell 'feral. 

foreman n. leader; overseer [ploral foremen] 'forr-man. 

foremost adj., adv. (first) 'fo:^-most, 'for^-mast. 

forenoon n. (morning) foi^'noun, (assumptivly) 'fo:?-nun. 

forensic adj, (of law-courts) fa'rensik; (improperly) fa- 
'eenzik. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hoi, ei hoy ; a: for, qo tvotw, «:. a^, ^\V\V^\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the precediivg aoMtv^ ^^ \^xv^\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie ie\\0N«\tv^ s^^^iX^s 



218 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

foremnner n. (one who runs before; sign) ioz'zAu^z, 'fair- 

ZATi^Z. 

foreiaid adj. (aforsaid) 'ioiz-szd. 

foreihadour v, (prefigure, forecast) ioz'ld^do. 

foreil&ado'ar n. (shadow cast before; antetype) 'ioiz^lxdo. 

foreit n. (wood; woodland district) 'fezist; (dialectally) 
'ferast. 

forever adv. (for ever; always) {^z'zv^z, iez^ev^z; {some- 
times) fa'eevar, (rapidly, often) 'fsevaz. 

foreuroman n. head woman, as in a shop [ploral forewomen] 
'fo:r- woman. 

foreurord n. (preface) 'io:z-yiB'.zd. 

forfeit n. fine, penalty [also spelt forfit"] 'ferfit. 

forfend v. forbid; avert; secure [synonymous cegnate fore- 
fendl iez'iznd, 

forgather v. encounter; meet; assemble [synonymous ceg- 
nate foregatherl fez'ga^^z. 

forge n.fV. (smithy; hearth) ioizd^. 

forgeable adj. (capable of being forged) 'fai^-dss-bd}. 

forger n. (maker ; one who forges metal ; counterfeiter) 'ioiz- 
ds^z. 

forgery n. forged document ; forging [ploral forgeries'] 'io:z- 
dsa-ri, {rapidly) 'foi^-dsn; {improperly) 'ie-.z-di^-zu 

forget V. (lose remembrance of, etc.) fa^'get. 

forgo V. go by without claiming ; renounce ; quit [synony- 
mous cegnate forego] fez'goo. 

forgone v. (past participle of forgo) fe^'gein. 

forjudge v, exclude, oust, or dispossess by a judgment; for- 
merly, prohibit, condemn judicially [synonymous cegnate 
forejudge] fer'dsAds. 

forked adj. [also, sometimes, spelt forkt] fet^kt, 'fe:3-kid. 

forlorn adj. (hopeless, desolate, wretched) i^z'W.zn. 

form n. (shape, etc.) fe:zrm ; {dialectally) fc:m. 

formalize v. make formal [also spelt formalise] 'fe:sr-m3-}aiz. 

formally adv. (in a formal manner) 'feir-ma-h. 

format n. (shape and size of a book) fo^'ma: . 

formate n. (salt of formic acid) 'fe:r-met, 'feir-mat. 

formerly adv, (at a former time ; in time past ; of old ; here- 
tofore) 'fe:zr-m3?-h. 

formica «. (the ant) fe^'mai-ka. 

formioan adj. (of the ant) 'fe:?-mi-k3n, fe^'mai-kan. 

formidable adj. (hard to deal with, etc.) 'feiz-mida-bal, 
{rapidly) 'fermda-bal; {vulgarly) fe^'mida-bal. 

J ye, Qcure; bthe, ^/lin ; 3 arure, d.^/oy; I shoe, tjc/jew; 
wwhen; i)sing\ u whoever, i react, oiuVV, KiMioo\, \%t, liaee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e serial. Abut, o*. doot, ooxvo, «.\ic^, ^^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 219 



formula n. set form of words; rule; recipe [ploral formulae, 
formulas! 'fe:2-m jo-la. 

fommlise v. (also, formerly, spelt formul%se\ 'fe:;-mjo-laiz. 

forprise v. take out; except, reserv [synonymous cognate 
foreprizel fez'p^aiz. 

fonootli adv, (in truth; truly) fsz'souO; (improperly) i^z- 
'soud. 

forspend v, spend completely; exhaust [synonymous cog- 
nate forespendl fer'spend. 

forsurear v. (reject with an oath; abjure) fez'swe:?. 

fort n. (fortress, stronghold) io:zX.. 

f ortalice n. small fort or outwork [also spelt fortalisi 'foiz- 
t3-lis. 

forte n. that in which one excels; the strong point of a per- 
son; also, the strongest part of a sword-blade, as opposed 
to the foible [also, formerly, spelt forti foizt. 

forte adj, (with force, loud) 'foie-ti. 

forthcoming adj. (about to come forth) io:zQ*kAmit), (as- 
sumptivly) 'fDi^G-kAmiq. 

forthright adv. (directly forward; straightway) 'io:zQ-zait, 
io'.zQ'zait. 

forthright adj. (proceeding directly forward; straightfor- 
ward) ^io:zQ-zBit. 

forthright n. (straight course) 'foreO-^ait. 

forthxrith adv, (immediately; at once) iozQ'wib, forG'wiG, 
(anteriorly) 'foieG-wid, 'fo:?G-wiG. 

fortieth adj, 'fezti-sG. 

fortissimo adj. (very loud) for'tisi-mo. 

fortnight n. (fourteen nights; two weeks) 'fert-nait, 'fort- 
nit, 'fertNit. 

fortress n. (fortified place; stronghold) 'fe^tjis. 

fortuitous adj, (chance, accidental, casual) fezr'tQou-i-tds. 

fortune n. (chance, hap, luck; wealth) 'feetjan, (older) 
'fertgan. 

forty adj, (four times ten) 'feeti. 

forum n. (market-place; court, tribunal) 'fat-eam. 

f onvard adj., adv., n. 'fei^-wa^d. 

f orurard v. (help forward ; assist ; send forward ; ship) 'f e:e- 
wazd; (less properly) for'wot^d. 

foss n. canal, ditch; pit, fossa [also spelt fosse! fo:s, (rarely) 
fos. 

fossa n. pit, cavity, foss [ploral fossae! 'fesa. 

fossil adj. (dug up; antiquated) 'fesi). 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, au tvoiu, ^^ Q?k, ^\Va\s.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMtv^ \^ X^tv^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie io\\o^\tv^ s^X^^iXJ^^. 



220 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

f OBiilise V, [also spelt fossilise^ 'fesi-laiz. 

foiter V, (nurse; cherish; promote) 'fei-star, 'festsr. 

fougl&t V. (past participle and preterit of fight) fcit, 

foul adj. (offensiv; unfair) fool. 

foully adv, (in a foul manner) 'faoMi. 

foundry n. [synonymous cognate founderyl 'faon-dci. 

fount n. (fountain; source) foont. 

fount n. (a font or complete assortment of type of any one 

face) fount. 
fountain n. (spring, etc.) 'foon-tin, 'faon-tn. 
four adj„ n. (numeral) fo:?. 
fourcliette n. (fork, etc.) foz'S^t. 
fouricore adj. (four times twenty) fo:r'sko:r, (assumpHvly) 

fourteen adj.,n. for'tiin, {anteriorly; by contrast) 'fD:?-tin. 
fovea n, depression, pit [ploral foveael 'foo-vi-D. 
f oveola n, small fovea [plural foveolael fo'vii-a-la. 
foveolate adj. (having foveolae; pitted) 'foo-vi-3-let, {less 

often) fo'vii-9-let. 
fourl n. (bird) faol. 
foyer n. (retiring-room or lobby in a theater) fuja'jce, fuj©- 

'jee, {less properly) 'foo-jar. 
f racai n, (disturbance ; row) 'fsee-kas, {less often) fsae'ka: , 

fso'ka: . 
fractious adj. (unruly) 'fssek^ss. 
fraenulum n. see frenulum. 
frag^e adj. liable to break [also, sometimes, spelt fragill 

'fsaedsil, {rarely) 'fsae-dsail. 
frag^mental adj. (fragmentary) fsaeg'mentl, 'fsaegman-tl. 
fragmentary adj. (composed of fragments) 'f^sgman-tezi ; 

{less properly) fsag'menta-n. 
frag^rant adj. (sweet-smelling) 'fsee-grant. 
framable adj. capable of being framed [also spelt frameablel 

'fsee-ms-bal. 
frano n. coin [also, formerly, spelt frank] fsaerik. 
francliise n. (freedom; privilege; citizenship) 'f^am-tSaiz, 

'fsaen-tjaiz ; 'fsain-tjiz, 'fsaentSiz. 
francliisnient n. (enfranchisement) 'fsa:n-t$is-m3nt, 'fsam- 

tjiz-msnt, 'fsain-tSaiz-mant, 'fsaentjis-mant, 'fsaentSiz-msnt, 

'fsaen-tjaiz-mant. 
francolin n. (partridge) 'f^aei]k3-hn. 
frangible adj. (breakable) 'fssendsd-bal. 
frang^ipane n. (perfume etc.) 'fsaendsi-pen. 

J y^f ? cure; d the, 9 thm\^ 3 axrure, ds /oy ; S shot, t\ chevr; 
wwhen; tjsing] u whoever, i react, Diu\V i3Mioo\, ^\l, \\^ec; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o: door, optio, t\>e^, ^^^a\&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS Hi 

frangipani n. perfume [synonymous cognate frangipanni] 

f3send3i'pa:-ni. 
fransipanni n. fsxndsi'pseni. same meaning as frangi- 

pani. 
Frank n. (a member of a certain body of Germanic tribes) 

f^aegk. 
frank n. (the signature of a person privileged to send mail- 
matter free) f^aeqk. 
frankalmoin n. free almoin [also spelt frankalmoign, frank- 

almoignel 'f3aer|kael-mein. 
frankincenie n. (aromatic gum-resin; tree) 'f^aegkin-sens. 
frapp6 adj. (iced; coold; frozen) fsae'pee. 
f rate n. friar [ploral fratx] 'f3a:-ti. 
frater n. (refectory) 'f^ee-tar. 
frater n. (brother, comrade) 'fsce-ta?. 

fraternal adj. (of a brother; brotherly) fsa'ternJ, fsa'terr-nJ. 
fraternise v. associate as a brother or brothers [also spelt 

fraternise'^ 'f^aeta^-naiz, 'fsee-taz-naiz, {rarely) fsa'tar-naiz. 
fratricidal adj, (that kills his brother; of fratricide) 

'fsaetji-sai-dJ, 'fsee-tji-sai-dl. 
fl^audnlent adj. (guilty of fraud; dishonest) 'f^odso-ldnt, 

'f3c:-djo-l3nt. 
fraught udj. (freighted, laden, replete) fscit. 
fri&nlein n. (young lady; miss) 'fsei-lain. 
freak n. (whim ; vagary ; caper) fsiik. 

jteeemaion n. (member of the fraternity called Free and Ac- 
cepted Masons) 'fsii-mee-san, fsii'mee-san. 
free-ipoken adj. (free of speech; outspoken) fsii'spoo-kan, 

(assumptivly) 'fsii-spoo-kan. 
freexHU adj. (voluntary) fsii'wil, (assumptivly) 'fsii-wiJ. 
free 'will n. (will that is free ; voluntary action) fsii'wil. 
freeze v. congeal [past participle frozen; preterit frosel 

iziiz. 
freight n. (vessel-hire; transport-price; cargo; lading) 

fseet. 
freighter n. (shipper; freight-ship) 'fsee-ta?. 
French adj., n. fsentj, (in Britain) fsenS. 
frenetic adj. frantic; fanatic [also spelt phrenetic'^ izi- 

'netik; (formerly) 'fseni-tik. 
frennlnm n. frenum, frenula [also spelt fraenulum; ploral 

frenulal 'fsenjo-lam, 'f^ii-njo-lam. 
frennni n. restraining-ligament [also spelt fraenum; ploral 

frenal 'fsii-nam. 

c: low, b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, ei hoy: a: far, ao noiu, ^x a^, ^\Vv\s:\ 
length-work 0) indicates that the preceditvc soMtvd "ls \wv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo^witi^ s^>\?i>c\«-« 



222 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

frensy n. distraction; craziness [also, formerly, spelt frensy, 

phrenzy, phrensyl 'fsenzi. 
frequent adj. (full ; numerous ; usual ; addicted to) 'fsii- 

kioant. 
frequent v. (visit often ; resort to) fsi'kwent. 
frequentage n. (practis of frequenting) 'f^ii-kwsn-tids, izi- 

'kiuentids. 
frequentative adj. expressiv of frequent repetition of ac- 
tion [also spelt frequentative fsi'kiuenta-tiv. 
frequenter n. (one who frequents) f^i'kuuentd^. 
frequently adv. (at frequent intervals; often) 'fsii-kiuan-tLi. 
freico n. water-color painting on a fresh or wet wall, etc. 

[ploral frescos, frescoes! 'fsesko, 'fses-ko. 
freico V. (paint in fresco) 'fsesko. 
freiiion n. fifth mood of the fourth figure of syllogism 

[synonymous cognate frensisoni fsi'sai-san, f^i'sai-sen. 
fret n. interlaced work; net [also, formerly, spelt frettel 

fset. 
fretful adj. (apt to fret; peevish; troubled; gusty) 'fsetfsl. 
frette n. (a ring or band around a cannon) fset. 
friar n. brother of a religious order; bird [also, formerly, 

spelt frier} 'fsai-az, fzaiz. 
frioandeau n. fricassee of veal; collop [ploral fricandeauxl 

f^ikan'dDO. 
frioasiee n. (meat dish) fsika'sii, (anteriorly) 'fsiks-si. 
Friday n. (day of the week) 'fsai-di. 
friend n. (intimate ; ally) fsend. 

Frieiian n. 'fsii-san, 'fsii-zi-an. same meaning as Frisian, 
frieze n. (that part of an entablature which is between the 

architrave and cornis [also, formerly, spelt frise, frijsel 

fsiiz. 
fright n. (sudden fear; grotesque person or thing) fsait. 
frijolei n. pi. (Mexican kidney-beans) fsi'hoo-Hz. 
friieur n. hairdresser [also spelt friseurl izi^zBiz. 
Frisian n. nativ of Friesland ; Friese [synonymous cognate 

Friesian"! 'fsisan, 'fsizi-an. 
frivolity «. (levity) f^i'veh-ti. 
frivolize v. render frivolous [also spelt frivolise'\ 'fsiva- 

}aiz. 
f rizette n. small friz ; curly bang [also spelt frisette, frisett] 

fsi'zet. 
frizz v, curl, crisp, etc. [also spelt fris; past participle and 

preterit frizzed, frizd} fsiz. 

} ye, 9 cure; d the, 9 thin;^ 3 a^rure, d$ joy; S shoe, tj c^ew; 
wwJ^en; tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuVV, KiMiool, \<t, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o;dooT, ;>otio, t\>e^, «.^^a\.«^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 223 



frolio V. [present participle frolicking \ past participle and 

preterit frolicked, frolict} 'fselik. 
f rolicBome adj, full of frolic ; gay [also, formerly, spelt frol- 

icksome} 'fsohk-sam. 
from prep» fssm, (when unstrest) fssm. 
frondoie adj. (covered with fronds; frond-like) f^en'doos, 

(assumptivly) 'fsen-dos. 
from n. forehead, front [ploral frontes} f^enz. 
frontal adj, (of the forehead; of the front) 'fsAntl, 'f^entl; 

'fsAntaJ, 'fsental. 
frontate adj. (growing broader and broader, as a leaf; hav- 
ing a prominent frons or forehead) 'fsAn-tet, 'fsen-tet. 
frontier n., v. (border, etc.) 'fsAn-ti:?, 'fsen-ti:r, fsan'ti:?, 

f^en'ti:?, 'f3©n-tgi:r. 
f rontieriman n. [ploral frontiersmen} 'fsAn-ti:zz-m3n, 'fsen- 

ti:zz-m9n, fz3n'ti:?z-m9n. 
frontispiece n. (fagade; print in front of the title of a 

book) 'f^Antis-piis, 'fsentis-piis. 
frontlet n. (something worn on the forehead) 'f^Antldt. 
fronton n. (pediment) 'fsAntati, 'f^en-ten. 
frontonasal adj. (nasofrontal) f^ento'nee-zdL 
frost n. (freezing; hoar-frost) f3e:st, f^est; (dialectally) 

fsc:st. 
f rotb n. (foam, spume) fseiG, fseO ; (dialectally) izciQ. 
frour n. Dutchwoman; woman; wife [also, formerly, some- 
times, spelt fro, froe} fsao, izoo, 
frourard adj. (perverse) 'f^oo-azd, 'f^oo-waed. 
froivzy adj. ill-smelling; unkempt, blowzy [also spelt frowsy, 

frousy, frousyl 'f?ao-zi. 
fmctiferons adj. (bearing fruit) fsAk'tifa-ras. 
fmit n. (vegetable products collectivly; seed, etc.; offspring; 

issue; result) fsout. 
fmition n. (enjoyment; a coming into fruit) fsu'ijan. 
fmmenty n. huld- wheat dish [synonymous cognates fru- 

mety, furmenty, furmety'] 'fsou-man-ti. 
fmstnm n. part of a solid left after cutting off the top; 

fragment [erroneous synonymous cognate frustrum; plural 

frusta, frustums! 'fsAstam. 
fmticose adj. (of the nature of a frutex or shrub; shrubby) 

fsutiTcoos, (assumptivly) 'fsou-ti-kos. 
fuolisia n. (shrub) 'fiou-Ja, 'fiou-Ji-a, 'fouk-si-a. 
fuclisin n. anilin dye [also spelt fuchsine} 'fuuk-sih. 
fnens n. seaweed [ploral fuci] 'fiou-kas. 

c: \a7v, b: f«r, ae cat, © h^t, ei hoy; a: far, ao noiu, a*. asV, ^\V\\fc\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souti^ i.^ \^tlv-i 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oYi\n^ s^>^a^i^^ 



224 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

«■ 

fudge inter j. (bosh !) iAd$. 

fudge V, (patch up; fake) iAd$. 

fuel V. furnish with fuel [past participle and preterit fue^ 
led, fueled, fueldl 'fiou-al. 

fugato n. piece in fugue style [ploral fugati] fu'ga:-t3. 

fugleman n. model or leading soldier [also spelt fugelman; 
synonymous cognates flugleman, flugelman; ploral fugle- 
tnenl 'fiou-gal-man. 

fugue n. (polyphonic composition) fioug. 

fulcrum n. prop, support [plural fulcra, fulcrumsl 'fAllcsam. 

fulfil V. fill full ; complete [also spelt fulfill ; present parti- 
ciple fulfilling; past participle and preterit fulfilled, fuU 
fildl ioViil. 

fulfilment n. fol'filmdnt. 

fulgent adj. (shining, dazzling; having rays) 'fAldssnt. 

fulgid adj. (flashing; fiery red) 'fxldsid. 

fulgor n. a flashing light; dazzling brightness; splendor [al- 
so spelt fulgour"} 'f Alga^. 

full-blooded adj, foi'blAdid, (assumptivly) 'fol-blAdid. 

fulmar n. (sea-bird) 'fohns^, 'fxlmd?. 

fulminate v. (lighten; thunder forth) 'fxlmi-net. 

fulmine v. fulminate [also spelt fulntin; past participle ftU- 
mined, fulmindli 'fAlmin. 

fulness n. state of being full ; completeness [also spelt full- 
nessl 'folnis. 

fulsome adj. (offensiv, gross, coarse) 'fAlsam. 

fnniaric adj. (of fumitory) fio'mxzik. 

fumarole n. smoke-hole [also spelt futnarol, fumerolel 'fioti- 
tnd-zol. 

fumet n. dung of a deer [also, formerly, spelt fewmetl 'fiou- 
met. 

fumette n, (obsolete) smell of game when high; game-fla- 
vor [also spelt fumef} fio'met, 

fumigate v. (apply fumes to; disinfect; perfume) 'fiou-mi- 
get. 

fumose adj, (full of fumes) fiu'moos, (assumptivly) 'fiou- 
mos. 

funebral adj. (obsolete) 'fiou-ni-brdl, fiu'nii-bzd}. same 
meaning as funebrial. 

funebrial adj. of funerals; sad [former synonymous cog- 
nate funebrall fio'nii-bri-al. 

funeral n. (burial ceremony; obsequies) 'fiou-na-ral. 

funereal adj. (of a funeral; mournful) fio'ni:-?i-3l. 

j\ve, gcure; bthe, Qthin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; S jAoe, tjcfcew; 
WTf'hen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\V ^m^ooV i^^^, 11 see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: doot, ^oxvo, «.\ie^, %^%q^ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 225 

f nnest adj, (boding death) fiu'nest. 

fungal adj. (of a fungus) 'fAogal. 

fnngi n, (ploral of fungus) 'fAn-dsai. 

fungible adj. (replaceable, etc.) 'fAndsa-bdl. 

fungiform adj, (having the form of a fungus) 'fAudsi- 

fe:?m. 
fungin n. fungus-cellulose [also spelt fungine'} 'fAndsin. 
fungoid adj. (like a fungus) 'fArj-geid. ^ 

fungous adj. (of fungi; spongy) 'fAijgds. 
fungus n. mushroom; spongy growth [ploral fungij 'fAg- 

gas. 
funide n, (small cord; funiculus) 'fiou-ni-kdl. 
funis n. (umbilical cord) 'fiou-nis. 
funnel n. (filler) 'f Anal, f auI. 

funneled adj, [also spelt funnelled, funneldl 'fAUdld, 'fAuld. 
fur n. pelage [ploral furs'} isiz. 
furbelow n. (flounce) 'fB:z-bi-lo. 
furfur n. dandruff, scurf [ploral furfures'] 'iiazi^z, 
furfuraeeous adj, (bran-like; scurfy) fs^fio'^ee-Sas. 
furfures n. (ploral of furfur) 'iBzi^-ziz. 
furibund adj. (furious, raging, mad) 'fio:-?i-bAnd. 
furlough n. leave of absence [also spelt furlol 'fBiz-lo. 
furloughed adj, having a furlo ; inactiv [also spelt furloed"] 

'iB'.zAod, 
furnace n, (heating-apparatus) 'fe^nis, 'fB:?-nis. 
furniture «. (equipment; movables) 'fszni-tl^Zf (older) 

^iszni-tq^z. 
furor n. (fury; craze) ^iio:-zez, 
furore n. iu^zei-zi. same meaning as furor. 
furrier n. (fur-dealer; fur-dresser) ^fszi-sz, *i\zi-^z, 
furroir n. (narrow trench) 'faro, 'fAro; (dialectally) 'fA^a. 
furry adj. (of fur; furred) 'fe^i, 'fei-^i. 
furs n. (ploral of fur) iBizz. 

further adv. (comparativ of far) 'fe^da^, 'isiz-d^z. 
furuncle n. (boil) 'fio:-?Ar)k3l. 
fury n, wild anger; rage [ploral furies'] 'fio:-3i. 
furze n. (a shrub, Ulex europaeus ; gorse, whin) {b:zz. 
fuscous adj, (dusky; brown) 'fAskas. 
fuse n, tube or cord of ignition [also spelt fuze] fiouz. 
fuse V. furnish with a fuse of ignition [also spelt fuse] fiouz. 
fuse V. (melt) fiouz. 

fusee n. pulley; match [also spelt fusee] fio'zii. 
fusel-oil n. (grain-oil) 'fiou-zal-eil, 'fiou-sal-eil. 

c: low, b: f«r, a cat, o hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*, aa^s., «L\V\\fc\ 
lenfirth-mor/r (:) indicates that the preceding sound la \^TiV» 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on th^ iQUoyiin^ s^WaXJi^, 



226 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

fusible adj, capable of being fused or melted [also, former- 
ly, spelt fusabWl 'fiou-za-bal. 
fusiforni adj. (spindle-shaped) 'fiou-zi-fe:7m, 'fiou-si-fe:rm. 
fusil n. (heraldic bearing) 'fiou-zil. 
fusil n. flint-lock musket [also, formerly, spelt fusil} 'iion- 

zil. 
fusile adj. fusible; cast [also, sometimes, spelt fusill 'fiou- 

zii, 'fiou-zaii. 
fusileer n. soldier [also spelt fusilier"} fiuzi'h:;. 
fusillade n. simultaneous discharge of firearms [also spelt 

fusilade} fiuzi'leed. 
fusion n. (melting) 'fiou-39n. 

fusoid adj. (fusiform; spindle-shaped) 'fiou-zeid, 'fiou-seid. 
fustion. n. (cotton cloth) 'fAstJan, 'f AJtJan, 'fAstgsn. 
futhork n. the Runic alfabet [also spelt futhorc ; synonymous 

cognate futharkli 'fou-Ge^k. 
futile adj. useless, vain [also, sometimes, spelt futill 'fiou- 

til, (m Britain, often) 'fiou-tail. 
future adj. (that is to be; hereafter) 'fiou-tjae, {older) 'fiou- 

tgar. 
fuzz n, (downy or fluffy matter) f az. 

fuzzball n. puffball [synonymous cognate fussball} 'fAz-bcit 
fylfot n. cross cramponnee; gammadion [also spelt filfotl 

'fil-fot. 
fyrd n. (entire Anglo-saxon land forces) isizd, fr.zd. 



gabbronite n. fuscite [also spelt gahronite"} 'gaebrs-nait. 
gabel V. obsolete (mark on the ear, as sheep) 'gee-bdl. 
gabelle n. tax [also, formerly, spelt gabel, gabell"] gs'beh 
gaberdine n. garment [also, formerly, spelt gabardine} 

gaeb3z:'diin, 'gaeba^-din. 
gabionade n. a work formd of gabions [also spelt gabion- 

nadel gcbi-a'need, 'gee-bi-a-ned. 
Gadbelic adj, Gaelic [synonymous cognate Gaedhlic} ga- 

'dehk, 'gaedi-hk. 
gadoid adj, (like gadus or cod) 'gee-deid. 
Gaelic adj, (of the Gaels, a Celtic race of the highlands of 

Scotland) 'gee-lik, (less often) 'gee-3-hk; (improperly) 'ga:- 

hk. 
gage «., V. (pledge) geeds. 
gage v.,n. measure [also spelt gauge! geeds. 

} ye, 9 cure; bthe, Q thin; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; I shoe, tlchew; 
wwhen; tjsinff; u whoever, i react, \ji%i\\» \iM.iool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over , e aerial, Abut, o\ doot, ^otlo» tX^e^, ^^^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 227 

n, (plum) geeds. 

gageable adj, measurable [also spelt gaugeablel 'gce-dsd-bdh 

gaged adj. adjusted [also spelt gaugedl geedsd. 

gager n. one who gages; exciseman [also spelt ganger'} 'gee- 
d39z. 

gaging ». measuring [also spelt gauging'} 'gee-dsig. 

gaiety «. mirth, festivity [also spelt gayety} 'gee-i-ti. 

gaillardia n. (plant) gelaiz-di-a, gxV)a:z-di-3, 

gaily adv. in a gay manner [also spelt gayly} 'gee-h. 

gainsaid v. (past participle and preterit of gainsay) 'geen- 
sed, geen'sed, 'geen-seed, geen'seed. 

gainsay v. deny; oppose [past participle and preterit gain- 
said and, rarely, gainsayed} 'geen-see, geen'see. 

gainsay n. (contradiction) 'geen-see. 

gainsayer n. (one who gainsays) 'geen-see-3?, geen'see-9z:. 

gainsaying n. (contradiction) 'geen-see-ii], geen'see-ig. 

gainst prep, against [also spelt *gainst} genst, geenst. 

gairish adj. 'ge:-7i$. see garish, 

gait n. (manner of walking or stepping) geet. 

gala n. (festivity) 'gee-la. 

gala n. (textil fabric) 'gxld, 'ga:-ld. 

galangal n. gs'laerigdl, 'gaelan-gdh same meaning as galin- 
gale. 

galaxy n. the Milky Way [ploral galaxies} 'gaeldk-si. 

galea n. helmet-like part [ploral galeae} 'gec-li-a. 

galeate adj. (helmet-like; furnisht with a galea) 'gee-H-et, 
'gaeli-et. 

Galilean adj, (of Galilee; also, of Galileo Galilei) gsehlii-sn. 

galingale n. aromatic root ; sedge [synonymous cognates ga- 
langal, galanga} 'gaehn-gel, 'gaehq-gel. 

galipot n. resin [also spelt gallipot} 'gaeh-pet. 

gallant adj. (gay, showy; brave, heroic; chivalrous) 'gaelant; 
(courtly; amorous) ga'laent, ga'lamt, ga'la:nt; 'gaelant. 

gallant n. (brave man; doughty knight) 'gselsnt; (man who 
is particularly attentiv to women ; ladies' man ; rake, liber- 
tin) galant, 'gaelant. 

gallant v, (play the dandy ; cut a dash ; make fine ; deck 
out) 'gaelant; (play the flirt; dally or flirt with) ga'laent. 

gallantixe v, play the gallant; play the gallant to [also spelt 
gallantise} 'gxlan-taiz. 

gallantly adv. (gaily, showily; bravely, with spirit, heroi- 
cally) 'gaelan-tLi ; (curteously, politely, attentivly) ga'laenti-i, 
'galan-ti-i. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, qo now, e*. a^V, ^\V\\fc\ 
"iengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutv^ \^ \^^^\ 
tress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\ov«\ti^ ^^>\?Wvr.. 



228 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Sallamtry m. bravery; a curtesy [plural gallantriesl 'gadan- 

tsi. 
galleon n, war-ship [also, formerly, spelt gaieon; former 

synonymous cognate galloon} 'gaeli-dn. 
gallery n. pisLZza; balcony; passage [ploral galleries'] 'gadd- 

zi, (rapidly) 'gael^i. 
galley n. vessel, barge ; type-tray [ploral galleys and, former- 

lyt gal'iesi 'gaeh. 
galleywonn n. iulus [also spelt gallyworm"} 'gxh-wsiznu 
galliardise n. gaiety [also spelt galliardisel 'gaeliaz-daiz. 
galliass n. low-built vessel [also spelt galleassl 'gaeli-aes. 
Gallic adj. (of Gaul or France) 'gxhk. 
gallic adj. (of oak-galls, etc.) 'gxhk, 'gc:-lik. 
Gallicism n. (French idiom) 'gaeh-sizam. 
Gallicixe v, become Gallic; Frenchify [also spelt Gallicisel 

'gxh-saiz. 
galligaskin n, breeches; hose [often used in the ploral; 

also spelt gallygaskin, galigaskin] gxh'gaeskin. 
gallimanfry n. hodgepodge, ragout [also spelt gallimaufrey, 

gallimatufry ; plural gallimaufries'] gxh'mc:-fsi. 
galliot n. small galley [also spelt galiot"} 'gxH-9t. 
gallipot n. pot or vessel used by druggists [also, formerly, 

spelt gallypot, galipot, galliepot] 'gaeh-pet. 
galliTamt v, gad about ; flirt [also spelt galivant ; synony- 
mous cognates gallavant, galavant] gaehVaent, 'gaeh-vaent. 
gallize V. treat (grape-juice) with water and sugar after the 

method of L. (jall [synonymous cognate gallisise} 'gae-laiz. 
gallon n. (measure) 'gael9n. 
galloon n. (braid, lace) gdloun. 
gallop n. (leaping gait of a horse) 'gaebp. 
gallowv M. (hanging-apparatus) 'gasloz, 'gxbs. 
gallowv adj. fit for the gallows; wicked [also, sometimes, 

spelt gallusli 'gaeloz, 'gael9S. 
gallows adv. extremely, very, jolly, mighty [also, sometimes, 

spelt gallusl 'gaeloz, 'gaelas. 
galop «. (dance) 'gael9p, 'gaeb; (improperly) gaelop. 
galore adv, (in abundance ; in plenty) ga'b:?. 
galosh n. wooden shoe or sandal ; overshoe [also spelt gO' 

loche, golosh; ploral galoshes'] galoS. 
gait n. clay; division of Upper Cretaceous series [synony- 
mous cognates gault, golt\ gc:h. 
galvanize v, apply a galvanic current to ; electroplate [also 

spelt galvanisel 'gaelva-naiz. 

) ye, 5 cure; bthe, Q thin; saxrure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tSc^ew; 
wzt/hen; xjsing; u whoever, i react, oiull, oufool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o;doot, ^ono, ^.\>e^, ^^\y*A\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 229 



lie V. (play at a game of chance for a stake) 'gxmbsL 
ioge n. gum-resin; plant [also, sometimes, spelt gam- 
jel gaemljoods, gaemlaouds. 

lol V. skip about, caper [present participle gamboling; 
boiling; past participle and preterit gamboled, gambol^ 

gamboldl 'gsembal. 

tte n. (conjugation-cell) 'gae-mit, ga'miit. 
n n. (street Arab) 'gaemin. 
Hon n. (humbug, rubbish) 'gxmsn. 
it n. (note; scale; key) 'gaemat. 
' adj. (having the flavor of game ; plucky) 'gee-mi. 
lion n. nerve-knot, nerve-center [ploral ganglia, gangli- 
I 'gaerigli-an. 

rene n. (necrosis, etc.) 'gaeg-g^in; {less properly) 'gaen- 
1. 

renous adj. (affected with gangrene; mortified) 'gaer)- 
nss. 

ae n. veinstone [also spelt gang"] gaerj. 
let n. 'ga:n-tt3t, 'ga:n-ti.at, 'gc:n-ti.3t. see gauntlet, 
lope n. [also, formerly, spelt gantelopl 'gaent-}op. same 
ning as gauntlet.' 

ry n. barrel-stand ; crane-platform [synonymous ceg- 
is gantree, gauntry, gauntree, gawntreel 'gaentji. 
n, dseel. same meaning as jail. 
I, (breach, opening, vacant space) gaep. 
'. notch ; jog [present participle gapping ; past participle 

preterit gapped, gapti gaep. 

V. yawn [present participle gaping \ past participle and 
erit gapedl ga:p, ga:p, gae:p, (rarely) geep. 
^e n. (housing-place for automobiles, etc.) ga'^aids, 
0:3, 'gai-^ids; (also, and in Britain usually) 'gae^ids. 

n. sheaf, bundle [also spelt garbe"} gai^b. 

in. n. (boy, waiter) gazr'seq. 

sn n. (flower-garden ; vegetable-patch) 'ga:^-dn ; (dialec- 

;) 'ga:3-din. 

3ner n. (one ho tends a garden) 'ga:z:-dn-a^, (some* 

?s) 'ga:z-dn9z, 

3nia n. (tree, shrub) ga^'dii-ni-a. 

it n. (disease in cattle and pigs) 'gai^-git. 

1 n. (dialectal) disease in cattle, pigs, and geese [syneny- 

is cognate garglel 'ga:^-gil. 

le V, (wash or rinse the throat with a liquid kept sus- 

ied by expiration of air) 'gai^-gal. 

b: f«r, X cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ^\Vi.\\fc% 
-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soMnd \s \^xv%\ 
mark C) indicates chief stress on the foWoviin^ «^WaX^^< 



230 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gtkTgojle n. grotesque spout, etc. [synonymous cognate gur- 

goylel 'ga:?-goil. 
Savibftldi »• (blouse;, hat) gaeei'bxldi, gazilxiil-di, gsezT^bcii- 

di. 
Sarish adj, showy, gaudy; glaring [also spelt gairisk} 'ge:- 

Sarlic n. plant [also, formerly, spelt garlick'] 'gaizAik. 

Sarlicky adj, (savoring of garlic) 'ga:?-h-ki. 

Sarrot n. sea-duck [also spelt garrotQ 'gx?9t. 

garrot n. (lever; surgical instrument) 'gaeedt. 

Sarrote n,, v. [also spelt garote"} gs'zpot, gs'^et. same mean- 
ing as garrotte, 

garrotte n. mode of capital punishment; highway robbery 
performed by throttling the victim [also spelt garotte; syn- 
onymous cognates garret e, garotel ga'^et. 

garrotte v. put to death ; strangle ; cheat at cards [also spelt 
garotte; synonymous cognates garrote, garote"} gs'^et. 

garmlity n. (loquaciousness) g9'?ou-h-ti. 

garrulous adj. (loquacious, talkativ) 'gsz^-l^s. 

gas n. aeriform fluid [ploral gasesi gaes, gse:s, (rarely) ga:z. 

gas V. supply, light, or treat with gas; indulge in empty talk 
[present participle gassing; past participle and pretent 
gassed, gast"} gaes, gae:s. 

gasconade n. (vaunt; bravado) greskd'need. 

gaselier n. cluster of gas-burners; gas chandelier [also spelt 
gasalierl gaesali:?. 

gaseous adj. (having the nature of gas) 'gaesi-ds, 'gee-si-9S, 
'gaezi-3s, 'gee-zi-3s. 

gasogene n. 'gaesd-dsin. same meaning as gazogene. 

gasoline n. volatil liquid from petroleum [also, sometimes, 
spelt gasolene, gasoleine, gasoline'^ 'gaes9-Hn, 'gaes9-}in, 
'gaez3-Hn, 'gaez3-hn. 

gasometer n. gas-holder; gas-tank [former synonymous cog- 
nate gasometerl gaes'omi-ta?, gae'somi-ta? ; (less properly) 
gae'zomi-ta?. 

gasp V. catch the breath with open mouth [past participle 
and preterit gasped, gasptl ga:sp, ga:sp, gae:sp. 

gastraea n. gastrula; sac-like animal [ploral gastraeael gaes- 
'tsii-3. 

gastritis w. (inflammation of the stomach) gaes'tsai-tis. 

gastropod n. ventral-footed animal [synonymous cognate 
gasteropodl 'gaestja-pod. 

gastrula n. metazoic germ-cup [ploral gastrulael 'gaestjjs-la. 

j^e, 5 cure; d *lte, f Mn ; 3 ajsrure, dsjoy; ^ shoe, tS c^ew; 
wwhen; 13 sing; u whoever, i react, oiuU, cufool, iit, lise^; 
o poetic; 9 oyer, e aerial, a. but, o'.doot, ooiio, «.\ic^ ^^^oNfcN 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 231 



gate ». (gateway; openwork door) gttt. 

gancherie n. (awkwardness) goS^'ni, ^930-|>-ct. 

Gancho n. (nativ of the pamfias of Soatli America, of Spaa- 

ish descent) 'gao-tSo, 'gc-tSa. 
gauge v.^ m. geeds. see gage. 
gannt adj. (lean, haggard) gcuit, ga:st« goint. 
ganntlet^ »• glove [also, somcdmes, spelt gamtUil 'qfCt^-Vta^ 

'ga:n-ti-3t, 'ga:n-ti^t. 
ganntlef n. military pnnishment, the nmning of the gaont^ 

let [also spelt gantlet \ former synonjrmoos osig&ate gof^t- 

lope, gantelope} 'gc:n't2.9t, 'ga:n-tL9t, 'ga:sHi^9t. 
ganntleted odj. [also spelt gauntletted\ 'gcn-tL^-tid, 'g*:!^ 

tL3-tld. 

ganntry ». 'gc:n-txi. same meaning as gantry. 

gavel w. (mallet used hf a presiding officer/ 'ganr^f ; iimfrt^f- 

erly) 'gee-vaL 
gaTelkind n. (land-tenure) 'gaev^f-kaind. 
gavelock n. (spear, dart; crowbar) 'gaevi-fok, '(fMrvi-ttk; dm' 

properly) 'geev-lok. 
gavlal n. nakoo, a saurian; Cangctic crocodile itywm/mMi* 

cognates garrhial, gharriai, gkyryal\ 'gee'Vi-si, 
gavot n. dance [also spelt gavottel 'gan'9t, g^^v^^, 
gawk ». stupid, awkward person [also spelt gauk} gc:k. 
gawky adj, (of the nature of a gawk ; un^^rAy/ '*y^:-ks. 
gayal ». ox [also spelt gyaJ, gayail} 'gee-^t, 'g«i'^, *yi'yi'\, 
gayety ». see gaiety. 

gasel n. antelope [also spelt gazelle^ ga'zeL 
gasel n. 'gaez^ same meaning as gkazal, 
gasetteer ». (one who writes in a gazette; jounuilist; geo* 

graphic dictionary) gaezi'ti:?. 
gasogene ». gas-producing apparatus LsynonynKms c^^n^^te 

gasogene'\ 'gxza-dsin. 
gecko n. house-lizard [also, formerly, spelt ^4rc<7^ gecco, gek- 

ko; ploral geckos, geckoes} 'geko, 
gee V. agree, fit [also spelt ge, jeej d$iu 
gee V. turn to the right [also spelt jee} djii. 
Gees ». language of ancient Ethiopia [also spelt Ceez; syn- 
onymous cognate Gisl gi'ez, 
geiska n. Japanese dancing-girl [ploral geishas, geisha] ^ge*:- 

gelada ». (babboon) 'geU-ds. 

gelatlmate r. (gelatinize) dsi'tetn-et, dsi'laeti-nct, Mjf^bt/- 
net. 

c: law, b: ftir, ae cut, o h<7t, oi boy; a: far, ao ttou), a*. a%V, h\ Vvvc \ 
length-mark /:^ indicates that the preceding •omvvA. \% Vaw^N 
stresm-mark (0 indicates chief stress on th« C^WoYim^ %^\W^^' 



232 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gelatine n. base of jellies [also, sometimes, spelt gelatin] 
'dsela-tn, 'dseld-tin, 'dsela-tin; (rarely) 'dseld-tain, dscb- 
'tiin. 

gelatinise v, (become jelly; render jelly-like; coat with 
gelatin) dsi'laetn-aiz, 'dselati-naiz, 

gelatinoid adj. (jelly-like) dsi'lxtn-eid, 'dseldti-neid. 

gelatinous adj, (jelly-like; of gelatin) dsilxtn-ss. 

geld V, (emasculate) geld. 

gelid adj. (cold; icy) 'dsehd. 

gelose n. (agar-agar) dsi'bos, (assumptivly) Msii-los. 

gemel n. in ploral, twin barrulets; in singular, finger-ring 

[also spelt gentmel; synonymous cognate gimmall Msemsl. 
.gemellus n, one of a pair of muscles [plural gemellij dsi- 
'melas. 

gemma n, bud; shoot [ploral gemmae'} 'dsema. 

gendarme n. (man-at-arms; soldier; policeman) $et)'da:zm, 
dsen'dai^m. 

genealogical adj. dsini-dledsi-ksl, dseni-d'ledsi-ks}. 

genealogize v, [also spelt genealogise] dsini'xls-dsaiz, dseni- 
'aela-dsaiz. 

genealog^y n. pedigree [ploral genealogies] dsini'xld-dsi, 
dseni'aela-dsi. 

geneat n. (vassal) gi'niit. 

genera n. (ploral of genus) 'dsena-^a; {vulgarly) 'dsii-na-ra. 

general n. 'dsena-^al, {rapidly, anteriorly, as a title) 'dseneal. 

general v. act as a general to; marshal [present participle 
generating, generalling; past participle and preterit gener- 
ated, generalled, generald] 'dsena-^gl. 

generalization n. [also spelt generalisation] dsend-^dh'zee- 
San, {rapidly) dsen^ah'zee-Jan ; {also) dsena^a-lai'zee-Jan. 

generalize z/. [also spelt generalise] 'dsens^a-laiz. 

generatrix n. (female parent; generant; dynamo) dsena- 
Vee-tjiks, 'dsena-^etgiks. 

generic adj. (of a genus or class : opposed to specific, spe- 
cial) dsi'nerik. 

genesis n. [plural geneses] 'dseni-sis. 

genet n. (civet-cat) 'dsenit, dsi'net. 

genial adj. (nuptial; cordial, kindly) 'dsii-njal, 'dsii-ni-al. 

genial adj. (of the chin) dsi'nai-dl. 

geniality n, (genial nature; kindliness) dsini'aeh-ti. 

genialize v, render genial [also spelt genialise] 'dsii-nja-laiz, 
'dsii-ni-a-laiz. 

genie n. jinnee, goblin [also spelt gent', ploral genii"] 'dsii-ni. 

J ye, Qcure; bthe, 9 *fiin; ja^rure, ds/oy; I shoe, tlchtw; 
wwhen; tjsinff; u whoever, i react, oitt\\, ^mIooV t^^V -dse^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o'. doot, t>oxio, ^\ie^, ^.^^oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 233 



genii n. (ploral of genius, genie) 'dsii-ni-ai. 

genioslossal adj, dsi-naio'glesdl. 

genius n. ruling spirit; disembodied spirit; bent; person of 

great innate creativ power [ploral genii but, in the sense of 

a person of great creativ power, geniusesl 'dsii-njss; (tn the 

sense of a spirit, perhaps oftener) 'dsii-ni-as. 
Genoese <idj, (of Genoa, Italy) dseno'iiz, (assumptivly) 

'dseno-iz; {also) dseno'iis, (assumptivly) 'dseno-is. 
genre n. (kind, sort; a style of painting) 30:1}?, 3e:n;. 
gens n. clan, sept [ploral gentesi dsenz. 
gentes n, (ploral of gens) 'dscn-tiz. 
gentian n. (plant) 'dsent^dn, (in Britain) 'dsen^dn. 
gentile adj. (non-Jewish; non-Mormon) 'dsen-tail, 'dscnti!. 
gentilism n, (heathenism) 'dsen-tail-izam, 'dsenti-hzdm. 
gentilixe v, make gentle [also, formerly, spelt gentilise'i 

'dsenti-laiz. 
gentilixe v, live like a gentile ; make gentile ; paganize [also 

spelt gentilise'i 'dsenti-laiz, 'dsen-tail-aiz. 
gentleman n. man of gentle birth, etc. [ploral gentlemen"} 

'dsenti-man, {dialectally, vulgarly) 'dsenl-mgn. 
gentlemen n. (plural of gentleman) 'dsentl-mgn. 
genuflection n. bending of the knee ; kneeling [also spelt 

genuflexion"] dsenjo'fLekJgn. 
gennfleot v. (bend the knee) dsenjo'fi-ekt, 'dsenjo-fLckt. 
genuine adj, [also, sometimes, spelt genuin} 'dsenju-in; 

{dialectally, vulgarly) 'dsenju-ain. 
genns n. class, kind [ploral genera and, rarely now, genusesi 

'dsii-nss. 
geode n. (hollow concretionary stone) 'dsii-od. 
geography n. (description of the earth's surface) dsi'eg^a-fi ; 

(vulgarly) 'dseg^a-fi, 'dsega-fsi. 
geologize v. [also spelt geologise"] dsi'els-dsaiz. 
geomancy n. (divination by signs related to the earth) 'dsii- 

9-mxnsi. 
geometrician n. (one skild in geometry) dsi-emi'tjiSan. 
geometrize v, [also, formerly, spelt geometrise] dsi'emi- 

tsaiz. 
geometry n. science of space-relations [plural geometries] 

dsi'emi-tji; (vulgarly) 'dsemi-tsi, 'dsemtji. 
Georgic adj, (of agriculture) 'dsei^-dsik. 
geraninm n. (plant) d3i'?ee-ni-9m. 
gerbe n. something resembling a wheat-sheaf ; firework [also 

spelt gerb and, formerly, jerh] d3B:?b. 

c: low, s: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, go now, a: ask, at kite; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the preceding somxv^ \s \^^^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oN«\Tv% s^V^^sX^fc. 



234 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gerbille n. animal [also spelt gerhil] 'd3B:?-bi}. 

gerfalcon, n. large falcon [also spelt gyrfalcon and, former- 
ly* jerfalconi dser'fokan, dse^'fcl-kan. 

german. adj. having the same parents : as, a brother *ger- 
man; that is the child of a brother or sister german of ei- 
ther of one's parents : used only in cousin *german [synon- 
ymous cognate germane'} 'dsor^-man. 

German adj. (of Germany) 'dsBie-mgn. 

germane adj, (german ; also, relevant, pertinent) dsBz'meen. 

Germanise v. [also spelt Germanise'] 'd3e:?-m3-naiz. 

germen n. germ; ovary [synonymous cognate germinl 'd^siz- 
men. 

gerrymander n. (arrangement of the political divisions of 
a State for party purposes in elections) dse^i'mandar, gezi- 
'mxnd9z, 'ge^i-maendae. 

gemnd n. (verbal noun) 'dserand, 'dsc-^xnd. 

gest V. act, deed, achievement [also spelt geste] dsest. 

gestation n. (carrying, bearing; pregnancy) dses'tee-Ssa. 

gestion «. (conduct) 'dsesti-an, 'dsestjgn, 'dseStJan. 

gesture «. (bearing; bodily movement) 'dsestjar, 'dseJtSa?, 
'dsestga?. 

gewgaw n. gaudy trifle ; bauble ; toy [also spelt gew-gawl 
'gjou-gc: , 'dsou-gc: . 

geyser n. spouting hot spring [also spelt geysir] 'gai-za?, 'gai- 
S3?, 'gee-s3?. 

ghastful adj. dreadful ; fearful [also spelt gastfull 'ga:st-f3}. 

ghastly adj. horrible ; death-Hke ; lurid [also spelt gastlyl 
'ga:-stti, 'ga:-stti, 'gae:-stLi. 

ghaut fi. mountain-pass [also spelt ghat, gaut'\ get. 

ghazal n. poetry; music [synonymous cognates ghasel, gha- 
sel, gazel"] 'gae-zael. 

gherkin «. small cucumber [also, formerly, spelt gerkin, gir- 
kin, gurkini 'gorkin, 'ger^-kin. 

Ghetto n. (Jewish quarter of a city) 'geto. 

Ghibelline n, one of the emperor's faction in the Italian 
states [also, sometimes, spelt Ghibellinl 'gibi-hn, 'gibi-lain. 

ghost fi. soul, spirit, specter, etc. [also spelt gostl goost. 

ghostly adj, spiritual; spectral [also spelt gostly"] 'goo-stti. 

ghoul n. evil spirit [also, formerly, spelt goul, ghooll goul. 

giaour n. (non-Mussulman ; Christian) dsaor. 

gib n, clasp; wedge; gibbet [also spelt jibi dsib. 

gib n. hookt gristle of male salmon [also spelt gibb"] gib. 

gibber v, (speak incoherently) 'giba?, 'dsibo?. 

jye, 5 cure; bthe, 0*/iin; 3 a^rure, dsjoy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; jjsing; u whoever, i react, oiuu, xi>a.ioo\, \\t, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o: doot, ^oxvo, «.>oc^, ^^^ae«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 235 

gibber ». (gibbosity) 'gibd?. 

gibber n. large stone, boulder [also spelt ghibber"} 'gibs;. 
gibberish, n. (unintelligible speech; jargon) 'gibd-?i$. 
gibbet ». (gallows; post on which executed criminals were 

hung) 'dsibit. 
gibbon ». (long-armd ape) 'gibdn. 

gibbose adj, (convex, gibbous) gi'boos, (assumptivly) 'gibos. 
gibbosity n. (state of being gibbose or gibbous; swelling) 

gi'besi-ti. 
gibbons adj, (convex, gibbose; humpbackt) 'gibas. 
gibbsite w. (natlv aluminum hydrate) 'gib-zait. 
gibe v.,n, taunt, jeer [also spelt jibe, gybel dsaib. 
giber w. one who utters gibes [also spelt jiberl 'dsai-bd?. 
giblet n. (trimming from a fowl, as the heart, gizzard, neck, 

etc.) 'dsiWat. 
giddea n. acacia [synonymous cognates gidya, gydya, gidgee, 

gidjeej 'gidi-3. 
gig n. (something that whirls; vehicle; boat; fun) gig. 
gigantean adj, (gigantic) dsai-gan'tii-dn ; (improperly) dsai- 

'gxnti-sn. 
gigantie ctdj, (giant-like; huge) dsai'gxntik; (less properly) 

dsi'gaentik. 
gigerinm. n, gizzard [ploral gigeria] d3iM3i:-?i-3m. 
giglet fi. giddy, laughing, romping girl [synonymous cognate 

gigloti 'gight. 
gigot n. (leg of mutton, etc.) 'dsigat. 
gig-saw n. (veneer-saw ; sawing-tool) 'gig-sc: , 'dsig-sc: • 

compare jig-saw. 
gigne n. (in music, jig) siig. 
Gila monster n. (large lizard) ^li-ld-menstsz. 
Gilbertine adj. of Gilbert of Sempringham [also, sometimes, 

spelt Gilbertinl 'gilba^-tin, 'giibazr-tain. 
gild V. overlay with gold [past participle and preterit gilded, 

gilt'\ gild, 
gild n. mutual-aid association [also spelt guild"] gild. 
gildball n. [also spelt guildhall] 'giid-hc:!. 
gill n. (breathing-organ) gil. 
gill ». cleft, ravine [also spelt ghyll] gi!. 
gill n. measure [also spelt jill] dsii. 
gill n. girl; sweetheart [also spelt jill] dsil. 
gill », (flax-comb) gil. 

gillie n. man-servant [also spelt ghillie, gilly] 'gih. 
gillyfloirer n. clove-scented pink, etc. [also spelt gillif lower; 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soutv^ \^ Vi^^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oN«i.n^ s^^^aJcJ^^ 



236 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

synonymous cognates gilliver, jilliver, July-flowerl 'dsih- 

fz.au-97. 
giit-edged adj. giit'edsd, (assumptivly) 'giU-edsd. 
glmbal n. in ploral, steadying-device [also spelt gimbaU, 

gintble, gymball 'dsimbal. 
Simcrack n. contrivance; trumpery article; knickknack [al- 
so spelt jimcrack} 'dsim-ksaek. 
Sfimlet V, use a gimlet on [present participle gimleting, gim- 

letting; past participle and preterit gimleted, gimletted] 

'gimldt. 
gimp n. thread; trimming [also spelt gymp, guimpi gimp. 
g^mp V, (jag, denticulate, scallop) dsimp, gimp. 
g^n n. (machine, engin; snare) dsin. 
gin. n. (drink) dsin. 
Singall n. musket; gun [also spelt jingall, gingal, jingafl 

'dsiq-gcil. 
S^ingham n. (cloth; umbrella) 'gigsm. 
glngili n. plant; oil [also spelt gingeley, gingely, gingelly, 

gingilie, jinjilil 'dsindsi-h. 
g:ing:iTal adj. (of the gums) 'dsindsi-val, dsin'dsai-val. 
glngko n. Japanese tree [also spelt ginko; synonymous cog- 
nate gingo'] 'giqko. 
ginglsnnus n. hinge- joint [ploral ginglymili 'gitjgh-mas, 

'dsiqgh-mas. 
ginseng n. (plant; root) Msin-set]. 

gipser n. purse, pouch, wallet [also spelt gipsirel 'dsipsa?. 
Gipsy n. one of a wandering race [also spelt Gypsy, Gipsey; 

ploral Gipsies] 'dsipsi. 
giraffe n. (camelopard) dsi'raif, dsi'eaif, dsi'^aeif. 
girandole n. (firework; fountain-jet ; girandola; candlestick; 

pendant) 'dsiran-dol, 'd3i:-^3n-dol. 
girasol n. fire-opal [synonymous cognate girasole] 'dsira-sol. 
gird n. (spurt of action; jerk) gB:?d. 
g^rd V. formerly, strike, smite; later, rush, start, spring; jest, 

gibe [past participle and preterit girded"] gm^d. 
gird V, surround with a belt or girdle ; secure by means of a 

girdle [past participle and preterit girt, girded] goi^d. 
girl n. (female child; maid-servant) ge:?}, gsQl; (dialectally) 

goif, gJBirf. 
CMrondist n., adj. (moderate republican) dsi'^ondist. 
girth n. (band, girdle, perimeter) gsizB. 
gist n. (real point, substance, pith) dsist. 
gives n. dsaivz. see gyve. 

j yCf 9 cure; bthe, Q thin; sajsrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, duW, T5>3iioo\, \\t, lis^^; 
^poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o: door, -aotvo, rXic^^, v,«l^oXs:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 237 

n. (gigerium) 'gizs^d. 

Slac6 adj. (iced; lustrous) giae'see. 

glacial adj. (ice-like; icy; cold) 'glee-Ss^ 'glee-Si-d), 'glee-si- 
9i, 'gissi-d}. 

glacier n. (river of ice) 'glce-Jae, 'gJee-Ji-ae, 'glaesi-ae. 

glacis w. (sloping bank; slope) 'glee-sis, glx'sii, 'gla:-si. 

glad adj, (joyous; fain) glxd, {often) glaeid. 

gladiator n. (public fighter; swordsman) 'glxdi-ets?. 

gladiole n. (gladiolus) 'glxdi-ol. 

gladiolus n. sword-lily [ploral gladioli, gladioluses] gla'dai- 
d-lds, glxdi'oo-lds. 

gladsome adj. (cheering; glad, cheerful) 'giaedsam. 

Gladstone n. (wine; bag; carriage) 'glaedstan, 'glaed-ston. 

glair n. white of an egg [also spelt glare"] gXz'.z. 

glaive n. sword [also, formerly, spelt glavel gleev. 

glamour n. [also spelt glamor and, formerly, glamer, glam- 
mar] 'glxm^z, (less often) 'glee-ma?. 

glance v, (glide off or over; dart, flash, gleam; look quick- 
ly) gla:ns, glains, glsems; (also) gia:nts, etc. 

glandes n. (ploral of glans) 'glaen-diz. 

glans n. acorn; acorn-like part [ploral glandes"] glaenz. 

glare v. (shine) gle:?. 

glare n. (dazzling light) gle:?. 

glass n. (substance; drinking-vessel ; pane; mirror) gla:s, 
gla:s, glse:s. 

glanberite w. (nativ calcium sulfate) 'glc:-b3-7ait, 'glao-bs- 
zrait. 

glancoma n. (eye-disease, glaucosis) glc'koo-ma. 

glaucous adj. (sea-green) 'glokds. 

glaucus n. (gull) 'glokss. 

glazier n. (one who glazes windows) 'glee-sar, 'glee-zi-ar. 

glede n. kite ; buzzard ; marsh-hawk [also spelt gleed ; synen« 
ymous cognate gled] ghid. 

glene n. (eyeball; eye-socket; socket) 'ghi-ni. 

glenoid adj. (like a joint-socket ; cupt) 'ghi-noid. 

glisten V, shine, sparkle [past participle and preterit glis- 
tened, glistend] 'ghsan, 'ghsn. 

glitter V. gleam, sparkle [past participle and preterit glit- 
tered, glitterd] 'ghtae. 

globical adj. (circular) 'glebi-kal, 'gloo-bi-kal. 

globigerina n. deep-sea rhizopod [ploral globigerinae] 
globidsa'^ai-na, glebidsa'^ai-na. 

globose adj. (spherical) glo'boos, (assumptivly) 'gloo-bos. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: for, au now, a*, ask, «aVa\s.\ 
length-marJf (:) indicates* that the preceding; sovitv^ \% \^tv^% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo'wxxi^ s^>\^iJc}^^< 



238 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

globular adj, (spherical; compound of globules) 'glebjo-ldz. 
globule n. (little globe; blood-corpuscle; pill) 'gle-bjtd. 
globulin n. proteid [also spelt globulinel 'glebjo-lin. 
gloss n. (marginal definition, etc.) gie:s, (rarely) gles. 
gloss n. (luster) glers, (rarely) gJes. 
glossary n. (collection of glosses; vocabulary) 'g}e:-89-7i, 

'gles3-?i, (rapidly) 'gleffsi. 
glottis n. mouth of the windpipe [ploral glottides\ 'gletis. 
glove n. (hand-covering) glAv. 
gloirer V, frown [synonymous cognate glour; past participle 

and preterit glowered, glowerdi 'glau-o?. 
gloze n. gloss, marginal note; flattery, deceit, pretense [also, 

formerly, spelt glosel glooz, 
glucinum n. (beryllium) glo'sai-nsm. 
glucose n. (grape-sugar, desctrose; fruit-sugar, levulose) 

'glou-kos. 
glue n. adhesiv [also, formerly, spelt glew} glou. 
gluey adj. like glue [also spelt gluy and, formerly, glewy, 

gleweyl 'glou-i. 
gluteal adj, of the glutei [also spelt glutaeal} 'g!ou-ti-9l, glo- 

'tii-3l. 
gluten n. (gum, glue ; nitrogenous part of wheat, etc.) 'glou- 

tn, 'glou-tan, 'glou-ten. 
gluteus n. one of the three buttock-muscles [also spelt glu- 

taeus; ploral glutei^ glo'tii-ss. 
glutinous adj. (gluey, sticky) 'glou-tn-3s, 'glou-ti-nas. 
gluttonize v. [also, rarely, spelt gluttonise"] 'glxtn-aiz. 
gluttony w. excessiv eating [ploral gluttonies'} 'glAtn-i, 

'glAt3-ni. 
glycerin n. glycerol [also spelt glycerinel 'ghs3-?in, 'ghssin. 
glycocoU n. (amido-acetic acid) 'glai-ks-kel, 'ghkd-kel. 
glycogen n. (animal starch) 'glai-ks-dsm, 'ghka-dsin; (also) 

'glai-ka-dsen, etc. 
glycol n. (ethylene alcohol, etc.) 'glai-kel, 'gh-kol. 
glycollie adj. of glycol [also spelt glycolic"! glai'kehk, gh- 

'kehk. 
Glyconio adj. (of the Greek poet Glycon) glailcenik. 
glypb n. (groove) ghf. 

glyptic adj. (of carving or engraving) 'ghptik. 
gmelinite n. (mineral) 'meh-nait, (rarely) 'gmeh-nait. 
gnapbalium n. (herb) nd'fee-li-sm. 
gnarled adj. knotty, twisted [also spelt gnarld and, f -rmerly, 

knarled] narzrl. 

} ye, 5 cure; bthe, ^Ain ; 5 axrure, ds/oy; S^^oe, tjcfcew; 
wwhen; jj sing; u whoever, i react, \3iu\\, \iM.iool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, A.buX, o*. door, -aoTvo, «.>ocd, ^^%,aj«:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 239 

V. strike together, grind, bite upon [past participle and 

preterit gnashed, gnashfl nae^. 
n. (two-wingd fly) nat. 
gnatliio adj, (of the jaws) 'naeOik, 'nee-Oik. 
gnathite n. (mouth-appendage) 'nx-6ait, 'nee-Oait. 
gnanv V, bite off little by little; bite; fret, waste [past par- 
ticiple and preterit gnawed, gnawd} nc: . 
gneiss n. (rock) nais, (rarely) gnais. 

n. (aphorism; saw) noom, 'noo-mi. 
n. (dwarf, goblin) noom. 
gnomio adj. (of gnomes or maxims) 'noo-mik, 'nemik. 
gnomon n. (shadow-casting piece on a sun-dial) 'noo-men. 
gnosiology n. science of cognition [also spelt gnoseologyl 

nosi'eid-dsi, nozi'ela-dsi. 
gnostio n. (of knowledge) 'ne'stik. 

gnn n. wildebeest [also, formerly, spelt gnoo"} nou, njou. 
SO V. walk, move, etc. [past participle gone; preterit wenti 

goo, (when unstrest) go. 
go n. action of going; turn of affairs [ploral goes'} goo. 
goaf n. in a coal-mine, a space from which coal has been 

workt away [synonymous cognates goave, goff, gove; ploral 

goaves, goafs} gSof. 
go-ahead adj. (energetic, pushing) goo-s'hed, 'goo-a-hed. 
goatee n. (chin-whiskers) go'tii. 
gob n. (dab; lump; attle) geb. 
gobang n. game [also spelt go-bang} goolsaer). 
gobbe n. (plant) geb. 
gobelin adj. (of Gobelins, the state factory of tapestry in 

Paris) gobalaeq, 'geba-hn. 
goblet n. (drinking-cup ; wine-cup) 'geWat. 
goblin n. (surly elf; sprite; gnome; demon) 'gebhn. 
go-by n. (action of going by ; a passing by without notice ; 

slip) 'goo-bai. 
goby n. gobiid, a fish [ploral gobies} 'goo-bi. 
god n. (deity) ged, (sometimes) ge:d ; (dialectally) gc:d, ga:d. 
Goetbian adj, of the German poet Goethe [also spelt Goe- 

thean} 'gei-ti-an, 
goety n. (black magic) 'goo-i-ti. 
goffer V. flute, crimp [synonymous cognate gauffer; past 

participle and preterit goffered, gofferd} 'gei-fae, 'gefa?. 
Goidelio adj. (of the Goidels) gei'dehk. 
goiter n. bronchocele [also spelt goitre} 'gei-ta?, 
goldenrod n. (plant) 'gool-dn-^ed. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, ao now» a: ask, ^\ VAtf, 
length -marif (:) indicates that the preceding soMtv^ -va Awslv-. 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ie\\oN«\Tv^ ^-^V^-aJ^e^, 



240 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

soldilookfl n. buttercup, etc. [also spelt goldylocksl 'gool-di- 

leks. 
golf n. game [former synonymous cognate goff\ golf, ge:f, 

gof. 
gondola n. (boat) 'gonds-ld; {improperly) gon'doo-^s. 
gondolier n. (one who rows a gondola) gondsli:?. 
gone adj. (undone; departed) go:n, gen; (dialectally) gc:n. 
gonfalon n. (banner, ensign) 'genfs-lon. 
gonfalonier n. (standard-bearer) geni^Wniiz. 
gonidial adj. (of a gonidium) go'nidi-di. 
goniometer n. (angle-measuring device) goni'omi-ts?. 
gonoph n. pickpocket [also spelt gonnof'\ 'gonsf, 'go-nof. 
gonopliore n, (part bearing the reproductiv elements) 'gona- 

fo:?. 
gonorrliea n. disease [also spelt gonorrhoea! gons'^ii-d, 
gonydeal adj. (of the gonys; gonal) go'nidi-sl. 
good-by interj. farewell [also spelt good-byel god'bai, go- 

'bai. 
good-for-notliing adj, godfdz'nAOii], (assumptivly) 'godfs?- 

tlAQlT}. 

Goorkl&a n. nativ of Nepal [also spelt Ghoorkal 'goiz-ks, 
goose n. bird [ploral geesel gous. 

gooseberry n. 'gouz-be^i, 'gouz-ban, 'gouz-b3i; 'gous-be?i. 
gopber n. poucht rat ; ground squirrel ; land-tortoise ; snake 

[also spelt gophirl 'goo-fa?. 
gorgeons adj. (magnificent) 'ge:z-dz^s. 
gorget n. (throat-armor; wimple; necklace) 'go:?-d3it. 
gorgon n. (female monster) 'goi^-gan. 
gorgonian adj. (of a gorgon; gorgon-like) goe'gDO-ni-an. 
gorgonize v. petrify or gaze at in the manner of a gorgon 

[also spelt gorgonisel 'go:?-g3-naiz. 
gorilla n. (large anthropoid ape) gs'^ils. 
gormand n. glutton [synonymous cognate gourmandl 'ge:z- 

msnd. 
gormandise v. eat like a gormand [also spelt gormandise; 

synonymous cognates gourmandize, gourmandise"} 'go:?-n»n- 

daiz. 
gorse n. (furze, whin) geizs. 
gosban^k n. (large short-wingd hawk) 'gos-hc:k. 
gosling n, (young goose) 'gozhr). 
gospel n. (good tidings) 'gospsl. 
gospeller n. evangelist; reader; book; adherent [also spelt 

gospellarl 'gospa-lar. 

} ye, 5 cure; hthe, Qthin-, 3 a-sure, ds/oy; I shoe, tScAew; 
wtcfhen; ijsing; u whoever, iTcact, oiuW, ^wiool, lit, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, Abwt, o*. doot, t>otvo, t.\ic^, ^^^cXfe\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 241 

gossamer n. (filmy cobweb; gauze; hat; waterproof) 'ges9- 

msz; (improperly) 'gezd-maz. 
gossan n. decomposed rock [also spelt gossan^ 'gezsn. 
Gotluuaite n. (denizen of Qotham, England, or of New 

York city) 'goo-Ga-mait, 'geOs-mait, 'gota-mait. 
Gothioism n. (barbarism; conformity to Gothic style in ar- 
chitecture; study of the Gothic language; Gothic idiom) 

'geOi-sizsm. 
Gothioise v, [also spelt Gothicisel 'geOi-saiz. 
gonaolie n. (mode of painting) gwa:S. 
gonge n. (concave chisel; a scooping out; swindle) goods, 

gouds. 
gonge V. (cut with a gouge; scoop out; cheat) goods, gouds. 
gourd n. (fruit; plant; gourd-shell) goizd, goizd. 
gourde n. (dollar) goizd. 

gourmand n. 'gu:z-m9nd. same meaning as gormand, 
gourmet n. (epicure) go3'mee, 'go:3-met. 
gout n. (disease; drop) gaot. 
gont n. sluice, drain [also spelt gowtl gaot. 
gont n. taste [also spelt gouf} guu. 
govemante n. (obsolete) 'gAV3z-nant. 
governess n. (female ruler; instructress) 'gAV37-nis. 
government n. (rule; province, etc.) 'gAvarn-mant; (im~ 

properly) 'gAvar-mant, 'gAva-mant, 'gAvmant, 'gAbmant. 
governor n. ruler; regulator [also spelt governourl 'gAva- 

na?, (rapidly; familiarly; anteriorly, as a title) 'gAvna^; 

(also, rarely) 'gAva^-nar. 
goivn n. (garment) goon ; (vulgarly) goond. 
graoile adj. slender, thin, lean [also spelt gracil^ 'g^aesil. 
graoioso n. (buffoon) g^esi'oo-so, greSi'oo-sD. 
graoions adj. (pleasing; dispensing grace) 'gree-^as. 
gradate v. (shade off, etc.) gre'deet, g^a'deet, 'g^ee-det. 
gradation n. gze'dee-San, gra'dee-^an. 
gradatory adj. (proceeding by grades or steps) 'g^ee-da-to^i, 

'g^ee-data-^i ; 'gzaeda-to^i. 
gradin n. one of a series of steps ; altar-ledge [synonymous 

cognate gredinel 'gree-din. 
gradine n. gra'diin. same meaning as gradin. 
gradine n. (tootht chisel) g^a'diin. 
gradual adj. (of degree; proceeding step by step) 'graedsu-al, 

'g3adju-al. 
gradnand n. (student about to graduate) graedju'snd. 
graduate n. (one who holds a degree ; measuring-glass) 

c: law, b: f «r, a cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go nozv, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-inork (:) indicates that the preceding soMtv^ \^ \wv.v^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tTie ioWo-sNiti^ «^\\aJo\«., 



242 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'g^adsu-et, 'gradsu-it, 'gzsudsU'^t; 'g?aedju-et, 'gcaedjn-it, 
'gzxdju-9t. 

graduate adj. (graduated; holding a degree; arranged by 
degrees) 'geadsu-et, (assumptivly) 'g^aedsu-it; ialso) 'gzxd- 
ju-3t. 

graduate v, 'gzxdsu-et, 'grxdju-et. 

graffito n. drawing or writing scratcht on a wall [ploral 
graffiti^ gra'fii-to. 

graft n. (shoot inserted in another stock; transplanted tis- 
sue) g^aift, gra:ft, gzxift, 

grail n. cup [also spelt great, graal] g^eel. 

grail n. comb-maker's file [also spelt graillel gzeel, 

n. (seed ; wheat ; granule ; weight ; dye ; texture) gsreen. 
n. unit of weight [also spelt gramtnel g^xm. 

gramercy interj. (thank you; mercy on us!) 'geraemsz-si, 
g^a'me^si. 

graminivorous adj. (grass-eating) gzxmi'niv9-z93. 

grammar n. (knowledge of parts of speech, inflections, syn- 
tax, etc.) 'gzxm^z. 

grammaticise v. render grammatical [also spelt grammaii- 
cise'^ g?:)'mati-saiz. 

gran ad ill a n. passion flower [synonymous cognate grena- 
dillal grsensMild. 

granary n, storehouse for grain [ploral granaries'] 'graens-ei; 
(less properly) 'g^ee-na-^i. 

grand adj, (chief, main; great; lofty) g^send, (often) g^aeind, 
(in England, sometimes) gra:nd. 

grandam n. grandmother ; ancestress ; gossip [synonymous 
cognates grandame, grand-dame] 'g^aendam. 

grandame n. 'grxn-dem. same meaning as grandam. 

grandannt n. great-aunt [also spelt grand-aunt] 'gzaend-amt. 

grandcliild n. child of one's son or daughter [ploral grand- 
children] 'graend-tSaild, 'g^aen-tJaiM. 

granddad n. grandfather [also, sometimes, spelt grandad] 
'g^and-daed, 'g?aen-daed. 

granddaughter n. (daughter of one's son or daughter) 
'graend-dc:-t3^, 'g?aen-dc:-t3?. 

grandenr n. 'gzaendss?, 'graendjd?. 

grandfather n. (father of one's father or mother; fore- 
father) 'g?aBnd-fa:-d9^, 'g?an-fa:-d3r ; (sometimes, anteriorly, 
as a title) 'gzdtni^^z. 

grandiose adj. (imposing; pompous) grxndi'oos, (assump- 
tivly) 'grandi-os. 

j ye, Qcure; bthe, Q thin; 3 arrure, d^/oy; I shoe, tlchew; 
wwAen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, vjiu\V ^Miool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o: doot, ;>otio, t>Qe^, ^«i%ja6ut\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 243 



n. (grandmother) 'graend-ma: , 'geaen-ma: , 'g^aem- 

ma: , (sometimes, anteriorly, as a title) 'g3aenm3, 'g^am-ma. 
grandmamma n. (grandmother) 'gzaend-ms-ma: , 'gzaenms- 

ma: . 
grandmotlier n. (mother of one's father or mother) 'g^aend- 

mAddz, 'g?aen-mAd97. 
grandpa n. (grandfather) 'gzaend-pa: , 'g?aen-pa: , (sometimes, 

anteriorly, as a title) 'g^aenpg, 'g^aempg. 
grandsire n. (grandfather; forefather) 'gzaend-saiz, 'graen- 

saiz. 
grandson n. (son of one's son or daughter) 'g^aend-sAn, 

'graen-SAn, 
granite n. rock [also spelt granit} 'gzaenit. 
granivorons adj, (grain-eating) g^ae'nivs-zss, gz9'niv3-79s ; 

(rapidly) gzs'nivzds. 
grannom n. fly [also spelt granami 'g^aensm. 
granny n. grandmother [also spelt grannie \ ploral granniesl 

'g^aeni. 
granose adj. gre'noos, (assumptivly) 'grce-nos. 
grant n., v. (consent, etc.) gza:nt, g7a:nt, g^aernt. 
granter n. (one who grants) 'gram-tar. 
grantor n. (in law, one who makes a grant or conveyance) 

grain'te:^. 
grannlose adj, (granular) g^aenjo'loos, (assumptivly) 'g^aenjo- 

los. 
grapery n. (vinery) 'g^ee-pa-ri. 

graplilc adj, (of drawing, writing, etc.; vivid) 'graefik. 
grapnel n. grappling-device ; anchor [also spelt grapnallj 

'g^aepNl, 'g^aepNal. 
grasp V, clutch, seize; comprehend [past participle and pret- 
erit grasped, graspti graisp, g^aisp, grae:sp. 
grass n. (herbage, etc.) g7a:s, g?a:s, gzx:s. 
grate v. (rub harshly; pulverize by rubbing on an indented 

surface) g^eet. 
grate n. (framework of bars) g^eet. 
grater n. (utensil) 'g^ee-ta^. 

gratis adv., adj. (free) 'g^ee-tis ; (improperly) 'graetis. 
gratitnde n. (gratefulness) 'g^aeti-tgud ; (dialectally) 'g^aeti- 

tud. 
gratuitous adj. (free ; uncalled-for) gra'tgou-i-tas. 
gratuity n. gift, present; tip [ploral gratuities'! g^a'tgou-i-ti. 
gratulatory adj, (congratulatory) 'gzxtl^ld-tozi, 'graetgola- 

to^r. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ax kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souti^ \^ Vkxi-V^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the iQ\\o"Witi% s^>\?iXJi&, 



244 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

gravamen n. grievance [ploral gravamina'] grd'vee-mon. 
gravamina n. (ploral of gravamen) gza'vsmi-nd, gz9\zt- 

mi-na. 
grave n. (burial-place) g?eev. 
grave adj, (weighty ; serious ; low) g?eev. 
g^ave adj. (in music, slow, solemn) 'gra:-vi, g?a:v. 
V. (dig; incise; carve) g^eev. 
V. (clean) g3eev. 
graveled adj. covered with gravel [also spelt gravelled, grarh 

eld} 'graevald. 
graveling n. (the action of the verb gravel ; graveld surface) 

'graeva-hq, (rapidly) ^gzxwht). 
graveling n. parr or young salmon [also spelt gravelling; 

synonymous cognate gravelinj 'gzaeva-hq. 
gravelliness n. [also spelt gravelinessi 'g^aevsh-nis. 
gravelly adj, abounding in gravel [also spelt gravely"] 'gzxv9- 

h, (rapidly) 'g^aevli. 
<3raves n. (wine) g?a:v, g^a:v, g^aerv. 
gravid adj, (pregnant) 'gravid. 
gray adj. ash-colored, etc. [also spelt grey] gree. 
grazier n. (one who grazes cattle) 'g?ee-397. 
grease n. (animal fat) griis. 
grease v. smear or lubricate with grease [past participle and 

preterit greased and, sometimes, greast] g^iis, g^iiz. 
greaser n. (one who applies grease; nativ Mexican or South 

American) 'gzii-s^z, 'gzii-z^z, 
greasy adj. (smeard with grease, etc.) 'g^ii-si, 'g^ii-zi. 
great adj. (big; distinguish) g^eet, (when unstrest) gzet. 
greatcoat n. heavy overcoat ; top-coat [also spelt great-coat] 

'geeet-koot, (finally, often) g^eet'koot. 
greave n. (armor) g^iiv. 

greaves n,pL scraps in cakes; cracklings [former synony- 
mous cognate graves] gziivz. 
grebe n. (bird) griib. 
Grecize v. give Greek form to ; become Greek-like [also spelt 

Grecise, Graecize, Graecise] 'g^ii-saiz. 
Gregorian adj, (of Pope Gregory ist, etc.) g?i'go:-rf-3n. 
grenade n. (explosiv shell, etc.) gzi'need. 
grenadier n. (soldier; weaver-bird) grens'di:?. 
grenadin n. (coal-tar color) 'g^ens-din. 
grenadine n, (silk fabric) 'grens-din, g^ens'diin. 
grey adj, gzzt. see gray. 
greylionnd n. dog [also spelt grayhound] 'gree-haond. 

} ye, 5 cure ; * d the, 9 thin ; 3 axrure, ds ;oy ; J shoe, ^ tj chew; 

wze/Aen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, oiuU, aufool, itt, lis^^; 

o poetic; 9 over, e aerial; A.bift, o;doot, ^ioiio, «.\ie^, ^^%,o!«.% 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 245 

w. pig [also, formerly, spelt grisel gzais. 
Sridiron n. (cooking-utensil) 'g?id-ai-9zn. 
n. (sorrow) gziif. 
n, governor; overseer [also spelt greevel gziiv. 
Love V. afflict; feel grief [past participle and preterit 
grieved, grievd] griiv. 

adj. (afflictiv ; full of grief) 'g^ii-vas. 
n. (meat broild on a gridiron; grild dish),gziL 
n. (gridiron) qzil, 

V, broil on a gridiron [past participle and preterit 
grilled, grildl gzil, 

n. grating; grated opening [also spelt grill'} gzil. 
n. (wry face) gei'mees. 

n. (cat; she cat; old woman) gzi'maelkin, gzi- 
'mc:l-kin. 
g^rimly adv. (in a grim manner) 'geimli. 
S^rimy adj, (begrimed, dirty) 'g^ai-mi. 
grindstone n, (stone disk for grinding) 'g3aind-stoon, 'geain- 

ston; (dialectally) 'g2rin-ston. 
grip n.,v. (grasp) g^ip. 

gripe n. (fast hold; cramp-colic; clutch) gzaip. 
g^ripe V, (clutch; produce pain in as by constriction) gzaip. 
g^rippe n. influenza [also spelt gripl grip. 
grisette n. (French working-girl) g^i'zet. 
grisly adj. horrible; gruesome [also, rarely, spelt grizlyl 

'grizh. compare grizzly. 
gristle n. (cartilage) 'g^isal, 'gnsl; (improperly) 'geizal, 

'g^izl; (erroneously) 'g^istl. 
gristly adj. (of or like gristle; cartilaginous) 'gjisti. 
adj., n, (gray) 'gziz^l, *gziz\. 

adj. grayish : as, *grizzly bear [also spelt grizlyl 'gzi- 
zh. compare grisly, 
groan n. (sound of pain or grief) gzoon, 
groat n. (coin) geoot, (archaically) gzcit, 
groats n. p . (huld oats or wheat) groots, (archaically) g7c:ts. 
grooery n. [ploral groceries} 'gzoo-ss-zi, (rapidly) 'g3DO-S3i. 
gronunet n. [also spelt gromet} 'g^emit, 'grxmit. same 

meaning as grummet. 
grosbeak n. (bird) 'gz30s-biik. 

grosohen n. (silver coin) 'g^oo-Jan; (less properly) 'g^ejan. 
grotesque adj. (fantastic ; bizarre) gro'tesk. 
grotto n. cavern ; cave-like retreat [ploral grottoes, grottos} 
'gzeto. 

c: law, b: fur, aecat, e h<?t, ei hoy; a: iar^ ao now, a*, ask, a\V\V^\ 
\znglh-mork (:) indicates that the preceding soutvd \^ \^tv^\ 
Hress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo'Witift sv\\^\^. 



246 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

groundsel n. (weed) '(jzaund-ssl. 

groundsill n. ground-plate; sill [also spelt ground-sill; syn- 

enymous cognate groundseil 'graond-sil. 
gronse n. bird [ploral grousel g::aus. 

grovel V. lie prone ; crawl [present participle groveling, grov- 
elling; past participle and preterit groveled, grovelled, grov- 

cld} 'gze\9l. 
groveler n. one who grovels [also spelt groveller"} 'gzev^-ix, 

(rapidly) 'gze\\9z. 
gruel n. (liquid food) 'grou-al. 
gruesome adj. fearful, grisly [also spelt grcwsome'] 'qzm- 

som. 
grummet n. ring of rope; metal eyelet [also spelt grommet, 

grometl 'g^Amit. 
grysbok n. antelope [also spelt greisbokl 'g^ais-bok. 
g^aiac n. wood ; tree ; guaiacum [also spelt guiac"] 'gwoi-ak, 

'gwee-jaek. 
g^anaco n. (mammal) gwyna:-k3. 
g^anin n. [also spelt guanine} 'gwa:-nin. 
g^ano n. (sea-fowl manure) 'gwa:-no, gju'aenD. 
guarantee n. (person who makes a guaranty : correlatir of 

guarantor; also, the act of guaranteeing; security, guaran- 
ty) gaeran'tii, (anteriorly, often) 'gaeran-ti. 
guarantee v. (be a guarantee, warrant, or surety for; sectire, 

guaranty) gae^on'tii, (anteriorly, sometimes) 'gaeran-ti. 
guarantor n. (one who makes a guaranty or gives a seen* 

rity) gxz^n'teiz. 
guaranty n., v. 'gae^an-ti. same meaning as guarantee. 
g^ard n. protection ; watch ; protector [also spelt gardi ga:rd; 

(dialect ally) gja:?d. 
g^uardian n. protector; keeper [also spelt gardiani 'ga:r-di- 

3n, (less often) 'ga:^-dJ3n ; (dialect ally) gae'diin. 
g^ava n. (tree; fruit) 'gwa:-v3; (improperly) 'gwc:-v3. 
gubernatorial adj. (of a governor) guba^ns'toi-ei-at, gju- 

hdzns'toi-zi-ol. 
gudgeon n. (fish; bait; gullible person) 'gAdssn. 
Gueber n. Zoroastrian, Parsee [also spelt Guehre, Gheber, 

Ghebrey Ghebirl 'gii-bar, 'gee-bar. 
guelder-rose n. [also, formerly, spelt gelder-rosel 'gcldw- 

zooz. 
Guelpb n. papist [also spelt Guelfl gwelf. 
g^epard n. leopard [also spelt gefyard} 'gepard. 
guerdon n.. 7^ (reward) 'go:r-dan, 'gB:?-den. 

j ye, gcure; d ffie, Qtfiin; sarure, d^/oy; ^shoe, tj cAew; 
wzvhen; tjsing; u whoever, iteaict, oiuW, ^wiool, it't, lis*^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, t>otvo, ^\ic^, ^^^i6.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 247 

^ — . — ■, 

reza n. monkey [synenymous cegnate guersa} 'ge?i-z3. 

nuiey n. (vest) 'geenz*, 'gei^n-zi. 

rrilla n. irregular warfare [also spelt guerillal g^'zil^. 

BU V. (estimate; fancy; be pretty sure) ges. 

■t n. (one who is entertaind ; boarder) gest. 

faiv n. (loud coarse laughter ; horse-laugh) gA'fc: . 

lance n. (guiding; leadership) 'gai-dns, 'gai-ddns; {dia- 

Ttally) 'gjai-dns. 

le V. (lead, conduct) gaid; (dialectally) gjaid. 

Ion n. (flag) 'gai-d9n. 

Se n. shield-strap [also spelt gigel giis, giids. 

Id n. giid. see gild. 

Lder n. coin [also, formerly, spelt gilder"] 'gilda?. 

le n. (cunning) gait; (dialectally) gjail. 

ilanme n. (rebate-plane) gil'jdom. 

ilemot n. (sea-bird) 'gih-mat, 'gih-met. 

loclie n., V. gilooS. 

lotine n. (beheading-device) 'gila-tin, gila'tiin, (rarely) 

la-tin. 

.t n. (an offense; wickedness) gilt. 

ica n. (former gold coin; twenty-one shillings) 'gini. 

mre n. (lace) gi'pgorr. 

;e n. (behavior ; garb ; aspect) gaiz ; (dialectally) gjaiz; 

;ar n. (musical instrument) gi'ta:?. 

IT orfy. (of the throat or gula) 'gjou-la^. 

ksli n. (meat dish) 'gou-lse^. 

ill n. (ravine, gorge) gAltJ, (in Britain) gAlJ. 

Len n. (gold coin; silver coin) 'goul-dan, 'goldgn. 

IS n. (red) gjoulz. 

ible adj, (capable of being guld or duped) 'gAlg-bal. 

. arable n. (gum acacia) ga'mse^d-bik. 

matons adj. (like a gumma) 'gAmd-t9s. 

ales n. in mining, breadth [also spelt gunnis'\ 'gAnis, 

niz. 

nrale n. [also, sometimes, spelt gunnell 'gAn-weel, 'gAnal, 

nl. 

Imitation n. (surging) gerdsi'tee-^dn. 

atory adj. (of taste) 'gAsta-tDn, 'gAst9-t3?i. 

a-perclia n. (dried juice of Dichopsis gutta, etc.) gAta- 

rtja, gAta'pBi^-tSa. 

ated adj. (having drop-like spots or masses) 'gA-tetid, 

tee-tid. 

n. rope [ploral guysl gai. 

\ b: iur, a: cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a*. asV, ^\V\\.^% 
i-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souti^ t^ \€>Ti^\ 
mark C) indicates chief stress on the foWovJxti^ s^>\^X^fc« 



243 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

guy n. grotesque person ; fright [ploral guys'] gai. 
g^ny V. (treat as a guy; ridicule) gai. 
gxHniad n. fish [also spelt gwyniad, guiniad} 'gwini-ad. 
gybe V, put about; sail round [also spelt jibe] dsaib. 
gynmasiiiiii n. place for gymnastics; school [ploral gymna- 
sia, gymnasiumsl dsim'nee-sam, dsim'nee-zi-dm, dsim'nee- 

si-am. 
gymnast n. 'd3im-na:st, 'dsim-nxst. 
gymnastio adj. (of athletic exercises) dsim'naestik. 
gymnospemi n. (plant having naked seeds or ovules : cor- 

relativ of angiosperm) 'dsimna-speirm. 
gynaecenm n. women's apartments [plural gynaeceal dsini- 

'sii-3m, dsai-ni'sii-am. 
gynecologist n. specialist in diseases of women [also spelt 

gynaecologist] dsmi'kela-dsist, dsai-ni'kela-dsist. 
gynoecinm n. pistil or pistils collectivly [also spelt gynaeci- 

um, gynaeceum ; ploral gynoecia] dsi'nii-si-am. 
gynophore n. (stalk bearing the gynoecium, etc.) 'dsind- 

io:z, 'dsai-na-fo:?. 
gypsnin n. (nativ calcium sulfate) 'd^ipssm. 
gypsy n. see gipsy. 

gyra n. border, hem [ploral gyrae] 'd3ai-33, 
gyrate v. (rotate, whirl) 'dsai-^et. 
gyrate adj. (circinate ; meandrin) 'dsai-zet, 'dsai-s^t. 
gyration n. (wheeling; whirling) dsai'^ee-San. 
gyratory adjo (whirling) 'd^ai-zs-tozi, 'dsai-ra-ta^i. 
g^ri n. (ploral of gyrus) 'dsai-rai. 
gyronny adj. (having gyrons) 'dsai-^a-ni, dsai'zreni. 
g^yroscope n. (fly-wheel with freely-turning axis, etc.) 'djai- 

^3-skop. 
gyrovaji n,pl. (vagrant monks) dsaiVeva-dsai. 
gyms n. convolution; gyre [ploral gyri] 'dsai-^ds. 
gytrasli n. (specter, ghost) 'gai-tjaej. 
gyve n., v. fetter, shackle [also spelt give] dsaiv. 



lia inter], [also spelt hah] ha: , {when less strest) ha. 

habeas corpns phrase, n. (have the body : a writ requiring 
the body of a person to be brought before the judge or into 
court) hebi-as'ker^-pas, (less often) baebi-3s'ke:?-p3s. 

habergeon n. sleeveless coat of mail, etc. [synonymous ceg- « 
nate haubergeon] 'haebar-dsan, ha'bn^dsan, ha'beedsi-an. 

J ye, gcure; d ffie, thin-, ^aisute, ds/oy; S^Aoe, tlchevr; 
wwhen; i) sing; u whoever, iteact, \3iu\\, ^m\ooV -i.\V i\««e; 
O poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, ^oiio, ^\ie^, ^^%<iStv> 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 249 

liablliii&eiit n. (outfit, etc.) hs'bih-mdnt. 

habitat n. (locality; habitation) lixbi-txt. 

habitnal <idj. (of habit; customary) hd'bitSu-dl, ha^bitQU-al. 

Habitn^ n. (frequenter) hae-bit^u'ee, ha-bitSu'ee. 

baoienda n. (estate) aesi'cnds. 

badji n. pilgrim to the tomb of Mohammed at Mecca [also 
spelt hajjil liaedsi, liae-dsi. 

baeoceity n. (thisness) hek'sii-i-ti, hik'sii-i-ti. 

baemorrbage n, 'hems-zids. see hemorrhage, 

baft n. (handle) ha: ft, ha: ft, hse:ft. 

basgadab n. legend in the Talmud [also spelt hagadah ; syn- 
onymous cognate agadah; ploral haggadoth} hs'gar-dQ. 

bagiograpber n. (sacred writer; writer of saints' lives) 
haegi'eg^3-f3?, hed^i'egz^-f^z. 

ba-ba interj, [also spelt hah-hahl ha'hd: . 

ba-ba n. fence [synonymous cognate haw-hawl ha'ha: . 

baint v, (have not) hcent; (formerly) 'he:-vnt. 

bair n. (filamentous outgrowth, etc.) he:?, hea. 

bairif n. goose-grass [also spelt hayrifl 'hc:-rif. 

bakeem n. physician [also spelt hakimi hslciim. 

bablm n. (judge, ruler, governor) 'ha:-kim. 

balaobab n. law [also spelt halakah; ploral halachothi hs- 
1a:-k3, hd'laekd. 

balberd n. weapon [synonymous cognate halberti 'hselbsrd; 
(less properly) 'hc:l-ba?d. 

baJoyon n. (kingfisher) 'haelsi-sn, 'hae}$i-3n. 

balf n. (one of two equal parts, etc.) ha:f, ha:f, haerf. 

balfpenny n. (coin) 'hee-pa-ni, (anteriorly) 'hee-pani, 'hee- 
pNi; (also) 'ha:f-peni, 'ha:f-p3-ni, 'ha:-p3-ni, (anteriorly) 
'ha-pNi, 'hapNi; 'hae:f-peni, 'haepa-ni. 

balibnt n. fish [synonymous cognate holibut} 'haeh-b^t, 'hoh- 
bat. 

ballelnjab inter j, praise the Lord [also spelt halleluiah ; syn- 
onymous cognate alleluia'] haeh'lou-ja. 

ballmote n. court-baron; [also spelt halmotel 'hc:l-mot. 

ballo interj. calling attention, expressing surprise, etc. [also 
spelt halloa, hello, hullol hd'loo. 

balloo V, shout halloo; urge on with shouts; also, hallo [past 
participle and preterit hallooed, halloodl ha'lou. 

balloo interj. (inciting dogs to the chase, calling attention, 
etc.) halou. 

balloiv v» make holy, etc. [past participle and preterit hal- 
lowed and, sometimes, hallowd} 'haelo. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cot, © hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvc so\rcvd \^ \^^V> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ieWo^iti^ ^^>\3j^e.. 



250 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lialloived adj, [also, sometimes, spelt hallowd"} luet^d, {some- 
times) 'haelo-id. 

lialm n. ha:m, hc:m. same meaning as haulm. 

"halo n. circle of light, etc. [ploral kalos, haloes, halones} 
'hee-lo. 

haloid n. (salt-like) 'hae-leid, 'hee-leid, 'haelo-id. 

halter^ n. (rope with headstall) ^10:1-19?. 

halter' n. poiser of an insect [ploral halteresl 'has^tsz. 

lialteres n. (ploral of halter^) hsrti:-?iz. 

halve v» divide into two equal parts, etc. [past participle and 
preterit halved, halvdl ha:v, ha:v, hae:v. 

halyard n. rope or tackle for raising or lowering a sail, 
etc. [also spelt halliard; synonymous cognate haulyard] 
'hxHd^d. 

hamadryad n. wood-nymph ; serpent [ploral hamadryads, 
hamadryadesl hama'drai-ad, 'hama-drai-ad. 

hamadryas n. (baboon) hd'maedri-ds, ha'mee-dri-ds, hxmd- 
'drai-3S, 'haema-drai-as. 

hamate adj» (hookt) 'hee-met, 'hee-mat. 

Hamite n. (descendant of Ham) 'hx-mait. 

hammer n. (pounding-tool, etc.) 'hxma?. 

hammock n. (hanging bed) 'hxmak. . 

handbook n, (manual) liaend-bok, ^sen-bok. 

handcuff n. manacle [dialectal synonymous cognate handy- 
cuff} 'hand-kxf, Tiaen-kAf, 'haenkaf. 

handful n. as much as would fill the hand [ploral handfuls 
and, less properly, handsfull 'haend-fol, 'haen-fol, 'haenfa}. 

handicap n. (race or competition in which the chances of the 
competitors are equalized; extra encumbrance) liaendi-kaep. 

handix^ork n. (work of the hands) 'hsendi-WB:zk. 

handkerchief n. a cloth for wiping the face, nose, etc. [dia- 
lectal synonymous cognates handkercher, hankercher; ploral 
handkerchiefs} 'haeqkar-tSif. 

handsome adj. (handy; apt; fair; seemly; beautiful) 'haen- 
sam. 

hansom n. (cab) 'haenssm. 

happen v, occur; befall; chance to be [past participle and 
preterit happened, happend} 'haepan, (often) 'haepm. 

happiness n. (pleasurable content; felicity) 'haepi-nis. 

hara-kiri n. (suicide by disembowelment) hai-z^'kv-zi, haesrs- 
'ki:-?r. 

harangue v. declaim [also spelt harang; past participle and 
preterit hanmgued, harangd] ha'raeq. 

] ye, Qcure; df/ie, O^ftin: 3 axrure, d^/oy; S^/ioe, tSrfcew; 

wjvhen; tj sing; u whoever, i react, of«U, oufool, itt, lise^; 

o poetic; 9 over ^ e aerial, A.b«t, o*. Aoot, ^oxvo, t\ie^, ^^^cl^; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 251 

liarass v. trouble, worry [past participle and preterit ha- 
rassed, harasti 'hae^ss; {improperly) hd'zaes, ha'^aeis. 

liarbinger n. (harborer; forerunner) 'ha:7-bin-d397. 

liarbor n. shelter; haven [also spelt harbour} 'haiz-h^z. 

liarborage n. [also spelt harbourage} ^haiz-h^-zids. 

barborer n. [also spelt harbourer} ^haiz-b^-z^z. 

bard-pressed adj. [also spelt hard-prest} ha:?d'p3est, {as- 
sumptivly) 'ha:3d-p3est. 

barebell n. wild hyacinth ; bluebell lalso spelt hairbell} 'he:z- 
bel. 

barebrained adj, having no more brain than a hare; rash 
[also spelt harebraind, hairbrainedl 'he:^-b3eend. 

bareem n. [also spelt harim} hs'ziim. same meaning as ha- 
rem, 

barelip n. (cleft upper lip) 'heizAip. 

barem n. the part of a Mohammedan dwelling occupied by 
the women ; the wives and concubines collectivly of a Turk, 
Persian, or Indian Mussulman [also spelt haram; synony- 
mous cognates hareem, harimi 'he:-z3m, (less often) 'ha:- 
73m. 

barioot n. (ragout; kidney-bean) 'haeei-ko, 'hae?i-ket. 

barken v, listen [also spelt hearken; past participle and 
preterit harkened, harkend} 'ha^kan, 'hai^-kan. 

Harleian adj. (of Robert Harley) 'hai^-li-sn, ha!:1ii-9n. 

barleqnin n. (buffoon, clown) 'ha:?-h-ku)in, 'ha:7-h-kin. 

barmonlo adj, (musical; harmonious; of harmony) ha?- 
'menik. 

barmonlca n. (musical glasses; harmonicon) ha?'meni-k9. 

barmonlcoii n, (small musical reed-instrument ; orchestrion ; 
acoustic-flame apparatus) ha^'meni-kan. 

barmonize v. [also spelt harmonisel 'ha:?-m9-naiz. 

barpsiobord n. (piano-like instrument) 'ha7psi-ke:rd. 

barqnebns n. gun [also spelt harquebuse, harquebuss; syn- 
onymous cognate arquebus} 'ha^kuji-bas ; (erroneously) 
'harkwi-bjus. 

barqnebnsier n. soldier [also spelt harquebussier and, some- 
times, arquebusier} ha^kujiba'siir, harkiba'si:?, a^kujiba'si:?, 
Q^kibd'si:?. 

barridan n. vixen [also spelt haridan} 'hsen-dn. 

barrier n. (one who harries; falcon) 'h3szi-9z. 

bart n. (male deer) haizU 

bartbeest n. antelope [synonymous cognate hartebeest} 
'ha:?t-biist. 

c: law, b: f «r, a cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedit\ft souxv^ \^ Vrci'SkN 
stress-mark ( ) indicates chief stress on tltt.e lo\\o>«\ti^ s^'^'siXivfc. 



252 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

liartebeest n. [ploral harteheests, harfebeest"] ^ort^-biist, 
ha:?-t3-biist, 'ha:zt-biist. same meaning as hartbeest, 

Hartleian adj. (of David Hartley) 'ha^tz.i-an, haztln-^n, 

Jtartsliom n. (formerly, •horn of a hart; latterly, smelling- 
salts) 'ha:?ts-he:zn. 

hamm-scanmi adj. (heedless) 'he:-73m-8ke:-;9m, 'haez^m- 
skse^dm. 

liaruspez n. Roman soothsayer of Etruscan origin [synon- 
ymous cognate haruspice; ploral haruspicesl hs'^A-speks. 

liaslieesli n. 'hae-SiS* ha'SiiS. same meaning as hashish. 

JkaMhimh n, Indian-hemp preparation [synonymous cognate 
hasheesh} 'hajij. 

liaslet n. roast meat; pig's fry [synonymous cognate harslet] 
'haestat, 'hee-stat, 'hai-zlat. 

liasp n. (door-clasp, etc.) ha:sp, ha:sp, hae:sp. 

liassock n. (tussock; cricket) 'hsessk. 

hasten v. hurry [past participle and preterit hastened, has- 
tendl 'hee-s3n, 'hee-sn, {in parts of the north of England 
and Scotland, and the north of Ireland, whence also by some 
in America) 'hee-stan, 'hee-stn. 

Jiastiness n. (hurriedness ; quickness of temper) liee-sti-nis. 

liatcliel V. hackle, heckle [present participle hatcheling, 
hatchelling; past participle and preterit hatcheled, hatch- 
elled, hatcheldl 'haetSal. 

liatcliet n. (light short-handled ax) 'haet^it. 

liatclix^ay n. (opening in a deck or floor) 'hatS-wee. 

hatred n. 'hee-tjid; {dialectally) 'hcet-tjid. 

lianglity adj (proud, arrogant) 'hc:-ti. 

hanlm n. stems and stalks ; straw [synonymous cognate 
halm"] hc:m. 

lianiieli n. (part between ribs and thigh; leg and loin) 
hc:ntS, haintS, haintj, (also, and in Britain normally) hc:n$, 
ha:nS, ha:nS. 

lianiit V. (frequent, etc.) hc:nt, ha:nt, ha:nt. 

hautboy n. wind-instrument; strawberry [also, in the sense 
of strawberry, spelt hautbois; also, formerly, in the sense 
of wind-instrument, spelt hoboyl 'hoo-boi. 

hantenr n, (loftiness, haughtiness) ho'te:?. 

have V. haev, (when less strest) hav, av, v. 

havoo n. devastation [also spelt havoc k} 'haevak. 

Hawaiian adj. (of Hawaii) ha'wai-jan. 

haxvse n. (the part of a ship's bow where the hawse-holes are, 
etc.) hc:z. 

i ye, g cure; b the, G thin;^ 3 arure, ds joy; J shoe, tj chew; 
tuwhen; tjsing; u whoever, iteact, oiuVV, ^iwiool, i^t, lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbttt, o*. doot, ooiio, «.\ic^, ^^\LQ^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 253 

JkSLWuer n, (cable; warping-rope) 'hc:-s33, 'hc:-zaf. 

Hasrtian adj, (of Hayti) 'hee-ti-an. 

harinegs n. (mistiness; fogginess) 'hee-zi-nis. 

hasy adj, (misty) 'hee-zi. 

lie noun-pron. hii, (when less sir est) hi, i, i. 

head n. upper or anterior division of the body [also spelt 

hedl hed. 
heal V, cure, repair [past participle and preterit healed, 

healdl hiil. 
healtli n. soundness of body [also spelt helthi heiO. 
healtliy adj. [also spelt helthyl 'helOi, 'heltOi. 
hear v, hi:?, his. 

heard v, (past participle and preterit of hear) hsr^d. 
hearken v. see harken. 

hearse n. (bier; carriage for the dead) hsizs. 
heart n, organ of circulation [also spelt hart] ha'.zt. 
hearten v, encourage [also spelt harten ; past participle and 

preterit heartened, hartendl 'ha^tn, 'haiz-tn. 
hearth n. fireplace floor; fireside [also, sometimes, spelt 

harthi ha:?6, hsizB. 
hearty adj. courageous; cordial; kindly [also spelt hartyl 

Tia^ti, 'ha:z-ti, 
heath n. (open uncultivated land; plant) hiiO. 
heathen n. pagan, Gentile, etc. [ploral heathen, heathens'! 

'hii-dan, 'hii-dn. 
heathenize v. [also spelt heathenise] 'hii-dd-naiz. 
heather n. ling, heath [also spelt hether} 'heboz. 
heanme n. (helmet) hoom. 
heaven n. sky ; firmament ; celestial abode [also spelt hevenj 

lievan, 'hevn, (dialectally, vulgarly) 'hebm. 
heavy adj. ponderous [also spelt hevyl 'hevi. 
heavy adj, (having the disease called heaves) 'hii-vi. 
hebdomad n. (seven days; a week; group of seven superhu- 
man beings) 'hebda-mad, 'hebda-maed. 
hebdomadal adj. (weekly) heb'demd-dl. 
Hebraism n. (Hebrew idiom or quality) 'hii-bre-izam. 
Hebraize v. [also spelt Hebraisel 'hii-b^e-aiz. 
Hecate n. (hag, witch) 'heks-ti. 

hecatomb n. (great sacrifice) 'heks-toum, 'heks-tem. 
hectogram n, one hundred grams [also spelt hectogramme'] 

'hekta-g^aem. 
hectoliter n. a capacity-measure of one hundred liters [also 

spelt hectolitre] 'hekta-hi-ta^. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk^ ai ktte\ 
length-mark (;) indicates that the preceding somti^ as \wvsk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tltt.e ie\\o^\Tv^ ^>f\^^^^^' 



254 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

heotometer n. a measure of one hundred meters [also spelt 

hectometre'^ 'hekta-mii-tar. 

hedsehos n. (urchin, etc.; plant) Hieds-heg. 

hedonism n. (happiness-theory) 'hii-dd-nizam, liedd-nizam. 

heel n. (hinder part of the foot) hiil. 

Hegelian adj, (of Hegel) hi'gii-H-dn, hi'gee-li-sn. 

hesemonio adj, (ruling; supreme) hedsi'menik, hidsi'menik, 
higi'menik. 

hegemony n. (leadership) hi'dsema-ni, hi'gema-ni, liedsi- 
moni, liegi-moni, 'hii-d3i-moni, 'hii-gi-moni, liii-dsi-meni, 
'hedsi-meni. 

hegira n. flight of Mohammed from Mecca to Medina; exo- 
dus [also spelt hejiral hi'dsai-ra, 'hedsi-za. 

hegumen n. (head of a religious community; hegumenos) 
hi'gjou-man. 

heh inter], (expressing sorrow, surprise, etc., or calling at- 
tention) hee. 

heifer n. (young cow) 'hefs?. 

heigh inter j, calling attention, etc. [also spelt hey and, some- 
times, At] hai, hee. 

heigh-ho interj, expressing surprise, languor, yawning, etc. 
[also spelt heigho, hey hoi hai'oo, 'hai-ho, liee-ho. 

height n. altitude, etc. [also spelt hight; synonymous cognate 
highth} hait; (improperly) haitO. compare highth. 

heighten v, raise; intensify [also spelt highten; past parti- 
ciple and preterit heightened, height end"] 'hai-tn. 

heinons adj, (hateful; atrocious) 'hee-nas; (improperly) 'hii- 
nss. 

heir n. (one who inherits; offspring; possessor) z:z. 

heirloom n, (chattle that follows the devolution of real es- 
tate ; article or characteristic handed down from generation 
to generation) 'e:r-loum. 

heirship n. (state of an heir; inheritance) 'e:z-Sip. 

heliacal adj. (near the sun) hi'lai-s-ksl. 

helices n. (ploral of helix) 'heh-siz. 

helicin n. (glycoside of salicylic acid ; also, an oily substance 
from snails) 'heh-sin. 

helicine adj, spiral, coild; of the helix of the ear [also, 
sometimes, spelt helicini 'heh-sin, Tieh-sain. 

helicoid adj, (like a helix; screw-shaped; spiral) 'heh-keid. 

heliocentric adj, (referred to the sun as a center) hii-li-o- 
'sentjik. 

heliotrope n. (plant; bloodstone; sun-dial) 'hii-H-a-tjop. 

j ye, gcure; bfhe, f/»in ; 3 asure, ds/oy; I shoe, tjc/iew; 
w when: t) sing; u whoever, i react, u full, ou fool, i tt, 11 see; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, Abut, o*. Aoot, ^o-ao, ^\ic^, ^^%a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 255 

helix n. spiral, coil; volute [ploral helices, heHxes'\ 'hii-hks, 

'hehks. 
hellebore n. (plant) 'heh-bo:?. 
Hellene n. (Greek) 'he-Hn, he'hin. 

Hellenio adj, (of the Hellenes; Grecian) he'lenik, he'hi-nik. 
Hellenise v. use Greek ; adopt Hellenistic ways ; make Greek 

[also spelt Hellenisel 'heh-uaiz. 
Hellespontine adj. of the Hellespont [also, sometimes, spelt 

Hellespontin'] 'heh-spentin, heli'spentin, heh'spen-tain. 
hello inter], hslioo. same meaning as hallo, 
helm n. (tiller; steering-wheel) helm; (dialectally) 'helam. 
helot n. (Spartan serf) 'heist, ^hii-lst. 
helotry n. (helots coUectivly) 'hela-tji, 'hii-la-tji. 
helter-skelter adj. (in disorderd haste) helts^'skelts?, {as- 

sumptivly) 'heltar-skelta?. 
helve n. handle; helv-hammer [also spelt heM helv. 
helve V. [also spelt helv\ past participle and preterit helved, 

helvd'\ helv. 
hemal adj. of the blood [also spelt haemal} 'hii-msl. 
hemapophysis n. second element of the hemal arch of a 

vertebra [also spelt haemapophysis] hema'pefi-sis, hims- 

'pefi-sis. 
hematic adj. of blood [also spelt haematic} hi'maetik. 
hematin n. constituent of hemaglobin [also spelt haematin, 

hemaiine, haemaiine} 'hema-tin, 'hii-ma-tin. 
hematite n. bloodstone [also spelt haematite} 'hema-tait, 

'hii-ma-tait. 
hemiopia n. (eye-defect : hemiopy, hemiopsy, hemiopsia, 

hemianopsia) hemi'oo-pi-a. 
hemiplegia n. (paralysis of ' one side of the body) hemi- 

'pi-ii-dsi-a. 
hemistich n. (half a line of verse; short line) liemi-stik. 
hemoglobin n. coloring-matter of the red blood-corpuscles 

[also spelt haemoglobin ; synonymous cognate hematoglo- 

hin, haematoglobin} hema'gloo-bin, hima'gbo-bin. 
hemorrhage n. exccssiv bleeding [also spelt haemorrhage} 

'hema-zrids. 
hemorrhoid n. pile [also spelt haemorrhoid} liemd-reid. 
hence adv. (from here; away; henceforth; from this; there- 
fore) hents, (when unstrest) hens; (also, and in Britain 

normally) hens. 
henceforth adv. (from this time forth) hents'fo:z6, hens- 

'io'.zQ; (anteriorly) 'hents-fo:r0, 'hens-fo:r0. 

m 

c: law, b: f «ri ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the preceding somiv^ \^ \wvsl\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie io\\oN»i\Tv^ «^>\?iXi^^* 



256 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hendiadys n. (the use of two words joind by a conjunction 

to express a single complex idea) hen'dai-d-dxs. 
hepatic adj, (of the liver) hi'paetik. 
hepatite n. (liver-stone) 'hepd-tait; (less Properly) 'hri-pa- 

tait. 
hepatisation n. [also spelt hepafisation] hepati^xec-Jdn, 

hepa-tai'zee-San. 
hepatise v, render liver-like [also spelt hepafisel Hiepa-taiz; 

(less properly) 'hii-p3-taiz. 
Heptatench n. (the first seven books of the Old Testament) 

'hepta-tguk. 
heptavalent adj. (having a valency of seven) hep'taev9-}ant 
her noun-pron,, adj.-pron. he:?, (when unstrest) hoz, »;. 
Heraclean adj. of Heracles or Hercules [also spelt Heraclei- 

an, Herakleani hezd^kz^ii-dn. 
Heraolidan adj, of the Heracleidae or descendants of Her- 
cules [also spelt H eracleidan'l hersHcLai-dn. 
Heraolitean adj. (of Heraclitus of Ephesus) herd-lcLai'txi- 

3n. 
heraldic adj. (of heraldry) hi'raeldik; (improperly) 'hecsl- 

dik. 
herb n. (plant with a non-woody stem) B:zb, he:7b. 
herbaceons adj. (herb-like) a^^ee-SdS, har^ee-Sas. 
herbage n. (herbs collectivly; pasture of land) 'B:7-bids, 

TiBrr-bids. 
herbal n. (book on herbs) 'arr-bal, 'hair-bal. 
herbal adj. (of herbs) 'ar^-bal, 'hei^-bal. 
herbarium n. collection of dried plants [ploral herbariums, 

herbaria'] hB?'be:-?i-3m. 
herbesoent adj. (growing like an herb) hBz'besant. 
herbiTorons adj. (herb-eating) har'biva-^as. 
herborise v. botanize [also spelt herborise, herbartsel 'b:z- 

ba-^aiz, 'hB:?-b3-?aiz. 
herborizer n. [also spelt herboriserl 'arr-ba-rai-zar, Iibiz- 

herby adj. (full of herbs ; grassy ; herb-like) 'B:?-bi, TiBtr-bi. 
heronlean adj, (of or like Hercules ; strong ; immense) hBZ- 

'kgou-li-an; (improperly) hB?kgo'hi-9n. 
herd n. (drove, fjock) hs'.zd. 
hereafter adv. (in the sequel ; in future ; in the life to come) 

hi:r'a:f-t3?, (when less strest) hir'a:f-t3?. 
hereby adv, (by this means) hiir'bai, (when less strest) his- 

Hbai; (anteriorly) 'hii^-bai. , 

j ye, Qcure: hthe, Q thin; 3 airure, dfijoy; j shoe, t^chew; 
ww/ten; rjsing; u whoever, I react, uiuu, xsMtool, itt, lise^; 
o poetic; 9 over, eaerial, aWI, ^\doot» ^ono, ^\ie^, ^^^«a^fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 257 



liereditament n. (heritable property; heirship) he^i'ditd- 
mant, hi'rcdita-mant. 

liereditajry adj. (descending by inheritance) hi'zedi-tezi, hi- 
'redi-ta^i, (in Britain, often) hi'eedi-tji. 

berein adv. (in this place; in this particular) hi:?'in, (when 
less strest) hir'in, hi'ein; (often, anteriorly) 'hi:?-in. 

lieresiaroli n. (leader or founder of a heresy) hi'^ii-si-airk, 
lie7isi-a:zk, hi'rii-zi-a:?k. 

heresy n. unorthodox doctrin [plural heresies'! 'he?i-si. 

heretio n. (one who rejects an accepted doctrin) 'hezi-tik. 

hereto adv. (to this document) hi:?'tou, (when less strest) 
hir'tou; (anteriorly) hi:r-to. 

hereunto adv. (unto this place; to this thing; hereto) hv.z- 
An'tou, (anteriorly) hi:r'An-tu. 

hereupon adv. (immediately following upon this) hi:?-3'pen, 
(anteriorly) 'hi:?-3-pen. 

here'with adv. (with this; hereby) hi:?Vid; (anteriorly) 
'hi:z-wid. 

heritriz n. heiress [also spelt heretrixl 'hezi-t£iks. 

hermaphrodite n. (an individual that is both male and fe- 
male) hdz'maefsd-dait. 

hermenentios n. (interpretation, as of Scripture) hszmi- 
'njou-tiks. 

hero n. man of superior qualities, favord by the gods; chief 
male personage [plural heroes! 'hi:-?o, 'hv.-zo. 

heroine n. female hero [also spelt heroin! 'he?o-in; (improp- 
erly) 'hi:-?o-in. 

heroism n. (action and qualities of a hero) 'hezo-izsm. 

heron n. bird [synenymous cegnate hern! 'heean. 

herpes n. (skin-disease) 'hsz-piz, 'hB:z-piz. 

herring n. (fish) 'he?ir|. 

herself noun-pron. hsz'self, (when less strest) haz'self, ^z- 
'self. 

hesitate v, (hold back; falter) 'hezi-tet, 'hesi-tet. 

Hessian adj. (of Hesse, a grand duchy of Germany) 'heSsn, 
'hesi-sn. 

hetaera n. mistress ; paramour ; harlot [plural hetaerae ; syn- 
onymous cognate hetaira! hi'ti:-Z3. 

hetaira n. [plural hetairai! hi'tai-srs. same meaning as he- 
taera, 

heteroohromons adj. (of different colors) hetdzs^^DO-mas ; 
(less properly) heta'rek^a-nias. 

heterodox adj. (unorthodox) 'hetszo-deks, 'het£9-deks. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, hot, ei boy ; a*, far, au tioou, ^*. a^, ^\V.\\r.\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somxv^ a& \^^V^ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \ii^ i©\\o'«N\Tv^ ^^^^iJOis. 



258 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

heterogamy n. (indirect fertilization, etc.) hetd'eegs-mi. 
heteroseneity n. (state of being heterogeneous) hetass- 

dsi'nii-i-ti, (rapidly) hctjadsi'mi-i-ti. 
heteroseneons adj. (diverse ; composed of parts of different • 

kinds : opposed to homogeneous) het979'd3ii-ni-9s. 
heterophemy n. (the saying of one thing when another is 

meant) hetaza'fii-mi, 'hetaza-fimi, hcta'eofi-mi. 
heteropliyllons adj. (having several different kinds of 

leaves : said of a plant) hetssrd'f ilds ; (less properly) hetd- 

'eefi-las. 
heterosoian n. person having a different shadow : ^a name 

applied to inhabitants of one temperate zone as contrasted 

with those of the other [plural heteroscians, heteroscii] 

heta'reSan. 
he'W V. strike, chop, cut, etc. [past participle hewn, hewed, 

hewd; preterit hewed, hewdl hgou, qovu 
hexagonal adj. (six-angled; six-sided) heks'aega-n!, hek- 

'saega-nl. 
hezastioh n. (a group of six lines of verse) lieksd-stik. 
Hezatenoh n. (first six books of the Old Testament) liek- 

s9-tguk. 
hey inter j, (calling attention) hee. 

heyday inter j. (denoting gaiety, wonder, etc.) 'hce-dce. 
hiatns n. break; opening [plural hiatuses, hiatus'l hai'ee-tss. 
hibernate v. (winter) 'hai-bae-net ; (less properly) hai'bsz- 

net, hai'bBie-net. 
Hibemioiie v. make Irish [also spelt Hibernicise'] hai'bBZ- 

ni-saiz. 
hibemization n. a making Irish [also spelt hibernisation} 

hai-ba^ni'zee-San, hai-bar-nai'zee-San. 
hiconp n. spasm of the breathing-organs [also spelt hiccough! 

'hikap. 
hickory n. (tree; wood) 'hika-ri, (anteriorly) 'hilrsi. 
hidalgo n. (gentleman) hi'dselgo. 

hideons adj, (horrible; ugly) 'hidi-as; (improperly) 'hidsss. 
hie V, hasten ; go quickly [present participle hying ; past par- 
ticiple and preterit hiedl hai. 
hierarchy n. (one of three divisions of angels; priestly 

rule; class) Tiai-a-^arkT. 
hieroglyphic n. (of the nature of Eg3'^ptian writing) hai- 

ara'ghfik. • 

hieroglyphist n. (writer of hieroglyphs, etc.) hai-a'rogh- 

fist, 'hai-3^3-ghfist. 

J ye, g cure ; d the, 8 thin ; 5 azure, d^ joy ; ^ shoe, tj chew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i react, xjiuW, ^mIooV, i.\\., Tk.^ee\ 
o poetic; over, e aerial, a. but, o*. Aoot, Miotic, ^\ic^, ^^\L<]^ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 259 

l&ieropliant n.. (expounder of sacred mysteries) 'hai-9Z9- 
faent, hai'e^s-fsnt. 

liigli-ininded adj, hai'main-did, (assutnptivly) 'hai-main- 
did. 

liigli-priest n. hai'p^iist, 'hai-psiist. 

liiglitli ». [also, formerly, spelt heighth'\ hai6. same mean- 
ing as height, 

liigli'wayiiian n. highway robber [plural highwaymen} 'hai- 
wemsn. 

liilarions adj, (cheerful; rollicking) hai'}e:-zi-9s, hi'}e:-?i-9S ; 
(improperly) hi'lae^i-ss. 

liilarity n. (cheerfulness; merriment) hai'lae?i-ti, hi'laeei-ti. 

liillo inter j. hailing a distant or occupied person ; expressing 
surprise at an unexpected meeting [also spelt hilloa} 'hi-lo, 
hiloo. 

biUook n. (small hill) 'hilak. 

hllnm n. eye of a bean; hilus; small aperature [ploral hila] 
'hai-lsm. 

Itini noun-pron, (objectiv of he) him, {when unstrest) im. 

Himalayan adj. (of the Himalayas) hima'tee-jsn, hims'lee- 
sn, hi'ma:-l3-J3n, hi'ma:-li-3n, hima'lai-an. 

Itimation n. Greek garment [plural himatia'l hi'maeti-sn. 

Itimself noun-pron, him'self, (ivhen less strest) im'self. 

Mnder adj. (situated behind ; posterior) 'hain-dd?. 

liinder v. (keep back; impede) 'hinds?. 

liindranoe n. obstruction [synonymous cognate hinderancel 
'hindrsns. 

Hindu n. Aryan of Hindustan [also spelt Hindool 'hin-du, 
hin'duu. 

Hindnise v. render Hindu [also spelt Hindooise, Hindooisel 
'hindu-aiz. 

Hindustani adj. of Hindustan [also spelt Hindoostaneel 
hindo'sta:-ni, hindo'sta:-m. 

hinnible adj. (able to neigh or whinny) 'hind-bal. 

liip n. fruit of rose [synonymous cognate hep"} hip, 

Itippodrome n. (race-course, circus) 'hipa-drom. 

Mppog^ff n. fabulous creature like a griffin but with hind- 
quarters like those of a horse [also spelt hippogryph} 
'hipa-grif. 

liippopotamns n. African river-horse [ploral hippopotamus- 
es, hippopotami"] hipa'peta-mss. 

liippnrate n. (salt of hippuric acid) 'hipgo-^et, hi'pgor-rat. 

liippnrio adj, (of urine) hi'pQo:-?ik. 

c: law, b: f«r, a cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now), ^\ asV, «l\V\\&n 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound \^ \«n%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo^m^ ^^VaSs^ft^ 



260 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Mroine adj. of a goat ; goat-like ; lustful [also, sometimei, 
spelt liircin"] 'hersin, 'hsz-sain; liB:z-sin, 'hB:?-sain. 

liirsnte adj, (shaggy; hairy; of hair) hez'sgout, 'hBZ-sqiA. 

Ills adj.-pron, hiz, (when less strest) iz, his. 

liiss V, make a sharp spirant sound, as that of 8 [past parti- 
ciple and preterit hissed, hist} his. 

liist inter j. (enjoining silence; urging a dog) hst, 8:t, {also) 
hist. 

liistoriosraplier n. (historian) histozi'egzs-fss. 

history n. (narrativ of past events) 'hista-zi, {anteriorly, 
rapidly) 'histji. 

histrionio adj. (theatrical, dramatic) histsi'enik. 

hitherto adv, (until now; as yet; thus far) hidaz'tou, {an- 
teriorly) 'hidaz-tu. 

h'm inter j, also spelt hm (hem! hum!) Mm, (murmuring as- 
sent) m. 

ho interj, expressing surprise, admiration, triumph, taunting, 
etc. [also spelt hoa"] hoo, ho.' 

hoaotxin n. bird [synonymous cognates hoaczin, hoatsin, ho- 
asin} ho'aektsin, ho'aektzin. 

hoar adj. (white, gray) ho:z. 

hoard n., v, (treasure) h3:?d. 

hoarhonnd n. see horehound, 

hoarse adj. (raucous) ho:zs, 

hoax n., v. (humbug) hooks. 

hobbledehoy n. stripling; clumsy youth; top [synenymous 
cognates hobbadehoy, hobbedehoyi 'hebaldi-hoi. 

hobbler n. retainer bound to maintain a hobby; light horse- 
man [also spelt hobler} 'heblar. 

hobbler n. (one who hobbles in his gait) 'hebls?. 

hobgoblin n. (tricksy imp; bogy) 'heb-gebhn, heb'geUin. 

hobo n. tramp [plural hobos, hoboesl 'hoo-bo. 

hoo n. old card-game [also, formerly, spelt hockl hok. 

hook n. joint [also spelt houghl hek. 

hookey n. feast at harvest-home [also spelt hockay; synon- 
ymous cognates hawkey, hawkie, horkeyl lioki. 

hockey n. hookt stick; the game of shinny, shinty, bandy 
[synonymous cognates hawky, hawkey, hookey} 'hoki. 

hoenfl-poeiui n. (jugglery; deception) hoo-kss'poo-kds. 

kodcapodco M. (haricot; medley) 'hods-pods. 
M. (implement) hoo. 
_ M. laxge cask [also spelt hogshedl liogz-hed ; {dia- 
Ihetally) Tx agsid. 

; bike, Bthin; sa^rure, dj/oy; SjAoe, tJcAew; 
; n whoever, i react, Diuu, ^>3LiooV "^<t, lis^*; 
fl«crial, Abut, 0-. dooT, ;>oti.o, t.\ic^, ^^vxv. 




DICTIONARY. OF HARD WORDS 261 

lioiden n. boisterous girl; romp [also spelt hoyden} 'hei-dn. 

lioist V, (raise) heist; (vulgarly) haist. 

lioity-toity adj. (frolicsome; huffy) hoi-ti'tei-ti, (assump- 
tivly) 'hei-ti-tei-ti. 

lioky-poky n. hocus-pocus; cheap ice-cream [also spelt ho- 
key-pokey} hoo-ki'poo-ki. 

hold V. (grasp, etc.) hoold, (when less sir est) hold. 

holey adj. (full of holes) 'hoo-li. 

holiday n. (consecrated day; day of festivity; festival; va- 
cation) 'heh-dee, (anteriorly) 'heli-de. 

holla^ inter j. calling attention or expressing exultation; ho 
there I [akin to hollo, hallo} 'held, (formerly, but now rarely) 
he'la: . 

holla^ V. 'held, 'he-la, he'la: . same meaning as hollo} 

holler V, (vulgar) 'held?, same meaning as hollo} 

hollo^ interj, hallo ! [also, formerly, spelt hollow ; syneny- 
mous cognate holloa} 'helo. 

hollo^ V. shout; vociferate; halloo [also spelt holloa, hol- 
low; synonymous cegnates holla, holler} 'helo, 'held. 

holloa interj. helDO. same meaning as hollo} 

hollo'W n. (concavity ; void space) 'helo ; (dialectally) 'held. 

hollyhock n. (plant) 'heli-hek; (less properly) 'heh-hc:k. 

holm n. islet; river-meadow [also spelt holme} hoom, hoolm. 

holm n. holly [also spelt holmei hdolm, hdom; (improperly) 
helm. 

holooanst n. (sacrifice wholly consumed by fire; massacre) 
'held-kc:st. 

holster n. (pistol-case) 'hool-std?. 

holy adj, (sacred) 'hoo-li. 

holy-day n. (holy day ; religious festival) 'hoo-h-dee. 

homage n. (acknowledgment of allegiance; obeisance) 
'hemids, 'emids. 

homager n. (one who owes homage) 'hemi-dsd?, 'emi-dsd?. 

home n. (abode, etc.) hoom ; (dialectally) horn. 

homeliness n. (homely quality; plainness) 'hdo-mli-nis. 

homely adj, (of home; everyday; plain-looking) 'hoo-mh; 
(dialectally) 'homli. 

homelyn n. spotted ray, a fish [synen3rmous cegnates homme- 
lin, hamhn, homerling} 'hoo-mlin. 

homemade adj, hdom'meed, (assumptivly) 'hdom-meed; (dia- 
lectally) ho'meed, 'homed. 

homeopathic adj, of homeopathy [also spelt homoeopathic} 
homi-d'paeGik, hemi-d'paeOik. 

c: law, b: ff«r, se cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, qo now, v. a^, ^\\a\&\ 
l&ngtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somti^ -is \^xvsk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the toWo^xti^ ^^^-aJ^^* 



262 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

homeopatliist n. [also spelt homoeopathist'] homi'ep9«0ist, 

hemi'epa-Gist. 
homeopathy n. medical system [also spelt homoeopathy} 

homi'epa-Oi, hemi'epa-6i. 
Homerio adj. (of Homer) ho'merik; (improperly) lioo-ma- 

zik. 
homestead n. home ; farmsted [also spelt homested} Iboom- 

stid, 'hoom-stcd. 
hon&ioidal adj, (of homicide; man-slaying; murderous) 

'hemi-sai-dl, homi'sai-dl. 
homiletio adj, (of the nature of a homily) hemiletik. 
homish adj. homelike [also spelt homeishl 'hoo-mi$. 
homochromons adj, (of the same color) homalc^oo-mds, 

(less properly) ho'mek39-m9s, hemalcsoo-mss. 
homogeneity n. (state of being homogeneous) homsdsi'nii- 

i-ti, hemadsi'nii-i-ti. 
homogeneons adj, (alike; composed of like parts; uniform: 

the epposit of heterogeneous) home'dsii-ni-as, hems'dsii- 

ni-9S. 
homograph n. (a word of the same spelling as another but 

of different origin and meaning) 'hoo-m3-g?a:f, 'hem9-gsa:f. 
homologue n. that which is homologous; corresponding part 

[also spelt homologl Tiema-leg, 'hDO-ma-log. 
homologons adj. (corresponding) ho'metd-gss. 
homonym n. a word having the same pronunciation as an- 
other but a different meaning ; a homophone [also spelt ho- 

monyme'] 'hema-nim, 'hD0-m9-nim. 
homoonsian n. one who holds the persons of the Trinity to 

be of the same essence [synonymous cognate homousianl 

homo'ou-si-an, hemo'ou-si-an, homo'ao-si-dn, hemo'ao-si-sn ; 

(less properly) homo'ou-zi-9n, homo'ao-zi-an, hemo'ao-zi-9n. 
homophonons adj. (having the same sound) ho'mefs-nss. 
homoplasy n. (homoplastic condition) ho'mepLd-si, 'hoo-ms- 

pLsesi. 
honest adj. (upright, fair, etc.) 'enist. 
honey n. (sweet viscid fluid; darling) TiAni, 
honor n. reverential respect [also spelt honour"} 'ena?. 
honor v, [also spelt honour; past participle and preterit hon- 

ored, honordl 'enar. 
honorable adj, [also spelt honourable! 'enszd-bsl, (rapidly) 

'enra-bal, (assumptivly) 'enrabal. 
honorarinm n, honorary reward [ploral honorariums, hono- 
raria} en9'?e:-ri-3m, hen9're:-?i-9m. 

J ye, gcure; 5*fre, OtKin; 5 azure, ds/oy; S^^oe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, i react, uiuu, xsmIooV, txV ix^e\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, ;>\doot, -aono, ^\ie^, «.^^fljw:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 263 

lionorary adj, of honor; titulary [also, formerly, spelt hon- 

ourary} 'ena-zeri, (also) 'enaza-zi; (assumptivly) 'ona-rari, 

(rapidly) 'enz^zi, 'en^i. 
lioodium n. (rowdy, rough) 'hodlsm, 'hou-dlam. 
lioodoo n. (voodoo; also, cause of bad luck) 'hou-du. 
lioof n. horny digit-sheath or foot [plural hoofs and, rarely, 

hooves} houf ; (^dialectally) hof, 
liook n. (angular piece of metal, etc.) hole; (improperly) 

houk. 
liooked adj. hook-shaped, hamate; furnisht with hooks [also, 

sometimes, spelt hookt} hokt, 'hukid. 
lioop n. (ring, band) houp; (dialectally) hop. 
liooping-oousli n. see whooping-cough. 
lioopoe n, bird [former synonymous cognate hoopool 'hou-po, 

'hou-pu. 
Hoosier n. (inhabitant of Indiana) 'hou-337. 
lioove n. disease [synonymous cognates hoven, hove} huuv. 
liope v., n, hoop, (when unstrest) hop ; (dialectally) hop. 
liorary adj, (of an hour) 'ho:-79-?i. 
liorde n. (tribe, troop) ho:zd. 
Jiordeolum n. sty, eyelid-tumor [plural hordeola} he?Mii-9- 

Ism. 
liorelionnd n. herb [also spelt hoarhound} 'ho:?-haund. 
horizon n. (line at which the earth and sky appear to meet) 

hd'zai-zsn, ha'eai-zn; (improperly) 'hori-zan. 
liorisontalise v. [also spelt horisontalise} he^i'zentl-aiz. 
liomblende n. mineral [also spelt hornblend} 'ho:7n-blend. 
horologe n. (timepiece, etc.) 'hera-lods, 'hora-leds. 
horologinm n. horologe ; constellation ; canonical-hour book 

[plural horologia} hera'bo-dsi-am, hora'ledsi-am. 
horology n. (timepiece; art of measuring time; making of 

horologes) ha'rela-dsi. 
horoscope n. (observation of the heavens at the time of a 

birth, etc.) 'hora-skop; (improperly) 'hoi-zra-skop. 
horrible adj. (exciting horror; dreadful) 'he^a-bal. 
horrid adj. (causing horror; revolting; detestable) 'ho^id. 
hors d'cenvre n. (extra dish ; relish) oie'dorvr, hoz'dB'.vz. 
horse n. (quadruped) he:?s; (dialectally) hc:s, ho:s, hos. 
horseradish n. (plant; rootstock) 'he:zs-zxdil. 
horseshoe n. (shoe for a horse) 'hoirJ-Suu. 
hosanna inter j. (save now! save, pray!) ho'zsena. 
hose n. leg-garment ; stocking [plural hose^ archaically or dia- 
lectally hosen, obsoletely hoses} hooz. 

c: law, b: fwr, a cot, o hot, oi hoy; a: far, qo now, bl*. a^V, ^\V\\s.\ 
Icngth-jnarA- (:) indicates that the preceding sown^ \^ \qtv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on Oie ioWovjm^ «^>\?^^&% 



264 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hosier n. (one who makes or deals in hose) 'hoo-sd?, 'hoo-zi- 

hosiery n. (hose coUectivly) 'hoo-s^-zi, 'hoo-zi-a-zi. 
hospitable adj. (offering welcome; cordial) liespitd'bd}, 

(assumptivly) 'hespi-tsbsl, 'hesptdbd}; (improperly) hes'pits- 

b9l. 
hospitably adv. 'hespitd-bli ; {improperly) hes'pits-bli. 
hospital n. (hospice; asylum, etc.) 'hespi-t), liespi-td}; {im- 
properly) 'hos-pitl, 'hc:s-pitJ. 
hospitaler n. hosteler ; one who tends the sick in a hospital 

[also spelt hospitaller^ 'hespitl-ar, 'hespitd-Js;. 
hospitinm n. (hospice; hall, hostel) hes'piSsm, hes'piSi-9in. 
hospodar n. (lord) 'hespo-dar. 
hostage n. (person given as a pledge) 'hestids; (improperly) 

'hoo-stids. 
hostel n. (inn, hotel) 'hestl, liests). 
hosteler n. (innkeeper) liestl-dr, 'hests-lsz. 
hostelry n. (inn, hostel) 'hestl-ei, 'hestal-ri. 
hostile adj. of an enemy ; unfriendly [also, sometimes, spelt 

hosiil} 'hestil, (assumptivly) 'hestl; (also) 'hes-tai). 
hostler n. stableman; groom [also, sometimes, spelt osUerl 

'hesz.9?, 'esz.9?. 
hot-blooded adj, het'bUdid, (assumptivly) liet-blAdid. 
hotel n. (inn, etc.) ho'tet, o'teL 
honsh n», v. hek. see hock. 
houghite n. (mineral) 'hA-fait, 'hAf-ait. 
honnd n. (dog) haond. 
honr n. (time) aaz. 
honri n. (nymph of the Mohammedan Paradise) 'hao-2ri, Hio:- 

zi. 
honse n. (dwelling, etc.) haos. 
honse v. (receive or put into a house, etc.) haoz. 
household n. (inmates of a house collectivly) 'haos-hold, 

(sometimes) 'haos-old, 'hao-sold. 
honsemrife n. a woman who manages her household; also, 

a case for needles, etc. ; a workbox [also spelt hussif, hus- 

sif and, in the sense of a workbox, huswife, hussive; plaz- 

al housewives'] 'hoos-waif, 'hAzwif, (also, especially in the 

sense of workbox) 'hAzif. 
honse'wifery n. 'haos-wai-f^i, TiAzwi-f^i, TiAzi-f^i, 'haos- 

wai-f3-?i. 
honse-wives n. (ploral of housewife) 'haos-waivz, Tiazwivz, 

'hAZIVZ. 

jyCf 9 cure; bihe, OtKin; jazure, ds/oy; ^shoe, tScfcew; 
wwhen; i)sing\ u whoever, ire^ict, ^iuu, x5m\ooV i.\V -dsee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, ;>*. doot, ^iono, ^\ie^, ^^^^^i«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 265 

IftoiuiiiC n. (shelter of a house ; house-property ; house) 'hao- 
zig. 

HonyTmhiMin n. (one of a fancied race of horses described 
by Swift in "Gullivers Travels") 'hau-inm, 'hou-inm, lomm. 

hoTel n. (open shed; wretched cabin) 'heva^, 'hAvsl. 

liOTel V, form like an open hovel or shed, as a chimney [pres- 
ent participle hoveling, hovelling; past participle and pret- 
erit hoveled, hovelled, hoveldl 'heval, 'hAval. 

liOTel V. pursue the occupation of a hoveler; bring into har- 
bor, moor, and unload . [present participle hoveling, hovel- 
ling \ past participle and preterit hoveled, hovelled, hoveld} 
'hoval, liAval. 

boTeler n. unlicensed pilot or boatman ; craft [also spelt ho- 
veller} Tiova-lar, liAva-lar. 

Hover V, hang in air ; float ; linger [past participle and pret- 
erit hovered, hoverdi 'hAva?, 'hevae. 

bo'wadji n. (gentleman) hou'aedsi. 

bo^vbeit adv. (however it may be; nevertheless) haolaii-it. 

hcwdah n. (seat) 'hao-dd. 

lio^rdy-do n. how-do-you-do [also spelt how-d'y-do, how-de- 
do; synonymous cognate how-d'ye-do} hoo-di'dou, haod'dou. 

bo^txer n. (piece of ordnance) 'hau-it-sa?. 

hoyden n. Hiei-dn. see hoiden. 

hnokleberry n. (hurtleberry, whortleberry, bilberry) 'hAkal- 
bezi. 

hue n. (color, tint) h^ou, qou. 

hue n. (cry, shout) hguu, cou. 

huge adj. (very large ; enormous) hgouds, Qouds. 

Hnguenot n. (member of the Calvinistic or Reformd com- 
munion of France in the i6th and 17th centuries; French 
Protestant) liQou-ga-net, 'gou-ga-net. 

hullabaloo n. uproar [also spelt hullaballoo} hAldbs'lou, 
'hAldbd-lu. 

hullo interj, [also spelt hulloal haloo. same meaning as 
hallo, 

human n. (of man) 'hguu-msn, 'gou-man. 

humane adj. (kind, benevolent; tending to refine; elegant, 
polite) hgo'mcen, go'meen. 

humanixation n. [also spelt hutnanisation'] hQumsni'zee- 
Ssn, hgums-nai'zee-San. 

humanise v. [also spelt humanise} 'hgou-md-naiz. 

humble adj. (not self-assertiv ; lowly; modest) 'hAmbal, 
'Ambal. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, go now, a: ask,' at kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedmc %owtv^ \^ \«>^^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\o'w\tv% ^^Vi^Wvfc, 



258 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

heterosamy n. (indirect fertilization, etc.) hetd'zega-mi. 
heterogeneity n. (state of being heterogeneous) hetsza- 

dsi'nii-i-ti, (rapidly) hetjadsi'nii-i-ti. 
heterogeneons adj. (diverse ; composed of parts of different • 

kinds : opposed to homogeneous) hetdza'dsii-ni-ss. 
heterophemy n. (the saying of one thing when another is 

meant) hetaza'fii-mi, 'hetazs-fimi, hcta'refi-mi. 
heteropliyllons adj. (having several different kinds of 

leaves : said of a plant) hetazs'f ilss ; (less properly) hets- 

'eefi-las. 
heterosoian n. person having a different shadow : a name 

applied to inhabitants of one temperate zone as contrasted 

with those of the other [plural heteroscians, heteroscii] 

hcta'reSan. 
he'W V. strike, chop, cut, etc. [past participle hewn, hewed, 

hewd; preterit hewed, hewdl hgou, gou. 
hexagonal adj. (six-angled; six-sided) heks'aegd-nl, hek- 

'saega-nl. 
hezastich n. (a group of six lines of verse) liekss-stik. 
Hezatenoh n. (first six books of the Old Testament) liek- 

s9-tguk. 
hey interj. (calling attention) hce. 

heyday interj. (denoting gaiety, wonder, etc.) 'hce-dee. 
hiatns n. break; opening [plural hiatuses, hiatus! hai'ee-tds. 
hibernate v. (winter) 'hai-bae-net ; (less properly) hafh^z- 

net, hai'be'.^-net. 
HibemioiJie v. make Irish [also spelt Hibernicisel hai^bsr- 

ni-saiz. 
hibemization n. a making Irish [also spelt hibernisation"] 

hai-barni'zee-Jan, hai-ba^-nai'zee-Jan. 
hioonp n. spasm of the breathing-organs [also spelt hiccoughl 

'hikap. 
hickory n. (tree; wood) 'hika-zi, (anteriorly) 'hiksi. 
hidalgo n. (gentleman) hi'dselgo. 

hideons adj. (horrible; ugly) 'hidi-3s; (improperly) 'hidsas. 
hie V, hasten ; go quickly [present participle hying ; past par- 
ticiple and preterit hiedl hai. 
hierarchy n. (one of three divisions of angels; priestly 

rule; class) liai-o-zazki. 
hieroglyphic n. (of the nature of Eg>'ptian writing) hai- 

ara'ghfik. 
hieroglyphist n, (writer of hieroglyphs, etc.) hai-a'rogh- 

fist, 'hai-32:3-ghfist. 

/ye, gcure; d the, Gthin; jasMte, dT^joy; \shoe, tjcfcew; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, i react, xjiuW, ^mIooV, iVt, Tk.%ee\ 
o poetic; o over, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, Miotic, ^\ic^, ^^\y*fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 259 

liieropl&aiit n.. (expounder of sacred mysteries) 'hai-9Z9- 
faent, hai'eza-fdnt. 

Itigh-minded adj. hai'main-did, (assumptivly) 'hai-main- 
did. 

liigli-piiest n. hai'psiist, 'hai-p3iist. 

liiglitli n. [also, fermerly, spelt heightli] hai6. same mean- 
ing as height, 

liigli'wayinan n. highway robber [plural highwaymen] 'hai- 
wemsn. 

hilarious adj. (cheerful; rollicking) haile:-zi-9s, hi'le:-d-9s ; 
{improperly) hi'laezi-ss. 

hilarity n. (cheerfulness; merriment) hai1ae?i-ti, hi'laezi-ti. 

hillo inter j. hailing a distant or occupied person; expressing 
surprise at an unexpected meeting [also spelt hilloal 'hi-lo, 
hiloo. 

hillook n. (small hill) 'hibk. 

hllnm n. eye of a bean; hilus; small aperature [plural hila] 
'hai-lsm. 

him noun-pron. (objectiv of he) him, (when unstrest) im. 

Himalayan adj. (of the Himalayas) hima'lee-jdn, hima'lee- 
sn, hi'ma:-l3-J3n, hi'ma:-H-3n, hims'lai-sn. 

himation n. Greek garment [plural himatia] hi'maeti-sn. 

himself noun-pron, him'self, {ivhen less strest) im'self. 

hinder adj. (situated behind ; posterior) 'hain-dsz. 

hinder v, (keep back; impede) 'hinda?. 

hindrance n. obstruction [synonymous cognate hinderance] 
'hindrdns. 

Hindu n. Aryan of Hindustan [also spelt Hindoo] 'hin-du, 
hin'dou. 

Hindnise v. render Hindu [also spelt Hindooise, Hindooise] 
'hindu-aiz. 

Hindnstani adj. of Hindustan [also spelt Hindoostaneel 
hindo'sta:-ni, hindu'sta:-ni. 

hinnible adj. (able to neigh or whinny) 'hind-bdl. 

hip n. fruit of rose [synonymous cognate hep] hip. 

hippodrome n. (race-course, circus) 'hipd-drom. 

hippog^ff n. fabulous creature like a griffin but with hind- 
quarters like those of a horse [also spelt hippogryph] 
'hipa-geif. 

hippopotamns n. African river-horse [plural hippopotamus- 
es, hippopotami] hipd'petd-mds. 
' hippurate n. (salt of hippuric acid) 'hipgo-zet, hi'p9u:-z9t. 

hippuric adj, (of urine) hi'pgu:-zik. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv?, somtv^ \^ \ws.tN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress oti lYie i^^o^va^ ^rj^X-si^^. 



260 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

liircine adj, of a goat ; goat-like ; lustful [also, sometimes, 
spelt hircini 'hezsin, 'hsz-sain; liB:z-sin, 'hsir-sain. 

liirsnte adj, (shaggy; hairy; of hair) hez's^out, ^Br-s^ut 

Ills adj.-pron. hiz, (when less strest) iz, his. 

liiss V, make a sharp spirant sound, as that of s [pest parti- 
ciple and preterit hissed, histi his. 

l&ist inter j. (enjoining silence; urging a dog) hst, 8:t, {also) 
hist. 

historiosraplier n. (historian) histozi'ogzs-fdz. 

liistory n. (narrativ of past events) 'hista-zi, (anteriorly; 
rapidly) 'histji. 

histrionic adj. (theatrical, dramatic) histsi'enik. 

liitlierto adv, (until now; as yet; thus far) hidaz'tou, (an- 
teriorly) 'hidaz-tu. 

h'm inter j, also spelt hm (hem! hum!) Mm, (murmuring as- 
sent) m. 

ho interj. expressing surprise, admiration, triumph, taunting, 
etc. [also spelt hoa'\ hoo, ho.' 

hoaotxin n. bird [synonymous cognates hoaczin, hoatsin, ho- 
azini ho'aektsin, ho'aektzin. 

hoar adj. (white, gray) hoiz, 

hoard n., v, (treasure) hoizd. 

hoarhonnd n. see horehound, 

hoarse adj. (raucous) hoizs. 

hoax n., v, (humbug) hooks. 

hobbledehoy n. stripling; clumsy youth; top [synonymous 
cognates hobbadehoy, hobbedehoyi 'hobaldi-hoi. 

hobbler n. retainer bound to maintain a hobby; light horse- 
man [also spelt hobler'\ Tieblaz. 

hobbler n. (one who hobbles in his gait) 'heblsz. 

hobgoblin n. (tricksy imp; bogy) 'heb-gobhn, hob'geUin. 

hobo n. tramp [plural hobos, hoboes'! 'hoo-bo. 

hoc n. old card-game [also, formerly, spelt hockl hek. 

hock n. joint [also spelt hough} hok. 

hockey n. feast at harvest-home [also spelt hockay; synon- 
ymous cognates hawkey, hawkie, horkeyl lioki. 

hookey n. hookt stick; the game of shinny, shinty, bandy 
[synonymous cognates hawky, hawkey, hookey"] 'hoki. 

hocns-pocns n. (jugglery; deception) hoo-kss'poo-kds. 

hodsepodse n. (haricot; medley) 'hods-pods. 

hoe n. (implement) hoo. 

hogshead n. large cask [also spelt hogshedl liogz-hed; (dia- 
lectally) 'hogzid. 

} ye, Qcure; dthe, 8*Ain; sasure, ds/oy; $ shoe, t^chew; 
ww/ten; tjsinff; u whoever, i react, ^iu\\, xsmIooV "^-^t, -dnee; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, a but, o*. doot, •a^'ao, ^\ie^, ^^Ula^ft.^ 



DICTIONARY. OF HARD WORDS 261 

lioiden n. boisterous girl; romp [also spelt hoyden} 'hei-dn. 

hoist V. (raise) heist; (vulgarly) haist 

hoity-toity adj. (frolicsome; huffy) hei-ti'tei-ti, (assump- 
tivly) lioi-ti-tei-ti. 

lioky-poky n. hocus-pocus; cheap ice-cream [also spelt hO' 
key-pokey"} hDO-ki'pDO-ki. 

liold V. (grasp, etc.) hoold, {when less strest) hold. 

holey adj. (full of holes) 'hoo^i. 

holiday n. (consecrated day; day of festivity; festival; va- 
cation) 'heh-dce, (anteriorly) 'heh-de. 

holla^ inter j. calling attention or expressing exultation; ho 
there ! [akin to hollo, hallo} 'held, (formerly, but now rarely) 
he'la: . 

holla' V. 'held, 'he-la, he'la: . same meaning as hollo.* 

holler V, (vulgar) 'held?, same meaning as hollo.* 

hollo^ inter j, hallo I [also, formerly, spelt hollow ; synony- 
mous cegnate holloa} 'helo. 

hollo* V. shout; vociferate; halloo [also spelt holloa, hol- 
low; synonymous cognates holla, holler} 'helo, 'held. 

holloa interj, heldo. same meaning as hollo} 

hollo'W n. (concavity; void space) 'held; (dialectally) 'held. 

hollyhock n. (plant) 'heh-hek; (less properly) 'heli-hc:k. 

holm n. islet; river-meadow [also spelt holme} hdom, hdolm. 

holm n. holly [also spelt holme} hdolm, hdom; (improperly) 
helm. 

holocaust n. (sacrifice wholly consumed by fire; massacre) 
'held-kc:st. 

holster n. (pistol-case) 'hdol-std?. 

holy adj, (sacred) 'hdo-li. 

holy-day n. (holy day ; religious festival) 'hdo-li-dee. 

homage n. (acknowledgment of allegiance; obeisance) 
'hemids, 'emids. 

homager n. (one who owes homage) 'hemi-d3d7, 'emi-dsd?. 

home n. (abode, etc.) hdom; (dialectally) hdm. 

homeliness n. (homely quality; plainness) 'hdo-mh-nis. 

homely adj, (of home; everyday; plain-looking) 'hoo-mli; 
(dialectally) 'homh. 

homelyn n. spotted ray, a fish [synonymous cognates homme- 
lin, hamhn, homerling} 'hoo-mhn. 

homemade adj, hdom'meed, (assumptivly) 'hdom-meed; (dia- 
lectally) ho'meed, 'homed. 

homeopathic adj, of homeopathy [also spelt homoeopathic} 
homi-d'paeOik, hemi-d'paeOik. 

c: law, b: fur, se cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, QO ikow, ^\ a^, ^\V\\fc\ 
length-inarlf (:) indicates that the precedititt «OMti^ ia VkXtSLN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tiie ieWo^xii^L %?iVaJj^R.* 



262 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lioiiieopatl&ist n. [also spelt homoeopathist'] homi'epa-Oist, 

hemi'epa-Gist. 
hoiiieopatliy n. medical system [also spelt homoeopathy] 

homi'ep3-8i, hemi'epa-Gi. 
Homerio adj. (of Homer) ho'merik; (improperly) liao-ma- 

zik. 
homestead n. home; farmsted [also spelt homested} lioom- 

stid, 'hoom-sted. 
homioidal adj, (of homicide; man-slaying; murderous) 

'hemi-sai-dl, hemi'sai-dl. 
homiletic adj. (of the nature of a homily) hemi^etik. 
lioiiiisli adj. homelike [also spelt homeish] 'hoo-miS. 
Itomooliroiiioiis adj. (of the same color) homslc^oo-mas, 

(less properly) ho'mek^d-mss, hems'k^oo-mas. 
homogeneity n. (state of being homogeneous) homddsi'nii- 

i-ti, hemadsi'nii-i-ti. 
homogeneous adj, (alike ; composed of like parts ; uniform : 

the epposit of heterogeneous) home'dsii-ni-ss, hema'dsn- 

ni-9s. 
homograpli n. (a word of the same spelling as another but 

of different origin and meaning) 'hoo-ms-gsazf, 'hem9-gza:f. 
homologne n. that which is homologous; corresponding part 

[also spelt hotnologl 'hema-leg, 'hoo-ma-leg. 
homologous adj. (corresponding) ho'meld-gss. 
homonym n. a word having the same pronunciation as an- 
other but a different meaning ; a homophone [also spelt ho- 

monymel 'hema-nim, 'hoo-ma-nim. 
homoousian n. one who holds the persons of the Trinity to 

be of the same essence [synonymous cognate homoiisianl 

homo'uu-si-3n, hemo'ou-si-an, homo'ao-si-sn, hemo'co-si-sn; 

(less properly) homo'uu-zi-an, homo'oo-zi-an, hemo'ao-zi-dn. 
homophonous adj. (having the same sound) ho'mefo-nos. 
homoplasy n. (homoplastic condition) ho'mepz^-si, 'hoo-ma- 

ptaesi. 
honest adj. (upright, fair, etc.) 'enist. 
honey n. (sweet viscid fluid; darling) liAni. 
honor n. reverential respect [also spelt honour"] 'ensz. 
honor v. [also spelt honour ; past participle and preterit hon- 

ored, honord] 'enae. 
honorable adj. [also spelt honourable] 'en^z^-h^i, (rapidly) 

'en^a-bal, (assumptivly) 'enrabal. 
honorarium n. honorary reward [ploral honorariums, hono- 
raria] en3'ee:-?i-3m, hena'rei-^i-am. 

J ye, gcure; bthe, Gtkin; ^azMte, d^ioy; J^fcoe, tSchew; 
wwAen; tjsinff; u whoever, i react, \3iu\V xiMiooV "«.\V -d^e*; 
o poetic; saver, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, -aotio, «.\ic^, ^"t^yft^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 263 

Honorary adj, of honor; titulary [also, formerly, spelt hon- 

ouraryl 'ona-ecei, {also) 'onaea-ei; {assumptivly) 'ena-^ari, 

{rapidly) 'onrari, 'enzi. 
boodlum n. (rowdy, rough) 'hodtsm, 'hou-dlsm. 
boodoo n. (voodoo ; also, cause of bad luck) 'hou-du. 
lioof n. horny digit-sheath or foot [ploral hoofs and, rarely, 

hooves'! huuf ; {dialectally) hof. 
liook n. (angular piece of metal, etc.) hok; {improperly) 

houk. 
liooked adj. hook-shaped, hamate; furnisht with hooks [also, 

sometimes, spelt hookt'\ hokt, 'hokid. 
lioop n. (ring, band) houp; {dialectally) hop. 
liooping-congli n. see whooping-cough. 
lioopoe n. bird [former synonymous cognate hoopool 'hou-po, 

'hou-pu. 
Hoosier n. (inhabitant of Indiana) 'huu-39r. 
lioove n. disease [synonymous cognates hoven, hove} huuv. 
liope v., n, hoop, {when unstrest) hop ; {dialectally) hop. 
liorary adj. (of an hour) 'ho:-z9-zi. 
horde n. (tribe, troop) hoizd. 
Itordeolnin n. sty, eyelid-tumor [plural hordeola'} ho^'dii-a- 

Ism. 
liorelionnd n. herb [also spelt hoarhound"] 'hoier-haond. 
liorixon n, (line at which the earth and sky appear to meet) 

hs'^ai-zan, ha'eai-zn; {improperly) 'ho^i-zan. 
Horisontalize v, [also spelt horisontalisel hori'zontl-aiz. 
Hornblende n. mineral [also spelt hornblendl 'he:7n-b!end. 
Horologe n. (timepiece, etc.) 'hez^-lod^, 'hez^-led^. 
Horologinm n. horologe ; constellation ; canonical-hour book 

[ploral horologia} he^a'bo-dsi-am, hera'lodsi-am. 
Horology n. (timepiece; art of measuring time; making of 

horologes) ha'^eb-dsi. 
Horoscope n. (observation of the heavens at the time of a 

birth, etc.) 'hoza-skop; {improperly) 'hD:-?3-skop. 
Horrible adj. (exciting horror; dreadful) 'hera-bal. 
Horrid adj. (causing horror; revolting; detestable) 'horid. 
Hors d'oBuvre ». (extra dish; relish) eiz'dsivz, hoz^dsivz. 
Horse n. (quadruped) he:zs; {dialectally) hc:s, ho:s, hos. 
HorseradisH n. (plant; rootstock) 'he:zs-zxdil. 
HorsesHoe n. (shoe for a horse) 'he:?S-$ou. 
Hosanna inter j. (save now ! save, pray !) ho'zaena. 
Hose n. leg-garment ; stocking [ploral hose, archaically or dia- 
lectally hosen, ebsoletely hoses} hooz. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao tvoTU, ^*. a^V, ^\Va\s.% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedixv^ ^owtv^ \^ \wvv% 
stress-mark C) wdicates chief stress oti t\i^ i©\\o>N\Tv^ ^>j>\;!X5v^» 



264 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hosier n. (one who makes or deals in hose) ^30-397, 'hoo-d- 

hosiery n. (hose coUectivly) ^30-39-21, 'hoo-a-9-zi, 
hospitable adj. (offering welcome; cordial) Iiespit9>b9l, 

(assutnptivly) 'hespi-tsbdl, 'hesptabdt; (improperly) hes'pita- 

bal. 
hospitably adv. 'hespita-bli ; (improperly) hes'pita^bli. 
hospital n. (hospice; asylum, etc.) 'hespi-tl, 'hespi-t^; (im- 
properly) 'hes-pitl, 'hc:s-pitl. 
hospitaler n. hosteler ; one who tends the sick in a hospital 

[also spelt hospitaller^ 'hespitl-sr, 'hespits-lds. 
hospitinm n. (hospice; hall, hostel) hes'piS^m, hes'piSi-9ni. 
hospodar n, (lord) 'hespo-dar. 
hostage n. (person given as a pledge) 'hestid3; (improperly) 

'hoo-stids. 
hostel n. (inn, hotel) 'hestl, 'hestsl. 
hosteler n. (innkeeper) liestl-d;, ^ests-ldz. 
hostelry n. (inn, hostel) 'hestl-71, 'hestal-?!. 
hostile adj. of an enemy; unfriendly [also, sometimes, spelt 

hostill 'hestil, (assumptivly) 'hestl; (also) 'hes-tai}. 
hostler n. stableman; groom [also, sometimes, spelt osiierl 

'bests?, 'estar. 
hot-blooded adj. het'bUdid, (assumptivly) liet-blxdid. 
hotel n. (inn, etc.) ha'tel, o'tel. 
hongh n,,v. hek. see hock. 
honghite n, (mineral) 'hA-fait, 'hAf-ait. 
honnd n, (dog) haond. 
honr n. (time) 007. 
honri n. (nymph of the Mohammedan Paradise) 'hao-n, Hio:- 

zi. 
honse n. (dwelling, etc.) haus. 
honse v. (receive or put into a house, etc.) haoz. 
honsehold n. (inmates of a house collectivly) 'haos-hold, 

(sometimes) liaos-old, 'hao-sold. 
honsemrife n. a woman who manages her household; also, 

a case for needles, etc. ; a workbox [also spelt huszif, hus- 

sif and, in the sense of a workbox, huswife, hussive; ploz- 

al housewives'] 'haus-waif, 'hAzwif, (also, especially in the 

sense of workbox) 'hAzif. 
honsexHLfery n. 'haos-woi-fsi, liAzwi-fsi, TiAzi-f^i, 'haos- 

wai-fa-zi. 
honsexHtves n. (ploral of housewife) 'haos-waivz, TiAzwrvz, 

'hAZIVZ. 

J yc, gcure; bthe, Gtkin; ^azute, d^t'oy; S^^oe, tSrfcew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, 1 react, \iiuu, ^>3Lioc\, "«.\\., T\««e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o: Aoot, -aotio, ^.\ie^, ^^%5ft.v. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 265 

housins m- (shelter of a house ; house-property ; house) 'hao- 
zig. 

Honylmliiiin n. (one of a fancied race of horses described 
by Swift in "Gullivers Travels") 'hau-inm, 'hou-inm, ujinm. 

hovel n. (open shed; wretched cabin) 'hevat, 'hAVdI. 

hovel V. form like an open hovel or shed, as a chimney [pres- 
ent participle hoveling, hovelling; past participle and pret- 
erit hoveled, hovelled, hoveld'\ 'hoval, 'hAvsl. 

hovel V, pursue the occupation of a hoveler; bring into har- 
bor, moor, and unload . [present participle hoveling, hovel- 
ling'* past participle and preterit hoveled, hovelled, hoveldl 
'hoval, 'hAval. 

hoveler n. unlicensed pilot or boatman; craft [also spelt ho- 
vellerl Tieva-lar, 'hxva-lar. 

hover v, hang in air ; float ; linger [past participle and pret- 
erit hovered, hoverd"} 'liAvae, 'hevar. 

ho'wadji n. (gentleman) hau'aedsi. 

ho'wbeit adv. (however it may be; nevertheless) hao'bii-it. 

ho'wdah n. (seat) 'hao-ds. 

ho'wdy-do n. how-do-you-do [also spelt how-d*y-do, how-de- 
do; synonymous cognate how-d'ye-do} hao-di'dou, haod'dou. 

howitzer n. (piece of ordnance) 'hau-it-sar. 

hoyden n. 'hei-dn. see hoiden. 

hnokleberry n. (hurtleberry, whortleberry, bilberry) 'hAkal- 
hezi. 

hne n. (color, tint) hgou, cou. 

hne n. (cry, shout) hguu, qou. 

hnge adj. (very large ; enormous) hgouds, gauds. 

Hng^nenot n. (member of the Calvinistic or Reformd com- 
munion of France in the i6th and 17th centuries; French 
Protestant) 'hgou-ga-net, 'gou-ga-net. 

hullabaloo n. uproar [also spelt hullahallool hAldbd'lou, 
'hAlaba-lu. 

hnllo interj, [also spelt hulloal hsloo. same meaning as 
hallo, 

hnman n. (of man) 'hguu-msn, 'gou-msn. 

hnmane adj. (kind, benevolent; tending to refine; elegant, 
polite) hgo'meen, go'meen. 

hnm an \ «ation n. [also spelt humanisation} hgumani'zee- 
San, hguma-nai'zee-Jan. 

hnmanixe v. [also spelt humanise} 'hguu-ms-naiz. 

hnmble adj. (not self-assertiv ; lowly; modest) 'hAmbal, 
'Ambal. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao noiu, «:. a?k> ^\Va\s:\ 
izngth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding ^o>\tv^ \^ ^^"^^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVift ie>\\ov«\xv^ «»f\^2Cav^, 



266 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lininenii n. bone [ploral humeri"] Hicou-md-sas, 'cmi-xndOB. 

Iminor n. organic fluid or juice; temperament, fancy; comi- 
cality [also spelt humour] 'hcou-mos, '^ou-ma?, 'jou-mar. 

Hnmorist n. [also spelt humourist] li^fm-m^-zist, \w1-m9- 
rist, 'jou-ma-rist. 

Hnmoroni adj. [also, formerly, spelt humourous] liqourm^- 
79s, 'cuu-m9-73s, 'juu-m3-;3s. 

lininpli interj, expressing doubt or dissatisfaction [also, 
sometimes, spelt h*mf] iim, hAmf. 

Hmnpty-dninptj n. (dumpy, hump-shoulderd person) hxmp- 
ti'dAmpti. 

Hnnolibaok n. (a huncht back) hxntS'baek, (tn Britain) hAnS- 
'baek. 

hnnolibaok n. (a person with a huncht back; a humpback) 
'hAntJ-baek, {in Britain) 'hAnJ-baek. 

Hnndred n,,adj. (five score) 'hAndtdd; (dialectally) HiAn- 
ddrd. 

Hnndredtli adj., n. 'hAudrsdO, 'hAndrstO. 

linng^Ty adj. (feeling hunger, etc.) 'hAqgri. 

linrrali interj. expressing approbation, exultation, etc. [also 
spelt hurra ; synonymous cognate hurray] ha'ra: , ho';a: , hA- 
'ra: ; (dialectally) ha'ec: . 

Hnrray interj. [also, sometimes, spelt hooray] ha'^ee, ho'^ee. 
same meaning as hurrah. 

Hurricane n. (wind-storm) 'he^i-ken, 'hAri-ken, 'hAri-ksn. 

Hurry v.. n. 'hon, {also, in England and eastern New Eng- 
land) '\iKZl. 

Hurtleberry n. (whortleberry, bilberry, huckleberry) 'hs^tl- 

hzzi. 
Husband n. (a man joind to a woman by marriage) 'hAz- 

band* 
Hussar n. (horse-soldier) hA'zo:?. 
Hussy n. housewife ; pert girl ; wench [also spelt huzzy, hus- 

scy; ploral hussies] 'hAzi; {improperly) 'hASi. 
Hussy n. workbox, hussif [also spelt huzzy; ploral hussies] 

'hAZI. 

Hustle V. (push about roughly; bustle; get a move on) 

'hASdl, 'hAst. 
Husu^ife n. 'hAzif, 'hAzwif, 'hAz-waif. see under housewife. 
Huzza interj. expressing exultation or applause; hurrah [also 

spelt huzsah and, sometimes, huzsay] ha'za: , hA'zo: , ho'zo: , 

hA'zee. 
HyacintH n. (precious stone ; flower, plant) 'hai-a-sinG. 

J yCf Q cure; 5 Me, th\vi\^ 5 asure, dj /oy ; S jftoe, tS chew; 
wwJhen; xjsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, ^Mioo\, \\\., \\«e«; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o*. dooi, t>oTvo, ^\ic^, tt%,c^ft\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 267 

Iiyaointliine adj. [also spelt hy(icinthin'\ hai-s'sinOin, hai- 

a'sin-Oain. 
byalin n. (glass-like or translucent substance) 'hai-a^in. 
Hyaline adj. glass-like, glassy, vitreous [also, sometimes, 

spelt hyalin} 'hai-a4in, 'hai-d^ain. 
hybrid n. (half-breed; mongrel) 'hai-b^id, 'hibzid. 
hybridiim n. 'hai-bzi-dizsm, 'hib^i-dizsm. 
hybridise v. [also spelt hybridise'! 'hai-b?i-daiz, 'hib^i-daiz. 
Hydatid n. (cyst) liai-dd-tid, 'hids-tid. 
Hydra n. water-snake; polyp, etc. [plural hydras, hydrae"! 

'hai-dr9. 
Hydrangea n. (shrub) hai'dcaends?, haiMraendsi-^, hai'dreen- 

dsa. 
Hydraulic adj. (of water, etc.) hai'drc:-}ik ; (dialectally) hai- 

'drehk. 
Hydrid n. (hydra, a polyp) liai-drid. 
Hydride n. hydrogen compound [also, sometimes, spelt hy- 

dridi 'hai-draid, 'hai-drid. 
Hydriodic adj. (of hydrogen and iodine) hai-dri'edik, hai- 

drai'edik. . 
Hydrogen n. (element) 'hai-dra-dsin. 

Hydrogenise v, [also spelt hydrogen%se'\ 'hai-drsdsi-naiz. 
Hydromel n, (honey and water) 'hai-dra-mal, 'hai-dra-mel. 
Hydrometer n, (a device for measuring the specific gravity 

of water, etc.; current-gage) hai'dremi-tar. 
HydropatHio adj, (of hydropathy) hai-dra'paeGik. 
Hydropathy n. (water-cure) hai'drep3-0i. 
hydrophobia n. (aversion to water, etc. ; rabies) hai-dra'fDO- 

bi-3. 
hydrophobic adj. (of hydrophobia) hai-dc^'febik, hai-dr^- 

'boo-bik. 
Hyena n. quadruped [also spelt hyaena] hai'ii-ns. 
Hygiene n. (sanitary science) 'hai-dsin, 'hai-dsi-in, 'hidsi-in. 
Hygienic adj. (of hygiene; sanitary) hai-dsi'enik, hai-dsi'ii- 

nik, hidsi'enik, hidsi'ii-nik. 
Hygienist n. (one verst in hygiene) 'hai-dsi-enist, 'hidsi- 

enist. 
hylotheism n. (doctrin that God and matter are identical; 

hulotheism) 'hai-la-Gi-izam, hai-la'0ii-izam, (rarely) hai- 

leOi-izam. 
hymeneal adj. (of marriage) hai-mi'nii-dl. 
hymenial adj. (of the hymenium) hai'mii-ni-sl. 
hymn n. (religious poem) him. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sovm^ \^ \^tv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tlie i6\\o>Nin% ^i^W^iJc^e., 



268 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

hjnnnal n. (hymn-book) 'himnsl. 

hjnnned v. (past participle and preterit of hymn) himd, 

'himnid. 
liSrinning v. (present participle of hymn) 'himiQ, 'himnii). 
hjnnnody n. (the singing or composition of hymns; hymns 

collectivly) 'himns-di. 
hjnnnolosT m- (study of hymns, etc.) him'nels-dsi. 
liypallage n. (inversion of syntactic relation between two 

words) hai'paela-dsi, hi'paela-dsi. 
hyperbaton n. transposition ; bold inversion [ploral hyperha- 

td\ hai'pB:?-b3-ten. 
hyperbola n. (curve) hai'pB:7-b3-}3. 
Hyperbole n. (exaggeration) hai'pB:7-b3-h, {older) hai'pB:?- 

bs-li. 
Hyperborean adj. (of the extreme north) hai-pd^'boi-n-sn. 
byperoritioal adj. (excessivly critical) hai-pa^^iti-ksl. 
byperemia n. local excess of blood [also spelt hyperckemia'\ 

hai-paz'ii-mi-a. 
byperionm n, (plant) hai'pen-ksm, hai-pd'rai-ksm. 
bypermeter n. (dolichurus; hypermetron) hai'p6:7-mi-t9?. 
bypertbesis n. (transposition, metathesis) hai'pBrOi-sis. 
bypertropby n. (excessiv growth of a part) hai'pBrtja-fi. 
bypetbral adj. (open to the sky; open-air) hai'pii-Gsd}, hi- 

'pii-033l. 
bypben n. (short dash) 'hai-fan, 'hai-fin. 
bypbenise v. [also spelt hyphenisel 'hai-fi-naiz. 
bypnosis n. (hypnotic state) hip'noo-sis. 
bypnotio adj. (soporific; of hypnotism) hip'netik. 
bypnotism n. (braidism) 'hipNS-tizdm. 
bypnotisation n. [also spelt hypnotisationi hipNdti'zee-S^n, 

hipN3-tai'zee-San. 
bypnotize v. [also spelt hypnotisel 'hipNs-taiz. 
bypoblast n. (endoblast) 'hai-p3-bla:st, 'hips-blaest. 
bypobole n. (figure of speech in which adverse suggestions 

are made and refuted) hai'peba-h, {older) hai'pebs-li. 
bypoobondrla n. (low spirits) hai-p9'kendri-3, hipslcen- 

dri-3. 
bypoobondriac adj. (of hypochondria) hai-pd'kendri-sek, 

hipa'kendri-aek. 
bypoobondriaoal adj. (hypochondriac) hai-pd-ken'drai-d- 

kal, hip3-ken'drai-3-kal. 
bypoobondriasii n, (hypochondria) hai-p3-ken'drai-9-sis, 

hip3-ken'drai-3-sis. 

; ye, g cure ; 5 the, 8 thin ; 3 axrure, ds joy ; S shoe, tj chew ; 
w Ziehen; Tjsing; u whoever, i react, oiu\\, ^mIooV, \\t, tis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o*. doot, ootid, t\icd, "c^^a^^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 269 

Hypocrisy n. (pretense, sham) hi'pek^i-si; {less properly) 

hai'pek^i-si. 
Hypocrite n. false pretender [also spelt hypocriO 'hips-ksit. 
hypooritieal adj. (of h3rpocrisy, feignd) hipd'ksiti-ksl. 
liypodermio adj, (subcutaneous) hai-pa'deis-mik, hipa'da:;- 

mik. 
hypogastrio adj. (of the hypogastrium or lowest region of 

the abdomen) hip3'g£st£ik, hai-p3'gxst£ik. 
hypogeal adj. subterranean [also spelt hypogaeatl hai-ps- 

'dsii-al, hipa'dsii-al. 
Hypogene adj. (formd under the surface) 'hai-pa-dsin, 'hips- 

dsin. 
liypopliyse n. (apophyge, scotia) hai'pefi-dsi, hai'pefi-dsi. 
hypophysis n. pituitary body, etc. [ploral hypophysesl hai- 

'pofi-sis, hi'pofi-sis. 
liypostasise n. embody; impersonate; hypostatize [also spelt 

hypostasisel hai'pests-saiz, hi'pests-saiz. 
hypostasis n. sediment; underlying substance; essence 

[ploral hypostases'! hai'pest^-sis, hi'pests-sis. 
hypostatise v. [also spelt hypostatise} hai'pests-taiz, hi- 

'pests-taiz. same meaning as hypostasize. 
hypotennse n. the side of a right-angled triangle opposit the 

right angle [synonymous cognate hypothenusel hai'petn-jus, 

hai'peti-njus, hi'poti-njus. 
hypothec n. (lien, security, etc.) hai'peOik, hi'peOik. 
hypothecate v, (pledge, pawn, mortgage) hai'peOi-ket, hi- 

'pe8i-ket. 
hypothennse n. hai'peOi-njus. same meaning as hypote- 
nuse, 
hypothesis n. supposition [ploral hypotheses'] hai'peOi-sis, 

hi'peOi-sis. 
hypothesise v. frame a hypothesis ; assume [also spelt hypo- 
thesise] hai'poGi-saiz, hi'peGi-saiz. 
hypothetic adj, (conjectural) hai-ps'Getik, hips'Oetik. 
hypozanthine n. sarcine [also, sometimes, spelt hypoxan- 

thin] hai-pek'sxnOin, hai-pek'saen-9ain, hipek'saen-Gain, hai- 

pd'zaenGin. 
hypsiloid adj. (upsilon-shaped) hip'sai-leid, 'hipsi-leid. 
hypnral adj. (beneath the tail) hai'pgu:-??}, hi'pgu:-?9l. 
hyson ft. (green tea) 'hai-ssn, 'hai-sn. 
hyssop ft. (plant) 'hisap, 'hi-sep. 
hysteria ft. (hysterics) hi'sti:-?i-3, his'ti:-H-3. 
hysteric adj. (of hysteria; fitful, frantic) hi'ste^ik, his'te^ik. 

c: law, s: fur, se cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, ao now, ^^ a^V ^\Va\s.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somw^ \^ \^xv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\ovj\tv^ «^>\2X^^. 



270 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

I noun-pron, ai, {also, when unstrest) 9; (also, dialectally) a. 

iambic adj. (of iambuses) ai'aembik. 

ibex n. wild goat [ploral ibexes, rarely, ibices'] 'ai-beks. 

ibidem adv. (in the same place) I'bai-dem. 

ibis n. bird [plural ibises, rarely ibides, ibes] 'ai-bis. 

ibyoter n. bird [also spelt ibicter"] ai'bikta?. 

loarian adj, of Icarus [also spelt Icarean] ailiei-zi-^n, 

loarian adj. (of Icaria, the ideal republic of E. Cabet) ailce:- 
d-3n. 

ice-cream n. aislc^iim, 'ais-lmim. 

idmeninoii n. (Pharaoh's rat) ik'njou-mdn. 

icbor n. (blood of the gods; watery discharge) 'ai-ka?, 'ik^z. 

iobtbyolos»y ti. (science of fishes) ikGi'ets-dsi. 

iobtbyosanms n. fish-like reptil [ploral ichthyosauri'] ikOi- 
a'sci-ras. 

icicle n. (pendent rod of ice) 'ai-si-k»l. 

iciest adj. (superlativ of icy) 'ai-si-ist. 

icily adv, (in an icy manner; coldly) 'ai-si-li. 

icing n. (frosting; cooling by means of ice) 'ai-siQ. 

icon n. image, portrait [also spelt ikon, eikon; ploral icones, 
icons'] 'ai-ken, 'ai-kan. 

iconoclast n. (image-breaker) ai'kens-kLaest. 

icosabedron n. a solid bounded by twenty planes [synony- 
mous cognates icosaedron, icosihedron] ai-kesd'hii-drsn, 
ai-kesa'hedran. 

icteric adj. (jaundiced) ik'terik. 

ide n. (fish) aid. 

idea n. architype ; likeness ; mental image [former, but now 
vulgar, synonymous cognate idee ; ploral ideas and, former- 
ly, sometimes ideae] ai'dii-a, {often) 'ai-di-a; {vulgarly) 
ai'dii; {vulgarly, before a vowel) ai'dii-ar, ai'di:?. 

ideal adj. ai'dii-al; {less properly) 'ai-di-sl; {vulgarly) ai- 
'diil. 

idealism n. ai'dii-a-hzsm. 

idealize v, render ideal; form ideals [also spelt idealise] ai- 
'dii-3-laiz. 

ideog^rapb n. (graphic symbol which directly represents an 
idea) ai'dii-a-g^atf, 'ai-di-a-g^arf, 'idi-3-gra:f. 

ides n. (the eigth day after the nones; also, any one of the 
days of the month which precede the ides and follow the 
nones; an ide) aidz. 

idiocy n. (state of being an idiot) 'idi-a-si. 

idiom n. (own language; dialect; mode of speech) 'idi-sm. 

} ye, gcure; d*fte, G*/tin; sarure, d^/oy; S jftoe, tSc/rew; 
wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, itcacV, oiuW, \i>\iool, iit, 11 s^^; 
o poetic; dover, e oerial, a. but, o*. Aoot, *aoTv.o, ^.X^e^, ^^^oX^n 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 271 

lyncrasy n. (physical or mental peculiarity; bent) idi-3- 

]k3d-si. 

b n. (imbecil; fool) 'idi-at; (vulgarly) 'idsat. 

biiiii n. (an idiom; also, idiocy, folly) 'idi-3>tiz9m. 

fcize V. befool [also spelt idioHse} 'idi-a-taiz. 

adj. (not occupied; lazy) 'ai-dl. 
rase n. (vesuvianite) 'ai-ds-k^es, 'ids-k^es, 'ai-dd-lcsez. 

n. (effigy) 'ai-dl, 'ai-dal. 
ater n. (idol- worshipper) ai'dels-tsz. 
Lse V. make an idol of ; adore ; practis idolatry [also spelt 
'lisel 'ai-da-laiz. 

Lsatioii n. [also spelt idolisation'\ ai-dsh'zee-Ssn, ai-da- 
'zee-S^n. 

n. short rural poem; episode; pastoral composition [also 
At idylll 'ai-dil; (less properly) 'idil. 
lit n. writer of idyls [also spelt idyllisti 'ai-di-hst. 
Ho adj, (of an idyl; full of rustic charm) ai'dilik. 
Use V. make into an idyl [also spelt idyllise'\ 'ai-di-laiz. 
•ny. (on condition that, etc.) if, {also, when unstrest) f. 
s-fatni n. (plural of ignis-fatuus) ignis'faetSu-ai, igniz- 
tSu-ai. 

s-fatnus n. will-o'-the-wisp [ploral ignes-fatui'\ ignis- 
tSu-3s, ignis'faetgu-3s. 

table adj. capable of being ignited [also, spelt ignitiblel 
nai-ta-bal. 

minioiui adj. (shameful; infamous) ignd'mini-ss. 
•raniiis n. ignorant person [ploral ignoramuses} igns- 
2-m3s; (improperly) igna'^ai-mas, ignaVaemas. 
irantin adj. ignorant : applied to the Brethren of the 
ristian Schools [also spelt Ignorantine} igna'^antin. 
na ». (large arboreal lizard) i'gwa:-na. 
Jiodon n. (iguana-like fossil lizard) I'gwsens-den, 
^a:-n3-den. 

J adj, (of the ileum) 'iH-aek. 
n n. (lowest part of the small intestin) 'iH-am, 'ai-H-am. 

adj. (of ileus ; of the ileum ; ileac, iliacal ; also, of the 
m) 'iH-aek, 'iH-ak. 

al adj. obsolete (of ileus; of the ileum; also, of the ili- 
; iliac) I'lai-a-kal. 

ni n. iliac muscle ; thrush [ploral iliaci} I'lai-a-kas. 
a. n. hip-bone, flank-bone [ploral ilial 'ili-am. 
ive adj. of illation or inference [also spelt illativ'] 'ila- 

i^ce-tiv. . 

; b: fi#r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
i-mark (:) indicates that the preceditVR aoMti^ \^ \wi^\ 
mark C) indicates chief stress on the io\\oy»\ti% «^Wa5s^«^. 



272 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

ill-bred adj. iVbzed, (assumptivly) 'it-bred. 

ill-deierred adj. [also spelt ill-deservdl i}-di'zs:7vd, 

(assumptivly) 'il-di-zstrvd. 
illegal adj. (unlawful, illicit) ilii-gsl. 
illegalize v. make illegal [also spelt illegalise'] I'tii-ga-laiz. 
illegible adj. (undecipherable) iledss-bal. 
illicit adj. (unlawful) I'hsit, iHisit. 

illision n. (a striking against something) ilissn, iHissn. 
illiterate adj. (unletterd, unlearned) I'lita-rst, i'ht£3t. 
ill-timed adj. il'taimd, {assumptivly) 'il-taimd. 
illmninati n. pi. people who affect to be especially enlight- 

end, etc. [singular illuminatol i-Humi'nee-tai, i-}umi'na:-ti. 
illnminato n. (singular of illuminati) i-}umi'na:-t3. 
illnmine v. light up [also spelt illumin; past participle and 

preterit illumined, illumind] iliou-min. 
illniion n. (deception, delusion; also, apparition, fantom) 

i'liou-39n. 
illnsive adj. deceptiv, illusory [also spelt illusiv"] iliuu-siv, 

I'Hou-ziv. 
iUnsory adj. iliou-sa-zi; (less properly) iliou-zs-zi. 
iUnstrate v. (illuminate; elucidate; exemplify) 'ils-stset, 

I'lA-stjet. 
illustrated adj. (having pictorial illustrations) 'ils-stsetid, 

i'lA-st£etid. 
illnstration n. (elucidation; cut) ils'stsee-S^n. 
illnstrative adj. serving to illustrate [also spelt illustrativl 

ilAstj3-tiv; (less properly) 'ila-stjetiv. 
iUnstrator n. (one who or that which illustrates) 'ila-stse- 

tar, ilA-st£et3r. 
illy adv. (in an ill manner; badly) 'ih, 'iMi. 
image n. (likeness) 'imids. 
imageable adj. capable of being imaged [also, formerly, 

spelt imagible} 'imidsa-bal. 
imagery n. (images collectivly; image-work) 'imi-dszi, 

'imid33-zi. 
imaginary adj. (not real; fancied; feignd) I'maedsi-nen, 

(also) I'maedsina-^i, (assumptivly) I'maedsi-nsri. 
imaginatiTe adj. [also spelt imaginativ'] I'maedsind-tiv, 

(assumptivly) I'miedsi-nativ ; (also) I'maedsi-netiv. 
imagine v. form a mental image of ; suppose ; fancy ; think, 

guess [also spelt imagin; past participle and preterit imag- 
ined, imagind"] I'maedsin. 
imagines n. (ploral of imago) I'maedsi-niz, I'mee-dsi-niz. 

Jyc, fcure; dthe, *fiin ; 5 a^ure, ds/oy; S jftoe, tjcfcew; 
wa/Aen; tjsing; u whoever, 1 react, ^iuW, ^>3Lioo\, \<t, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, Abut, ;>•. dooi, •^iot^o, ^\ic^, ^^^oXv, 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 273 

imaso n. the perfect insect [ploral imagos, imaginesi I'mee- 

imam n. priest; chief [synonymous cognates imaum, imawm, 
iman] i'ma:m. 

imbeeile adj. weak; insane [also spelt imbecil'} 'imbi-sil, 
imbi'sn}, 'imbi-sil; (formerly) im'bcsil. 

imbed v. im'becL same meaning as embed. 

imbxioei n. (ploral of imbrex) 'imb^i-siz. 

imbroslio n. (confused heap; entanglement; embroilment) 
im'bffoo-gli-o, im'brool-jo, im'broo-li-o. 

imbme v. (stain, dye) im'brou. 

imbne v» (saturate, dye, imbru; impregnate, permeate, per- 
vade, inspire) im'bjou. 

imide n. (ammonia derivativ) 'i-maid, I'maid, 'ai-mid, 'ai- 
maid. 

imidosen n. (radical) I'mai-ds-dsin. 

immediate adj. (in direct relation ; not mediate ; not remote ; 
instant) i'mii-di-3t; (improperly) I'mii-dsat. 

immemorial adj. (beyond memory; out of mind; very old) 
im9'mo:-n-9l, imi'mor-d-al. 

immeiuie adj, (unmeasured; vast) I'ments, I'mens. 

immerge v. (immerse; sink) fmBizds, im'msi^ds. 

immemion n. (dipping, plunging) I'mez^sn, I'msiz-l^n; (less 
properly) i'm8:r-39n. 

immigrant n. (one who migrates into a country, or comes 
into a new habitat : distinguisht from emigrant) 'imi-gssnt. 

immigrate v, 'imi-gset. 

imminent adj. (about to occur; impending) 'imi-nsnt. 

inimisoible adj, (that cannot be mixt) I'miss-bal. 

immit V. (send in ; inject) I'mit, im'mit. 

immobile adj. immovable, fixt [also spelt immobill I'moo- 
bil. 

immobilise v. [also spelt immobilise'\ I'mpo-bi-laiz. 

inimolate v, (sacrifice; kill as a victim) 'im^-let. 

immortality n. (endless life; eternity) i-me?'tseh-ti, imez- 
'taeh-ti. 

immortalize v. [also spelt immortalise"} i'me:7-tl-aiz. 

immortelle n. (flower) i-mer'tel, imer'tel. 

immovable adj. (that cannot be moved) I'mou-vd-bsl. 

inipaot n. (blow, stroke) 'im-pxkt. 

impact V. (pack in) im'pxkt. 

inipale v. enclose with pales or stakes; fence in [synony- 
mous cognate empale} im'peel. 

c: law, s: fur, se cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditiR ^omw^ \s NaxviskN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on ibe foWoNi\tiiL «^\Sa5s^R.'. 



274 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

impanate adj, (containd in bread) im'pee-net, im'pee-nat, 
'impa-nat. 

impanation n. (presence of Christ in consecrated bread) 
impa'nee-San. 

impanel v, enter on a panel or list; enrol [also spelt impan- 
nel; synonymous cognates empanel, empannell; present par- 
ticiple impaneling, impanelling; past participle and prete- 
rit impaneled, impanelled, impaneld] ira'paenl. 

impanelment n. [also spelt impannelment ; synonymous cog- 
nates empanelment, empannelment} im'panl-mant: 

impartiality n. (freedom from bias; fairness) im-paz$i'adi- 
ti, impaz'Sah-ti. 

impasiable adj, (that cannot be past) im'pa:-S9-b3l. 

impasse n, (a way having no outlet; a fix) im'pa:s, im'pais, 
or)'pa:s. 

impassibility n. (quality of being impassible) im-paes9- 
'bih-ti. 

impassible adj, (incapable of suffering; incapable of feeling 
emotion ; impassiv ; insensible ; unimpressible) im'pa:-s9-bdlr 
im'p2S3-b9l. 

impastation n. (formation of d, paste) impss'tee-^an, 
impa'stee-San, impaes'tee-Jan. 

impeaoli v. challenge, attack, disparage ; accuse of treason 
[past participle and preterit impeached, impeacht'\ im'piitj. 

impeccable adj. (not capable of sin; unerring) im'pekd-bal. 

impede v, (hinder) im'piid. 

impedible adj, obsolete (capable of being impeded) im'peddr 
b3l. 

impediment n, (hindrance, obstruction) im'pedi-msnt. 

impellent adj, (that impels) im'pelsnt. 

imperator n. (commander; emperor) impa'^ee-ta?, 'imp»- 

imperceptible adj. (incapable of being perceivd) impaz- 
'septa-bal. 

imperialize v, [also spelt imperialise'] im'pi:-7i-3-laiz. 

imperil v. [present participle imperiling, imperilling; past 
participle and preterit imperiled, imperilled, imperild; for- 
mer synonymous cognate emperil} im'pezil. 

impertnrbable adj. (serene, calm) imp^z'tQiz-hs-hsl. 

impetigo n. skin-disease [plural impetiginesl impi'tai-go. 

impetnons adj. (having impetus; violent; rash) im'pet^u-ss, 
im'petSu-3S. 

impetus n, (energy of motion; impulse) 'impi-tas. 

Jyc, Qcure; bthQ, GtKin; sasure, ds/oy; I shoe, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; losing; u whoever, itcacX., vjiu\V v>m\.ooV 'i-'vt, iis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o;^oot, ^ioi^o, ^\ic^» ^^^o!«.\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 275 

impiety n. (want of piety) im'pai-i-ti. 

impioni adj. (not pious; wicked) 'impi-ds. 

impionily adv. 'impi-3s-)i. 

impioniiieM n. 'impi-ss-nis. 

implacable adj, (that cannot be appeased; inexorable) im- 
'pLee-kd-bd!, im'pLAkd-bdI. 

import V. (bring in) im'poizt. 

import n. (signification; importance; commodity brought 
in from abroad) 'im-poi^t; {formerly) im'pD-.et. 

importunate adj. (pressing; persistent) im'pe:?-tgo-n3t, im- 
'po:?-tj9-n9t. 

importnne adj. (troublesome, importunate) impez'tgoun, 
im'pe:r-tgun. 

importnne v. impe^'tgoun, im'pe:7-tcun. 

impotable adj. (that may be imposed or laid on ; also, that 
may be imposed upon ; gullible) im'pDO-za-bal. 

impoisible adj, (not possible) im'pesd-bdl. 

inipoiter n. (one who imposts or classifies according to tar- 
iffs and duties) 'im-postar. 

impostor n. cheat [also spelt imposterl im'pests?. 

inipoitnme n. abscess, etc. [also spelt intposthume'l im'pes- 
tgum. im'pes-tSum. 

impotence n. (want of strength; weakness) 'imps-tns; (im- 
properly) im'poo-tns. 

impotent adj. (weak) 'impo-tnt, 'impa-tant. 

impracticable adj. (not practicable ; practically impossible : 
unserviceable ; unmanageable) im'psaektika-bal. 

impractical adj. (not practical; unpractical) im'p^aekti-kdl. 

imprecate v, (pray for; invoke; curse) 'impsi-ket. 

imprecatory adj. (maledictory) 'impsika-toei, 'impsika-ta^i, 
'imp3i-ket3-2ri, impsi'kee-t3-?i. 

impregn v. (impregnate) im'p^iin. 

impresa n. (emblem, device, motto) im'p^ee-sa. 

impresario n. (operatic manager, etc.) imp3i'se:-n-o, impsi- 
'za:-zi-o. 

imprese n. (obsolete) im'p^iis. same meaning as impresa. 

impress v, imprint, stamp [past participle and preterit im- 
pressed, impresf] im'pses. 

impress v. enlist [past participle and preterit impressed, im- 
prestl im'pses. 

impress n. (stamping, stamp, imprint) 'im-pses. 

impress n. (enforced service in the army or navy; impress- 
ment) 'im-pses. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, w. a?k, ^\\r\\s.% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditwt aoMtv^ \^ \^tv\s,% 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress OH tih^ i©WQv^vcv% «f^aJ^^. 



276 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

impress n. (emblem, device, impresa) 'im-p3es. 
impressed adj, stampt in; having impressions [also spelt 

impresil im'pscst. 
impressible adj. (capable of being imprest) im'p3es9-b^ 
imprest v, obsolete (advance on loan) im'p^est. 
imprest n. (money advanced; loan) 'im-p3est. 
imprimatur n. (an order 'let it be printed' ; sanction) zmpsi- 

'mee-ta?. 
imprint v, (impress; stamp) im'p3int. 
imprint n. (impression, stamp; printer's or publisher's name 

on a title-page, etc.) 'im-psint. 
improbative adj, liable to improbation or disproof; tending 

to disprove; improbatory [also spelt improbativl im'pseba- 

tiv, 'imp33-betiv. 
improbatory adj. (disproving, etc.) im'p^ebd-tori, im'p^O' 

ba-tozi, 'imp53-bet3-?i. 
improbity n. (lack of probity) im'psoo-bi-ti, im'p3ebi-ti. 
impromptu adv. (off-hand; extempore) im'p^emp-tgu. 
improvable adj. (capable of being improved) im'p3ou-v9- 

bal. 
improvisation n. (action or product of improvising) im- 
. psevi'zee-Jan. 

improvisator n. (improviser) im'psevi-zetd;. 
improvisatore n. improvisator [also spelt itnprovvisatore ; 

plural improvisatori, improvisatores'] impsa-viza'tDiei. 
improvisatorize v. play the improvisator; improvise [also 

spelt ifftprovisatorisel im-p50vi'zee-t3-?aiz. 
improvisatrioe n. woman who improvises [also spelt im- 

provvisatrice ; plural improvisatricil impsa-viza'tjii-tSi; (less 

properly) impsa'vii-za-tjis. 
improvise v. (compose off-hand, etc.) 'imp33-vaiz, impsd- 

'vaiz, impsa'viiz. 
improviser n. 'imp33-vai-z3?, impsd'vai-zdzr, impsd'vii-zdz. 
impug^n V. (contradict; assail) im'p^oun. 
impug^nable adj. obsolete (that cannot be assaild or over- 
come) im'pxgna-bal. 
impugnable adj, (liable to be impugned) im'pgou-na-b^. 
impulse n. (thrust, push) 'im-pAls; (formerly) im'pAls.' 
impulse v, impel; instigate [past participle and preterit tm- 

pulsed, impulst'] im'pAls. 
impunible adj. (unpunishable) im'pQou-nd-bsL 
in prep, (within; at, etc.) in, (also, when unstrest) n. 
inadvertence n. (inattention) insd'vB^tns. 

Jyc, gcure; bthe, Qthin\ sa^ure, ds/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
wwhen; tjsinff; u whoever, i react, \3iuW, ^mIooV 's^it, lis^^; 
p pontic; govett eaeriitl; a. but, o; doot, -^i^t^o, t,\ie^, ^^^o!«.\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 277 

inamorata n. (female lover; mistress) i-nxm^'zai-t^. 

inaugurate v, (consecrate; install; initiate) I'nogjo-set ; 
(vulgarly) i'nc:-g3-?et. 

inbeins n. (the fact of being in; inherence; indwelling; im- 
manence; essential nature) 'in-bii-iq. 

inborn adj. (innate) in^e:;n, (assumptivly) 'in-be:7n. 

in-bread n. bread thrown in; extra loaves [also spelt in- 
bredl 'in-beed. 

inbred adj. (bred within; innate) in'bred, (assumptivly) 'm- 
b;ed. 

inoa n. (emperor or king of ancient Peru) 'igks. 

inoandesoenoe n. (state of glowing from heat) in-kaen- 
Mesans, inksn'desdns. 

incarnadine adj. flesh-colord, carnation [also, sometimes, 
spelt incarnadini in'ka:?-n9-din, in'ka:7-na-dain. 

incase v, enclose in a case [synonymous cognate encasel in- 
'kees. 

incense n. (aromatic gum for burning, or its smoke or per- 
fume) 'in-sens. 

incense v. (perfume with incense; scent; offer incense) 'in- 
sents, 'in-sens; (less properly) in'sents, in'sens. 

incense v. inflame ; enrage [past participle and preterit in- 
censed, incenstl in'sents, in'sens. 

incensory n. (censer) 'in-sensa-zi ; (less properly) in'sensa-ri, 

incboate adj. (just begun; incipient, immature) in'koo-dt, 
in'koo-et, 'in-ko-at. 

incboate v. (begin; originate) in'koo-et, 'in-ko-et. 

incboative adj. initial; inceptiv [also spelt inchoativl inlsoo- 
3-tiv, 'in-ko-etiv. 

incidence n. (a falling upon) 'insi-dns, 'intsi-dns. 

incipient adj. (beginning) in'sipi-snt. 

incise v. (cut into ; carve ; engrave) in'saiz. 

incisive adj. cutting [also spelt incisiv'l in'sai-siv. 

incisor n. cutting-tooth [ploral incisors, incisoresl in'sai-S97, 
in'sai-z3r. 

incisory adj. (cutting, incisiv) in'sai-s3-7i. 

incisure n. (cut; notch; slit; cleft) in'sis?;. 

incitation n. (incitement) insi'tee-$3n. 

incivism n. disloyalty to civic principles, originally to those 
of the French Revolution [also spelt incivisme'l 'insi-vizam, 
in'si-vizam, in'sai-vizam. 

inclemient adj. (not mild; severe) in'kz.emsnt. 

incline v. (bend down ; lean ; slope ; tend) in'kLain. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, ^•. a^V., ^-vNgAxs-N 
length-mark (:) indicates that tlie preceditJitt ^o>rci^ i.^ Vra-V^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on th^ l^WiHi'Wi^^ ^-f^aiwft* 



278 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

incline n, (slope) inlcLain, 'in-kz.ain. 
inclose v, inlcLooz. same meaning as enclose, 
inclosure n. in'kuoo-ssz. same meaning as enclosure* 
inclusive adj, enclosing, comprehending, etc. [also spelt in- 

clusivl in'ktou-siv, in'kz.ou-ziv. 
incognito adj., adv,, n. unknown, etc. [as noun, ploral incog- 

nitQ inTcegni-to; (improperly) in-keg'nii-to. 
incognizable adj. not cognizable [also spelt incognisid)le] 

in'kegnizd-bdl, in-keg'nai-za-bal, in'keniza-bal. 
incognisant adj, [also spelt* incognisantl in'kegni-zdnt, m- 

'keni-z3nt« 
incomparable adj. (matchless, etc) inlcempdsd-bd}, (rap- 
idly) in'kempsa-bal. 
incondite adj. ill put together; crude [also spelt incondit] 

in'kendit, 'inkan-dait. 
incongruent adj, (not congruent) in^keggTU-ant. 
incongruity n. inksn'g^ou-i-ti. 
incongruous adj, in'kei]g?u-3s. 
inconnu n. (fish) inkd'njuu. 

incorporeal adj, (not bodily; immaterial) m-kez'poi-zi-^l, 
incorrigible adj. (depraved) in'keeidsa-bal. 
incorruptible adj. inkd'^Aptd-bsl. 

increasable adj. [also spelt increaseablel in'k^ii-sd-bdt. 
increase n. (augmentation) 'in-k^is; (formerly) in'k^iis. 
increase v, wax, grow, augment, etc. [past participle and 

preterit increased, increast"] in'ksiis. 
incredible adj. (not credible, beyond belief) in'ksedd-bdl. 
incredulity n. (disbelief) inksi'djou-h-ti. 
incredulous adj. (unbelieving) in'ksedjo-las, in'k^edsa-tds. 
incremable adj, obsolete (incombustible) in'ksema-ba}, 

'inksima-bal. 
incremate v. (cremate) 'ink^i-met, in'k^ii-met. 
increment n. (increase) 'igk^i-msnt, 'ink^i-msnt. 
incrust v, [synenymous cognate encrustl in'lcsAst. 
incubate v. (hatch; brood) 'inkgo-bet, 'iqkgo-bet. 
incubator n. (sitting bird; hatching-apparatus) 'inkQu-bet97. 
incubus n. demon of sleep ; nightmare [ploral incubuses, in- 

cubil 'inkgo-bas, 'iqkgo-bas. 
inculcate v. (stamp oi* force on the mind of another) in- 

'kxl-ket, 'inkal-ket. 
incurable adj, (that cannot be cured) in'kgo:-?3-b3l. 
incursion n. (a running in; inroad) in'kB:?-33n, inlcer^dn. 
incus n. anvil-bone of the ear [ploral incudes'] 'iqkas. 

J ye, g cure; d the, 9 thin; ^ 5 asure, ds joy; S shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, ireac^^, oiu\\, vi\3Lioo\, \\t, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, a. but, o*. ^oot, ^owo, ^.\ie^, ^^^<3^s.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 279 

indebted adj, owing [also spelt indetted} in'detid. 

indecent adj, (not decent) inMii-ssnt. 

indecisive adj, not decisiv [also spelt indecisivl in-di'sai- 
siv. 

indecorous adj. (not decorous; unseemly) in-di'k3:-?9s, in- 
'dek9-;3s. 

indeoomm n. (lack of decorum) in-di'ko:-z^m. 

indefinable adj. (not definable) in-di'fai-nd-bdl. 

indefinite adj. [also spelt indefinite in'defi-nit. 

indelibility n. [also, formerly, spelt indelebilityl in-dels- 
'bih-ti. 

indelible adj. not delible; ineffaceable [also, lermerly, spelt 
indelebWl in'dels-bdl. 

indelibly adv. [also, formerly, spelt indelebly'] in'deld-bh. 

indent v, (dent, dint, etc.) in'dent. 

indent n. (indention in the edge of a thing; deep recess; in- 
dentation ; paragraf-indention) in'dent, 'in-dent. 

indent n. (dint, hollow, or furrow in the surface of anything ; 
indentation) 'in-dent. 

indentilly adj. having long indents [also spelt indentilley ; 
synonymous cognate indentelly'\ in'denti-h, in-den'tih. 

independence n. indi'pendsns. 

index n. fore-finger; pointer; alfabetic guide [ploral indexes, 
indices'] 'in-deks. 

India-ink n. indi-s'irjk, indjd'igk; (dialectally) indsi'igk. 

Indian adj. (of India; Amerindian) 'indi-sn, 'indjsn; (dia- 
lectally) 'indsan, 'indsin, 

Indianize v, make Indian [also spelt Indianise] 'indi-9-naiz. 

india-rubber n. (caoutchouc) indi-^'zAhsz, indjd'^Abdz:; 
(dialectally) inds^'zAhsz. 

indicative adj, that points out or indicates; showing [also 
spelt indicativ'] m'dika-tiv. 

indicatory adj, (serving to indicate) in'dika-to^i, in'dika- 
t3?i; 'indik3-t9?i ; (also) 'indi-ket3-zi, (assumptivly) 'indi- 
ketdzi. 

indicatriz n. (curve; surface) indi'kee-tsiks. 

indices n. (ploral of index) 'indi-siz. 

indicial adj, (of the nature of an indicium; indicativ; in- 
dex-like; of the index-finger) in'diSal. 

indicium n. indication; sign; token [plural indicia} in'dijdm, 
in'diSi-am. 

indict V. (bring a charge against ; accuse) in'dait. 

indictable adj. (liable to be indicted, etc.) in'dai-td-bs!. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, qo tvo*U3, a*, a^, ^\V\Vt\ 
\BBgth-mark (:) indicates that the preceding souxvd \^ V>t^^\ 
tress-mark (y indicates chief stress on tVi^ io\\Q^\t^^ s^VvaJ^^' 



280 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

indictee n. (person indicted) in-dai'tii. 

indioter n. one who indicts; formal accuser [also, fermerlyt 

spelt indictorl in'dai-td^. 
indiotion n. (decree; period; year) in'dikSdn. 
indiotment n. (accusation) lu'dait-mant. 
indifferent adj. (neutral, etc.) in'difd-^ant, (rapidly) in- 

'difsant. 
indigenoiu adj. (nativ) in'didsi-nss, (assumptivly) in- 

'didsinss. 
indigent adj, (wanting, deficient; poor, needy) 'indi-dsant 
indirect adj. (not direct) in-di'?ekt, (often, assumptivly) 

'indi-^ekt. 
indiscernible adj, (imperceptible) indi'zB^nd-bdl. 
indiscretion n. (fact of being indiscreet) indi'skseSan. 
indispensable adj. (that cannot be dispenst with) indi- 

'spensa-bal, 
indisputability n. indi-spgutd'bih-ti, in-disp^otanbili-ti. 
indisputable adj, (unquestionable) indi'sp^ou-td-bat, zn- 

'dispgota-bal. 
indisputableness n. indi'spgou-tdbdl-nis, in'dispco-tdbdl- 

nis. 
indisputably adv. indi'spgou-td-bh, in'dispQotd-bli. 
indissociable adj. (incapable of being dissociated; insepa- 
rable) indi'soo-Si-a-bal. 
indissolubility n. indi-selio'bih-ti, in-disdlio'bih-ti. 
indissoluble adj. (undecomposable) indi'selio-bdt, in'disa- 

liu-bal. 
indissolubly adv. indi'selio-bh, in'disdlio-bti. 
indite v. (put into verbal form; write) in'dait. 
inditement n. (the action of the verb indite; composition) 

in'dait-mant. 
inditer n. i, writer; scribbler) in'dai-ta?. 
individual adj. (existing as a separate indivisible entity; 

single; particular) indi'vidsu-al, indi'vidju-al. 
individualize v. [also spelt individualise^ indi'vidsu-a-laxz. 
indocile adj. (intractable) in'desil, in'doo-sil, in'doo-sait 
indocility n. (indecil character) indd'sih-ti. 
indoles n. (innate character) 'inds-liz. 
indomitable adj. (stubbornly persistent) in'demitd-baL 
indoor adj. situated or carried on within doors [also spelt 

in-door"! 'in-do:r. 
indoors adv. (in the house; under cover) in'doizz. 
indorse v. in'der^s. same meaning as endorse. 

Jyc, gcure; dthty Othin; jacure, dj/oy; jshoe, tS cftew; 
wwJten; ijsing; u whoever, \ react, Qiu>\, ^>a.\oo\, -vxl, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, -^ioiio^ ^>ae\, ^^^<fi«.\ ' 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 281 

indraft n. a drawing in; influx; inrush [also spelt in- 
draughtl 'in-dta:ft. 

Indra'wn adj. (drawn in) in'dtc:n, (assumptivly) 'in-drc:n. 

indubitable adj, (that cannot be doubted) in'djou-bitd-bdl. 

induce v, (prevail upon; incite; cause; derive as an induc- 
tion) in'djous. 

inducible adj. (capable of being induced, caused, or brought 
about) in'dJDU-sd-bd!. 

induct V. (introduce; initiate) in'dAkt. 

induline n. any one of a series of coal-tar colors [also, 
sometimes, spelt indulM 'mdjo-lin, 'indjo-lain. 

indusial adj. (of indusia or larva-cases) in'djou-zi-dl, in- 
'djou-33l. 

indusium n. amnion; sorus-cup; larva-case [plural indusial 
in'djou-zi-3m, in'djou-si-am, m'djou-Si-am, in'djou-si-am. 

industry n. (systematic work; productiv labor) 'ind3-st£i. 

inebriate adj, (drunken, intoxicated) i'nii-b?i-9t. 

inebriety n. (drunkenness; inebriation) ini'brai-i-ti. 

ineligible adj, (not eligible) in'ehdsd-bdl. 

inequitable adj. (not equitable; unjust) in'ekwitd-bd}. 

inerrable adj, (not errable; unerring, infallible) in'e^a-bd}, 
in'oi-ea-bal. 

inertia n. (passivness, etc.) i^uBz^d, I'nBiz-l^. 

inezbanstible adj. (exhaustless) indg'zcr-std-bdl. 

inexorable adj. (unyielding) in'eksd^d-bsl, in'eks^s-bdt 

inexpert adj, (not expert; unskild) insWspBizt. 

inexpiable adj. (not to be expiated or atoned for; also, im- 
placable) in'ekspi-d-bdl. 

inexplicable adj. (that cannot be explaind) in'ekspLikd-bsl, 
(assumptivly) in'ekspti-kabal ; (vulgarly) inak'sptika-bal. 

inexpressible adj, (that cannot be exprest in words) insk- 
'spsesd-bdl. 

inexpugnable adj. (not expugnable; impregnable) insk- 
'sp^ou-na-bal, inak'spAgna-bal. 

inextricable adj. (from which one cannot extricate him- 
self; involvd) m'ekstjika-bal, (assumptivly) in'ekstsi-kabal. 

infallible adj. (inerrable, unerring) in'faeld-bd). 

infamous adj. (of ill fame or repute; wicked) 'infa-mas, (as- 
sumptivly) 'infamas. 

infamously adv. 'infama-SLi. 

infante n. (son of the king and queen of Spain or Portu- 
gal other than the principe or heir to the throne ; the sec- 
ond son) in'fxnti. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy : a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somtv^ \^ V>xv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie io\\o^\t^% ^-^^X^iJ^^* 



282 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

infanticide n. (killing of infants; child-murder) in'fxnti- 

said. 
infantile adj. of an infant; of infancy [also, sometimes, 

spelt infantil'] 'infan-til, 'infan-tail. 
infantine adj. (infantil) 'infdn-tain, 'infan-tin. 
infatuate v, (make fatuous or foolish) in'fsetSu-et, in'fxtQU- 

et. 
infeonnd adj. (not fecund; barren) in'fe-kAnd, in'fii-kAnd; 

(formerly) in-fi'kAnd. 
inferable adj. that may be inferred; deducible [also, former- 
ly, spelt inferible; synonymous cognates inferrible , infer- 

rablel in'f oi-ra-bal ; 'infa^a-bal; 'infa-rabal, 'infsdbal. 
inference n. 'infd-rsns, (rapidly) 'inf^sns. 
inferrible adj. [also spelt inferrable'\ in'fB:-;9-b9}. same 

meaning as inferable, 
infidel n, (unbeliever) 'infi-dl, 'infi-dal. 
infidelity n. (unbelief; disloyalty) infi'deh-ti, in-fi'dch-ti. 
infiltrate v, (introduce by filtration ; percolate) in'f il-tset 
infinite adj. boundless [also spelt infiniti 'infi-nit. 
infinitesimal adj. (infinitly small) infini'tesi-mdl; (less 

properly) infini'tezi-mal, 
infinitival adj. (of the infinitiv) infini'tai-val, in'fini-tival. 
inflammation n. [also, formerly, spelt inflamation"] infi.a- 

'mee-San. 
inflammatory adj. in'fuemd-to^i, in^fz^sema-ts^i, (rapidly) 

in'ftaema-tji. 
inflection n. bending; angle; change [also spelt inflexion} 

in'fLekSan. 
inflectional adj, [also spelt inflexional} in'fi.ek$3-n}.' 
inflexible adj. (unbearable) in'fLeksd-bd). 
inflorescence «. (flowering-system; blossom) infL^'sesans, 

xn-fz-o'^esans. 
influencive adj. tending to influence [also spelt influensive, 

influensivl infLu'ensiv, 'inftu-an-siv. 
influent adj. (flowing in) 'inftu-ant. 
infold V. wrap up; enclose; embrace [synonymous cognate 

enfold} in'fooM. 
infolded adj. (folded in ; having the margin turnd in with a 

fold) in'fool-did, (assumptivly) 'in-fool-did. 
informed adj. instructed [also, sometimes, spelt informd} m- 

'fe:^md, (also, in poetry) in'ferr-mid. 
infrangible adj. (unbreakable) in'f^aendsa-bal. 
infra-ocular adj, (below the eyes) inf^a'ekgo-la?. 

J yc, g cure ; 5 the, thin ; ^ 3 asure, dj joy ; 5 shoe, tj chew; 
wzc'Aen; rising; u whoever, itcaLCt, iiiuW, \i>3Lioo\, \<t, usee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o*. ^oot, •:iOivo, ^,\ic\, ^^^a\&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 283 

n. woolen fillet or band worn by priests [ploral infu- 
lael 'infio-ld. 

infuadiliiiliim »• (funnel-like part) infdn'dibjo-ldin, in-fAn- 
'dibjo-ldm. 

infuidlile adj, (not fusible) in'fiou-zd-ba}. 

infiuiori|iiii ». animalcule [ploral infusoria] infio'z3:-7i-9m, 
infio'8o:-sd-9m. 

insonious adj, (apt, clever, skilful; well contrived) in'dsii- 
nJ9s, in'dsii-ni-ds. 

ingenue n. (ingenuous or artless girl or woman) srjse'njou. 

insennity n. (inventivness) indsi'njou-i-ti. 

insenuoiu adj, (free-born; generous; noble; frank) in- 
'd3enju-3S. 

Insot n. (mass of metal cast in a mold) 'iggst. 

ingraft v. insert for propagation; imbed [synonymous cog- 
nate engraft] in'gza:ft. 

ingrain v. dye with grain or scarlet dye; dye in the fiber 
or raw material; imbue; impregnate [synonymous cognate 
engrain; past participle and preterit ingrained, ingraind] 
in'gzeen, 

ingrain adj. (dyed in grain; dyed in the fiber) in'g;een, 
(assumptivly) 'in-grcen. 

ingrain n. (yam or fabric dyed in the fiber) 'in-green. 

ingrate adj, (ungrateful) in'g?eet, (^assumptivly) 'in-g?et. 

ingrate n, (ungrateful person) 'in-g?et, in'g?eet. 

ingratiate v. (bring into favor; make agreeable) in'gzee-$i- 
et. 

ingredient n. (constituent, element) in'g7ii-di-9nt ; Qess 
properly) in'grii-dsant. 

ingress n. (action or fact of going in; entrance; beginning) 
'm-gees. 

ingninal adj. (of the groin) 'ii]gwi-n}. 

ingnlf V. in'gAlf. same meaning as engulf. 

inlialant adj, inhaling [also spelt inhalent] in'hee-ldnt. 

inl&alation n. (breathing in) in-hdlee-S^n. 

inlieritor n. (heir, e'tc.) in'hezi-tsz. 

inliiliit V, (forbid, prohibit; restrain) in'hibit. 

inl&ibiter n. [also spelt inhihitorl in'hibi-td?. 

inliibition n. in-hi^biSdn, ini'biSdn. 

inliospitable adj. (not hospitable) in'hespitd-bdl, (assump- 
tivly) in'hespi-tabal ; (improperly) in-hes'pita-bal. 

inliunie v, (inter, bury) inTigoum. 

inimical adj. (hostil) I'mmi-ksl. 

c: law, b: fi«r, a cot, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceAiivw, ^Ci>ycv^ \^ Vircv'^kN 
stress-mark () indicates chi''* stress on tYie Iq^Xq^vcv.^ vj^'aJ^^* 



284 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

inimitable adj. (incapable of being imitated; peerless) 

I'nimitd-bd}, (assumptivly) I'niini-tabal. 
inion n. ridge of the occiput [ploral inial 'ini-sn. 
initial v. mark or sign with initials [present participle tfii- 

tialing, initialling; past participle and preterit initialed, ini- 
tialled, initiald} I'mSsl. 
initialize n. use an initial, etc. [also spelt initialise} i'ni$9- 

laiz. 
initiate v. (begin; introduce; start) I'niSi-et. 
iniay v. (lay or embed in another piece; insert) inlee. 
inlay n. (inlaying; inlaid work) 'in-lee, inlee. 
inmost adj. (farthest within) 'in-most, 'inmast. 
inn n. (hostelry, small hotel) in. 
innate adj, (inborn) I'neet, (assumptivly) 'i-net; (also) in- 

'ncet, (assumptivly) 'in-net. 
innately adv. I'nee-tLi, 'i-netz.i. 
inning n. (taking in; reclaimd lands; being in, or at the 

bat) 'iniq. 
innocent adj, (doing no evil, etc.) 'ind-sdnt, (assumptivly) 

'inssdnt. 
innocuous adj. (harmless) I'nekgu-ss. 
innuendo n. parenthetical explanation ; oblique hint [also 

spelt inuendo; ploral innuendoes, innuendosl inju'enda. 
inoculate v. (bud into another plant; ingraft) I'nekgo-let. 
inopportune adj. (not opportune) in-epsr'tgoun. 
inquire v. ask about; ask; search, seek [synonymous cog- 
nate enquire'^ in'kiuai?. 
inquiry n. search ; query [synonymous cognate enquiryl in- 

'kiuai-ei, (often) in'kiuaia-^i ; (also) 'inku)i-?i, 'iqkiua-ei. 
insatiable adj, (not satiable ; greedy) in'see-Si-d-bal ; (less 

properly) in'see-Sa-bal. 
insatiate adj. (insatiable) in'see-$i-9t. 
inscience n. (nescience) 'in$9ns, 'in$i-3ns, 'insi-sns. 
inscrutable adj, (impenetrable to inquiry) in'sksou-td-bdl. 
insectile adj. of insects [also, sometimes, spelt insectill in- 

'sektil, in'sek-tail; (also) 'in-sektil. 
insectivorous adj. (insect-eating) insek'tiv3-73s. 
insensible adj. in'sensa-bdl. 
inseparable adj. (not separable) in'seps^s-bdl, (rapidly) in- 

'sep53-b3l. 
insert v. (set in; introduce; include) in'sB:zt. 
insert n. (something inserted) 'in-soirt. 
insertion n. in'sB?$3n, in'sB:7-$3n. 

jyc, gcure; bthe, 9 fftin ; 5 asure, ds/oy; 5 ^/loe, tl chew: 
wzvhen; i)sing\ u whoever, \ react, wiu\\, \i>3Lioo\, \\\, \ise^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a but, o*. doot, -aowo, ^,\ie^, ^^^ysX^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 285 

inset n. (inflow; insert) 'in-set. 

inset V. (set in; insert; fix an inset in) in'set. 

inshore adj. (near the shore) in'S^*^* (assumptivly) *in-lo:z. 

inshore adv, (toward the shore) in'loiz, ^in-loiz. 

inside n. (the inner side; interior) in'said, 'in-said. 

inside adj, (interior, internal) in'said, (assumptivly) 'in-sazd. 

inside adv, (on or in the inside) in'said, 'in-said. 

inside prep, (inside of; within) in'said, 'in-said. 

insidious adj, (sly; underhand; wily) in'sidi-3s. 

insight n. (a seeing into things; penetration) 'in-sait. 

insig^ne n. badge; emblem [mostly used in the ploral, insig- 

nial in'signi. 
insition n. (ingraftment) in'sijan; (less properly) in'sisan. 
in situ adv. (in its place ; in place) in'sai-tgu. 
insnare v. entrap [synonymous cognate ensnare"] in'sNe:?. 
insolate v. (expose to the sun's rays) 'ins9-)et. 
insoluble adj. (that cannot be dissolvd; also, inexplicable) 

in'selio-bal. 
insolvable adj, (incapable of being solvd or explaind) in- 

'solv3-b9l. 
insontucli adv, (to such an extent) inss'mAtS. 
insouciant adj. (careless) in'sou-si-snt. 
inspiratory adj. (of inspiration) in'spai-79-t37i, 'inspi^a- 

tari, 'inspi-^eta-ei, 
inspissate v. (thicken, condense) in'spiset, 'inspi-set. 
install V, place in a stall or official seat ; instate [also spelt 

install past participle and preterit installed, instald"] in- 

'stc:!. 
instalment n. [also spelt installmentl in'stc:)-m9nt. 
instanter adv. (immediately; at once) in'staentar. 
in statu quo adv, (in the condition in which it was before) 

in'stee-tgo-ku)DO, in-stee-tSo'kujoo. 
instead adv, in the sted, in place [also spelt insted"] in's^ed; 

(dialectally) in'stid. 
iiistil V. put in by drops; inject; insinuate [also spelt instill; 

past participle and preterit instilled, instild] in'stil. 
instinct n. (innate impulse) 'in-stii]kt. 
instinct adj. (imbued, charged) in'stiqkt. 
institute n. (institution; society) 'insti-tgut; (dialectally) 

'insti-tut. 
institution n. insti'tguu-S^n ; (dialectally) insti'tou-$3n. 
institutive adj, instituting [also spelt institutivl 'insti- 

tgutiv. • 

c: law, b: fi«r, a cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: osk, aiktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ somt^^ is ViWk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tYie i©\\o^\tv% s^'C^Jc^s.. 



286 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

initmment n. (means; tool; document) 'insts^-mdnt. 

inatminent v. (arrange or score for instruments or for an 
orchestra) 'instja-mant, instjo'ment. 

insulax n. (of an island, etc.) 'insQo-137, 'inSo-tae. 

insulate v, (isolate, etc.) 'insgo-}et, 'inSo-}et, 'insa-let. 

insult n. (attack; affront, outrage) 'in-SAlt. 

insnlt V, (affront, outrage) in'sAtt. 

insure v, secure against loss ; guarantee, assure [synenymous 
cognate ensurel in'So:?. 

intaglio n. incised design [ploral intaglios, intagli} in'ta^-jo, 
in'taeljo; in'ta:l-jo. 

integer n. (whole number; unit quantity) 'inti-dsd?. 

integ^able adj. (capable of being integrated) 'intig^a-bd}. 

integral adj., n. (whole, etc.) 'inti-gzr9l ; (improperly) in- 
'teg^al, in'tii-gral. 

integrity n, (wholeness; soundness; honesty) in'tegri-ti. 

intellect n. (understanding) 'inta-lekt, 'inti-lekt. 

intelleotible adj, (intelligible) intdlektd-bdl. 

intelleotualize v. [also spelt intellectualisel intalektSn-o- 
}aiz. 

intelligible adj. (comprehensible) in'tehdsd-bdt. 

intendant n. superintendent, manager [also, formerly, spelt 
intendentl in'tendant. 

intention n. in'ten^dn. 

inter v. inhume, bury [past participle and preterit interred, 
inter dl in'te:?. 

inter prep, (between, among) 'intar. 

intercalary adj. (intercalated, interpolated) in'tBzk^Atzi; 
(less properly) inta^'kaela-?!. , 

intercalation n. in-tB^kstee-Sdn. 

intercede v. (interpose) intar'siid. 

intercbange n. (exchange) intar'tSeends, 'intar-tSeends. 

int^rcbange v. intd^'t^eends. 

intercbangeable adj, ints^'tSeen-dsd-bdl. 

interdict v. (prohibit, forbid) inta^'dikt. 

interdict n, (prohibition) 'int3?-dikt. 

interest n. 'int3-?ist, (rapidly) 'intjist; (dialectally or vul- 
garly) 'int-tj3st. 

interest v. 'inta-rist, (rapidly) 'intjist; (also, in America, 
less properly) inta'^est. 

interested adj. 'inta^i-stid, (assumptivly) 'inta-ristid ; (rap- 
idly) 'intji-stid, (assumptivly) 'intjistid; (also) 'inta-rcstid ; 
(also, in America, less properly) inta'^estid. 

J yCf 9 cure ; 5 the, G thin ; ^ 3 a^ure, ds joy ; S * /toe, tS cAew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, iteaiet, oiu\\, vi\3LiooV "ttt, lise^; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, t)\^oot, •:iOTvo, «.\ic^, ^^^a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 287 

interesting adj, 'intari-stig, {assumptivly) 'intd-ristii] ; (rap- 
idly) 'intji-stiq, (assumptivly) 'intjistiq; (also) 'inta-ecstiq ; 

(also, in America, less properly) intd'^estiq. 
interfluent adj, (flowing between; flowing into each other) 

in'tB?fi.u-3nt. 
interleaf n. extra leaf between others [ploral interleaves'! 

intae'hif, 'inta?-hif. 
interlocutor n. (one who takes part in a conversation; 

judgment) int^zlekqo-tsz ; (less properly) intarla'k^ou-ta?. 
interlocutory adj, (of or occurring in dialog, conversation, 

or action) inta^'lekgo-ton, inta^'lekgo-taei. 
interloper n. (unauthorized trader; one who interferes) in- 

t3?lD0-p3r, 'int3e-lop3?. 
intermeuo n. (dramatic or musical piece between acts, etc.) 

intdz'medzo. 
interminable adj. (endless) in'tB:7-min9-b3l. 
intermittent adj. (ceasing at intervals) intd^'mitnt. 
intern adj. internal [also spelt interne'] in'tB:zn. 
intern n. inmate ; assistant resident physician [also spelt in- 

ternel in'tor^n. 
internationalize v. [also spelt internationalise'] int^z- 

'nxl^nl-aiz. 
internecine adj, destructiv, deadly [also, sometimes, spelt 

internecin] int3;'nii-sin, inta^'nii-sain ; (improperly) intar- 

'nesin. 
intemecion n. (destruction; slaughter) int97'nii-$3n. 
intemuncial adj. (conveying messages; communicating) 

intae'nAnSal, int3?'nAntS9l. 
internuncio n. (papal representativ sent between nuncios, 

etc.) inta^'nAnJi-o. 
interpellate v. (address with a question, in interruption of 

the order of the day) int3?'pelet. 
interpellation n. (interruption) in-tB?p3'lee-$9n, int3?-pc- 

lee-San. 
interpolate v, (insert, as in a writing; introduce surrepti- 
tiously; intercalate) in'te^pa-let. 
interpolation n. (action of interpolating; insertion) in- 

tB?p3lee-S9n. 
interposition n, (intervention) intd^pd'zi^dn. 
interrogate n. (question) in'terd-get. 

interrogatiTC adj., n. [also spelt interrogativ] mta'zega-tiv. 
intersperse v. (scatter between other things) intar'speirs. 
interstate adj. intar'steet, (assumptivly) 'int3?-steet. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao noiM, a*. q?»V., ^\N2i\\s.% 
Icngth-morJf (:) indicates that the preceditvv^ sovm^ \^ X^^V-. 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie ieWo^ixi^ ^^>\«X^e., 



288 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

interstice n. intervening space; chink; interval [also qielt 
interstis'i in'te^stis, in'tB:7-stis ; 'int3?-stis. 

interstitial adj. (of interstices) intdz'stiSdl. 

intervene v, (come between) intds'viin. 

intestacy n. (condition of dying intestate or without Iuit- 
ing made a will) in'testd-si. 

intestine n. gut, bowel [also, sometimes, spelt intestin] m- 
'testin; (improperly) in'te-stain. 

inthrall v. (obsolete) in'O^c:!. same meaning as enthraU, 

intine n. inner membrane of a pollen-grain [also spelt iniin] 
'intin. 

intitule v. (furnish with a heading; entitle) in'ti-tctit. 

into prep, 'into, (when less strest) 'inta, inta. 

intonate v, (intone, etc.) 'intd-net. 

intrados n. (inner or lower curve of an arch) m'tiee-des. 

intransigent adj. uncompromising, irreconcilable [also spelt 
intransigeanti in'tjaensi-dsant, in't£a:n-si-d53nt. 

intrencli v, surround with a trench ; fortify with walls [syn- 
onymous cognate entrench] in'tsentS, (in Britain) in'tsenS. 

intricacy n. (state of being intricate; complexity) 'intsika-si. 

intrigant n. intriguer [also spelt intriguant] 'intsi-gant. 

intrigante n. female intriguer [also spelt intriguante] n- 
tsi'goint, 'intji-gant. 

intrigne n. (underhand plotting; liaison) in'tsiig, 'in-tpg. 

intrigue v. (trick, entangle, plot) in't£iig. 

introit n. (antiphon at the introit; entrance-psalm) in'tpo- 
it. 

intromission n. (admission; intermeddling) ints9'mi$9n. 

introsusception n. (action of taking up or receiving with- 
in; intussusception) intjasa'sepjan. 

intrusion n. (action of intruding or pushing in) m'tsou-san. 

intrusive adj. [also spelt intrusiv] in'tjou-siv. 

intrust v, confide [synonymous cognate entrust] m'tjAst. 

intuit V. know by intuition [also spelt intuite] 'in-tQu-it. 

intuition n. (immediate knowledge or apprehension; direct 
insight) intQu'iSan. 

intuitive adj. of intuition [also spelt intuitiv] in'tgou-i-trv. 

intumescence n. (swelling) intQo'mesdns. 

intussusception n, (a taking in; ingestion; invagination; 
introsusception) intasa'sepSan. 

inundate v. (overflow; flood; swamp) I'nAn-det, 'inan-det. 

inure v. accustom, habituate [synonymous cognate enure] 

j ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin \ ^ 5 a£:ure, dj /oy ; S shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; i)sing\ u whoever, \ react, xiivXV, ^\3Lioo\, \\V \\«««; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, o*. doox, ^0x10, ^\ie^, ^^%5fi^&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 289 

^^■"■^■^-"^^■■^■^^ ■ 

Ld adj. (not valid) in'vahd. 

Id adj. (infirm, sick) 'inva-hd, (assumptivly) 'invalid, 

idly) 'invhd; (also) invaliid, 'inva-lid. 

Ld n. (sick person) 'inva-hd, (anteriorly) 'invalid; 

idly) 'invlid; (also) inva'hid, 'inva-lid. 

Id V, (affect with sickness; lay up) 'inva-lid, invaliid, 

»-lid. 

Ion n. (hostil inroad or incursion) in'vee-san. 

^h. V. rail [past participle and preterit inveighed, in- 

hdl in'vee. 

jle V. (entice, allure, seduce) in'vii-gal. 

tible adj. (capable of being invented) in'venta-bal. 

.top n. one who invents [also, but now rarely, spelt in- 

erl in'ventar. 

.tory n. (detaild list; catalog) 'invan-toei, 'invan-ta^i, 

)n-t£i. 

se adj, (inverted) in'vB:?s, (often, assumptivly) 'in- 

« 

se n. (inverted state; that which is inverted) in'vB:?s, 

TBZS. 

sion n. (a turning upside down; reversal) in'vB^S^n, 

arr-San, in'vB:?-3an. 

oible adj. (unconquerable) in'vinsa-bal. 

Ible adj. (that cannot be seen) in'viza-bal. 

Atory adj. (that invites) in'vai-ta-to?i. 

atory adj. (of invocation) in'veka-tori, in'veka-ta^i, 

a-keta-^i. 

ncel n. (partial or secondary involucre) in'velio-sal, in- 

o-sel; (improperly) 'inva-liu-sel. 

noellate adj. in-velio'selet ; (less properly) inva'liou-se- 

uoral adj. (of an involucre) invaliou-ksal, 'inva-liu- 

• 

uorate adj. (having an involucre) inva'liou-kset, inva- 
i-lreat. 

nore n, (envelop; whorl of bracts; involucrum) 'inva- 
ar, 'inva-luka?; (less properly) inva'liou-kajr. 
aomm n. envelop, involucre [ploral involucra"] inva- 
i-lcsam. 

ve V, infold, entangle, etc. [also spelt involv; past par- 
pie and preterit involved, involvdl in'velv. 
11 V. wall in [synenymous cognate enwalt] in'wcil. 
11 n. (inner or inside wall) 'in-wc:l. 

, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a*, a^k., ^\VA\ft\ 
-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv?f ^omtv^ a& \^^^% 
Tiark C) indicates chief stress on t\v^ ioWQ^tTv^ s-^^-b^Jw^^ 



1 



290 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

in^irrap v» infold [synonymous cognate enwrap; past parti- 
ciple and preterit inwrapped, inwrapf] in'srxp. 
in'WToaglit adj. having something workt in; worlct into 

something [former synonymous cognate enwroughtl in'rc:t, 

(assumptivly) 'in-?c:t. 
iodic adj, (of iodin) ai'odik. 
iodide n. compound of iodin [also, sometimes, spelt iodid] 

'ai-3-daid, (before of) 'ai-a-did. 
iodine n. element [also spelt iodini 'ai-9-din, 'ai-a-dam, 'ai-9- 

din. 
iodoform n. (compound) 'ai-3d3-fe:7m, ai'30-d3-fe:7m. 
ion n. (anion or cation) 'ai-sn. 
Ionic adj, (of Ionia, etc.) ai'enik. 
ionic adj, (of ions) ai'onik. 
Ionise v. lonicize [also spelt Ionise"] 'ai-3-naiz. 
ionise v. (convert into an ion or ions) 'ai-9-naiz. 
iota n. (Greek letter; least particle; atom) ai'oo-td. 
ipecac n. (ipecacuanha) 'ipi-kaek. 
ipecacuaiUia n. root; plant [synonymous cognates ipecacuan, 

ipecac] ipi-kaekgu'ana. 
irascibility n, ai-^aesa'bih-ti, i-raesanbih-ti. 
irascible adj. (prone to anger; hot-temperd) aiVaes^-bdl, 

I'^aesa-bal, 
irate adj. (excited to ire ; angry) ai'^eet, 'ai-?et. 
irenical adj. (pacific; non-polemic) ai'reni-kol, ai'ni-ni-kal. 
irenicon n. message of peace [also spelt eirenicon; ploral 

irenica] aiVii-ni-kan, aiVeni-kan. 
iresine n. (plant) ai-?i'sai-ni, ai-?i'sai-ni. 
iridal adj. (of the rainbow) 'ai-?i-dl, {rarely) 'iri-dl. 
irides n, (ploral of iris) 'i^i-diz, 'ai-?i-diz. 
iridescence n. (play of changing colors) i^i'dessns; {less 

properly) ai-?i'des3ns. 
iridicolor adj. iridescent [also spelt iridicolour] ^izidi-kktsz. 
iridium n. (metal) ai'^idi-sm, I'^idi-sm. 
iridodesis n. (binding of the iris; iridesis) ai-7i'dedi-sis, 

i3i'dodi-sis. 
iris n, rainbow; colord eye-membrane [ploral irises, irides] 

'ai-^is. 
Irisbise v, make Irish [also spelt Irishise] 'ai-^i-Jaiz. 
iritis n, (inflammation of the iris) ai'?ai-tis, ai'rii-tis. 
irksome adj, (wearisome, tedious, tiresome; annoying) 

'orksam, 'ar^k-sam. 
iron n. (metal) 'ai-a^n; {dialectally) 'ai-on, 'ai-^an. 

J ye, g cure ; d the, ffiin ; ^ 5 asure, d; joy ; S shoe, tS c/iew; 
wzi'hen; ijsing; u whoever, 1 react, oiu\\, \3>a.ioo\, ^\\., -ix-^ee; 
o poetic; o over, e oerial, ^but, o*. ^oot, •:iOTs.o, ^\ie^, ^^%ySc^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 291 

iromaoikger n. (hardware-merchant) 'ai-dzn-mAqga;. 

irony n. (dissimulation; covert sarcasm) 'ai-z9-ni. 

irony adj, (of iron) 'ai-3?-ni, 'ai-ea-ni. 

irrational adj. (not rational) I'zaeSd-nl. 

irreeognisable adj. [also spelt irrecognisahlel I'zekdg-nai- 

zd-bdi, izilcegnizd-bdl, i-reksg'nai-zd-bdl. 
irreeosniiant adji [also spelt irrecognisanti iri'kegni-zdnt. 
irreeoneilable adj, i-^ekdn'sai-ld-bdl, (assumptivly) I'zeksn- 

sai-ld-bdt 
irreeoneilably ttdv. i-zeksn'sai-ld-bli, (anteriorly) I'^eksn- 

sai-ld-bti. 
irrefleetion n. want of reflection; unreflecting conduct 

[also spelt irreflexion] lei'ftekSan. 
irrefrasAble adj. (incontrovertible) i^i'fsxdsd-bdl, I'refsa- 

d39-b9}. 
irrefutable adj. (irrefragable) izi'fgou-ta-bal, I'^efgota-bal. 
irrelevant adj. (not relevant; not pertinent) I'^eh-vant. 
irremeable adj. (admitting of no return) I'zemi-s-bdl, I'zii- 

mi-d-bdl; {less properly) i^i'mii-a-bal. 
irremediable adj. (incurable) i^i'mii-di-d-bsl, i^i'medi-s-bsl. 
irreniissible adj. (unpardonable; unalterably obligatory) izi- 

'misd-bd). 
irreparable adj. (incapable of being repaird or rectified) 

I'repaea-bal ; {improperly) in'per-ra-bal. 
irresoluble adj. (not resoluble) I'rezdHo-bsl. 
irresolnte adj. (unresolvd; vacillating) i'?ez9-Hut. 
irrespirable adj. (that cannot be breathd) I'^espdzrd-bdl, izi- 

'spai-ra-bal, iri'spaia-^a-bal. 
irretrievable adj. (irrecoverable; irreparable) i^i'tjii-v3- 

bdl. 
irrevoeable adj. I'^evaka-bal ; {improperly) i^i'voo-ka-bal. 
irruption n. (a bursting in ; inroad) I'^Ap^an. 
is V, (third person singular present indicativ of he) iz, {when 

less strest) z, s. 
Isabel n. color [also spelt isabellel 'izs-bel. 
isagoge n. introduction [also spelt isagoguel ai-ss'goo-dsi, 

ai-sa'goo-gi. 
isatie adj. (of isatin) ai'saetik. 
isatin n. compound [also spelt isatine'i 'ai-ss-tin. 
isatis n. (white fox) 'ai-sa-tis ; {improperly) 'isa-tis, ai'see- 

tis. 
iseliiatie adj. of the ischium or hip; sciatic [synonymous 

cognate ischiadic^ iski'aetik. 

c: law, b: f i«r, a cot, o hot, oi boy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) jndjcates that the preceding so>r^^ \^ Vrc^^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo^^x^SL «^^^2^^» 



292 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

isoliiorrhos^o adj. (limping: said of a variety- of iambic 

trimeter) iski-a'^edsik, iski-a'zao-dsik. 
Islunaelite n. (descendant of Ishmael) 'ilui-^Aait, 'iS-me-^- 

}ait. 
Isiao adj. (of Isis) /ai-si-xk, 'isi-xk. 
Isiaoal adj, ai'sai-d-ks). same meaning as Isiac. 
isidium n. coral-like excrescence on lichens [ploral isidia] 

ai'sidi-3m. 
isinglass. n. (gelatin; mica) 'ai-zii)-gla:s; (less properly) 'ai- 

zn-gla:s. 
Islam w. (Mohammedanism; the Mohammedan world) 'iSLOm, 

'izlsm, is1a:m. 
Islan&io adj. (of Islam) islxmik, is1a:-mik. 
Islamite n. (Mohammedan) 'isLd-mait, 'izld-mait. 
island n. tract of land surrounded by water [also spelt Hand} 

'ai-lsnd. 
isle n. island [also spelt ile'\ ail. 

islet n. little isle ; small island ; spot [also spelt ilet"] 'ai-lit 
ism n. (doctrin, theory) 'izam, 'izm. 
Ismaelian n. one of a sect of the Shiite branch of Islam 

[synonymous cognate Ismailian} isiii'ii-li-dn, isMi'eU-9n, 

iSMe'ii-li-an. 
isobar n. (isobarometric line) 'ai-s3-ba:e. 
isooheim n. line of equal mean winter temperature [also 

spelt isochimel 'ai-sa-kaim. 
isoohronons adj. (of equal time) ai'sekss-nas. 
isolable adj. (that can be isolated) 'ai-sdls-bal, 'isald-bdl, 

'izdld-bdl. 
isolate v. (place alone; insulate) 'ai-sa-let, 'is9-let, 'iza-let. 
isolation n. ai-sd'lee-Jdn, iss'lee-Jdn, izslee-Ssn. 
isomere n. (homologous limb-segment) 'ai-ss-mi:?. 
isomeric adj. (having elements the same in kind but diffe- 
rent in arrangement; also, homologous) ai-s3'me?ik. 
isomerism n. (fact or state of being isomeric) ai'semd-zizdm. 
isopsephio adj. (numerically equal) ai-sa'sefik, ai-so'sii-fik; 

(rarely) ai-so'psefik, ai-so'psii-fik. 
isosceles adj. (having two of its sides equal) ai'sesd-liz. 
isotherm n, (line of uniform mean temperature) 'ai-s9- 

Geizrm. 
isotropic adj. (having the same properties in all directions) 

ai-s3'tjepik. 
isotropy n. (having like physical properties in all directions) 

ai'setja-pi, 'ai-sa-tjopi. 

/ J'e, g cure ; bthe, 8 thin ; ^ 5 arure, ds /oy ; S shoe, ^ tS chew ; 
wzvhen; tjsing; u whoever, iteact, \3iu\V ^Miool, itt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 9 over , e aerial, Abut, ;>; doot, ^i^tio, ^\ic^> ^^%oX^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 293 

Israelite n. (descendant of Israel; Hebrew; Jew) 'izzi-9-lait, 

'iz-^e-d-lait. 
iwiiiable adj, 'iju-d-bd}, 'isgu-d-bdL 
issnanee n. (act of issuing; issue) 'iSu-sns, 'isQu-sns. 
issue n, (outgoing; outlet; offspring; outcome; moot point) 

'ijo, 'is?o, 'iSJo. 
isthiaiaii adj. (of an isthmus) 'isici-an, 'izmi-sn, 'istici-sn, 

'isOici-dn. 
istlm&ns n, neck of land [ploral isthmuses, isthtnQ 'isicds, 

'izmds, 'istMds, 'isOmss. 
isUe n. fiber [also spelt ystle; synonymous cognates ixtle, 

ixtW} 'istLi, 'istl. 
it noun-pron, it, (when unstrest) t. 
itaoism n. 'li-ts-sizam. 
itaka-irood n. 'itaka-wod. 

Italian adj.,n, I'taelidn; {less properly) ai'taelian. 
Italianize v, [also spelt Italianise'] I'tsHd-naiz. 
Italie adj, (of Italy) I'taehk; (less properly) ai'taehk. 
italie adj., n, (in printing) i'taehk ; {less properly) ai'taehk. 
italioisation n. [also spelt italicisation] i-tsehsi'zee-Sdn, 

i-taeh-sai'zee-^dn. 
italioise v. print in italics [also spelt italicise] I'tseh-saiz ; 

{less properly) ai'taeh-saiz. 
Italiot n. Italian Greek [synonymous cognate Italiote] I'taeli- 

et. 
ita-palm n, 'it9-pa:m. 
iteli n. (skin-sensation) itS. 
item adv, (likewise ; also) 'ai-tdm. 
item n. (intimation, hint ; article ; entry) 'ai-tam. 
itemise v. [also, rarely, spelt itemise] 'ai-ti-maiz. 
iter n. circuit, eyre ; Roman road ; way, passage [plural iters, 

itinera] 'ai-ta?, 'ita?. 
iterant adj. (that iterates; repeating) 'ita-eant. 
iterate n. (repeat) 'ita-^et. 
iterative adj. [also spelt iterativ] 'it3?3-tiv. 
itinerant adj. (journeying; traveling) ai'tina-rant, I'tina- 

79nt. 
itinerary adj., n. (route) ai'tina-een, ai'tma-rari, I'tin^-z^zi. 
Inlns w, millepod [synonymous cognate yulus] ai'jou-las. 
iTied adj. overgrown with ivy [also spelt ivyed] 'ai-vid. 
ivory n. (hard dentin) 'ai-va-^i, {rapidly) 'ai-vri. 
ivy n. plant [ploral ivies] 'ai-vi. 
ivy-mantled adj. ai-vi'mantld, {assumptivly) 'ai-vi-mantld. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy\ a: for, ao now, a: osk, aikite; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the precedmtt ^omti^ -i.^ VmskN 
fifre^s-mark indicates chief stress ou \>i^ w\Q^\xi^ «f\?iXJA- 



294 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

isard n. antelope [also spelt isard, izzardl 'iz37d. 
iuard n. the letter zee; zed [former synenymotxs cegnates 
izzet, izzart, uzzardi 'izszd. 



Jacana n. (bird) 'dsaekd-nd, dsdlcee-nd. 

Jaokal n. (wild dog resembling a fox) Mssk-c:!. 

jaoky n. gin [also spelt jackeyl 'dsaeki. 

Jaoobean a(fy. of James the First [also spelt Jacobaean} 

dsaeka'bii-an ; (improperly) dsa'koo-bi-an. 
Jaoobian adj, (of Jacobi) dss'Ioo-bi-sn. 
Jaoobin n. (Dominican, etc.) 'dsaeks-bin. 
jaoobin n. p'geon [also spelt jacohinel 'dsaekd-bin. 
Jaoobitism n. (principles of the Jacobites or adherents of 

James the Second) 'dsaeka-bai-tizam, 'dsaeksbi-tizsm. 
Jas^r n. bird [also spelt jaeger, jager, yagerli 'jee-gar. 
jashir n. assignment [also spelt jaghire, jagheer, jageer, 

jagir'\ dsa'gi:?, dsae'gi:?; {less properly) 'dsaegiz, 'dscu-gi?, 

dsseg'he:?. 
Jasnar n. (carnivorous mammal) 'dsae-gwo?, dsae'gwa:^, 

'dsaegju-a?. 
Jail n. prison [also spelt gaoll dseel. 
jailer ». [also spelt jailor, gaoler^ 'dsee-lae. 
Jain n. one of a non-Brahminical East Indian sect [synony- 
mous cognate Jainal dseen, dsain. 
jalap n. (drug; plant) 'dsaeldp, 'dselsp. 
jalousie n. (blind, shutter) dsselu'zii, salu'zii. 
jam n. (conserve) dssm. 
jam V. crush, crowd [past participle and preterit jammed, 

jamd'\ dsaem. 
jamb n. leg-piece; side-piece of a door or window; cheek of 

a fire-place [also spelt jam"} dsaem. 
jamesonite ». (mineral) 'dseem-sa-nait ; (improperly) 'dsee- 

misd-nait. 
January n. (month) 'dsaenju-e^i, 'dsaenju-a-ri ; (anteriorly) 

'dsaenju-a^i, 'dsaenja-^i, (rapidly) 'dsanjari. 
japan v, varnish [past participle and preterit japanned, jo- 

pandl dsa'paen, dsae'paen. 
Japanese adj. (of Japan) dsaepa'niiz, (assumptivly) 'dsaepa- 

niz; (also) dsxpd'niis, (assumptivly) 'dsaepa-nis. 
Japanese n. (person; language) dssepd'niiz, dsseps'niis. 
Japanize v, [also spelt Japanisel dsa'pae-naiz, dsx'ps-naiz. 

jyc, 9 cure; bthe, 6 thin*, ^asure, dj/oy; S^^oe, tS c/iew; 
wu'hen; jjsing; u whoever, i react, oiu>X, \3\xioo\, -v-vv, ils^e; 
o poetic; oover, e aerial, a. but, o*. ^oot, ^ioxio, ^.>ae^, il^^oXv, 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 295 

Inidre n. (flower-stand; cache-pot) $azdVnjB:z. 
',oiL n, (gibberish ; babble) 'd3a:?-gen, 'd^aiz-g^n. 
ion. n. mineral [synonymous cognate jargooni 'd$a:z-g9n. 
n. (nobleman) jaizl, d^aizl. 

mite n, (mineral) 'dsaees-sait, d^^'zoo-sait, 'd3a:-;9-sait, 
'roo-sait. 

line n. plant [also spelt jasmin ; synonymous cognates 
samine, jessatninl 'dsxsMin, Mssezmin. 
ler n. (chalcedony; quartz) 'dsaespar, 'dsar-spar. 
ice V. archaic (make prance ; prance) dsc.ns, dsains, 
i:ns; (also) dscmts, etc. 

idioe n. icterus [also spelt jaundisl 'dscin-dis, 'dsarn-dis, 
;a:n-dis. 

idioed adj affected with jaundis [also spelt jaundist'\ 
c:n-dist, 'dsain-dist, 'dsain-dist. 
it V. (take a trip ; journey) d3c:nt, dsaint, dsamt. 
&t n. journey, trip [also, formerly, spelt jant'^ dscint, 
i:nt, d3a:nt. 

ity adj. well-bred, sprightly, lively [also, sometimes, 
;lt jantyH 'dscrn-ti, 'dsain-ti, 'dsain-ti. 
mese adj, (of Java) dsava'niiz, (assumptivly) 'dsaeva-niz; 
so) dsaeva'niis, (assumptivly) 'dsaeva-nis. 
tlin n. (spear) 'dsaeva-lin, 'dsaevhn. 
ous adj. zealous; envious [also spelt jelousl 'dselas. 
onsy n. [also spelt jelousyl 'dseb-si. 
I n, cloth [synonymous cognate jane"} dsiin, dseen. 
K n. (fast driver; coachman) 'dsii-hQu. 
ne adj, (scanty, meager, barren) d3i'd3oun. 
huhl n. second division of the small intestin [ploral jeju- 
] dsi'dsou-ngm. 

.ed adj. (turnd into jelly; congeald) 'dsehd. 
Ify V. convert into jelly; turn into a jelly [also spelt 
lyfyl 'dseh-fai. 

r n. gelatinous substance [ploral jellies'] 'dseh. 
te n. 'jc-nait. same meaning as yenite. 
ieting n. (apple) 'd3eni-tii]. 
tard V. (risk, hazard) 'dscpa^d. 

»ardise v, risk, jeopard [also spelt jeopardise^ 'dsepar- 
iz. 

•oa n. (rodent) dsa^'boo-a, 'dsBizr-bo-a. 
miad n. lamentation [also, sometimes, spelt jeremiade'] 
>?i'mai-3d, dse^i'mai-aed. 
aleon n. see gyrfalcon. 

V, b: fwr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, qo tio-u), ^\ a^, «vV\\s.% 
h-mark (:) indicates that the preceding somtv^ i& \«ti\L% 
f-mark C) indicates chief stress on the i^Wo^iT^U «5"V«3c5Vfc* 



296 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

jerid n. javelin [also spelt jerrid, jereed, jerreed, djereed, 
djerrid, djeridj dsi'riid. 

jenn n. trading-vessel, etc. [also spelt djerml dsBizm, 

jerque v. search (a vessel) for unenterd goods [also spelt 
jirk"] d^B'.zk. 

jerquer n. searcher [also spelt jerkerl 'dsesksz, 'dsBis-kse. 

jersey n. (worsted; close-fitting tunic) 'd3B:7-zi. 

jessamine n. [also spelt jessamini ^sesd-min. same mean- 
ing as jasmine » 

Jesuit n. (member of the Society of Jesus) 'dscsu-it, 'djcsfu- 
it, 'd3ezju-it. 

Jesuitism n. 'dsesu-i-tizam, 'dsesju-i-tizsm, 'dsezju-i-tizam. 

jetsam n. goods thrown overboard from a ship in distress 
[also spelt jetsom, jetsome; synonymous cognate jetson] 
'dsctsam. 

jettison n. (action of throwing goods overboard) 'dseti-sdn. 

jetton n. counter [also spelt jeton\ Msetsn. 

jeurel n. (gem) 'dsou-al. 

jeurel v. furnish with jewels [present participle jeweling, jew- 
elling] past participle and preterit jeweled, jewelled, jew- 
eldl 'dsou-al. 

jeureler n. [also spelt jeweller} 'dsou-a-la?. 

jeurellery n. [also spelt jewelry"} 'dsou-al-ri, 'dsou-ala-n. 
same meaning as jewelry. 

jeurelry n. [synonymous cognate jewellery} 'dsou-al-ri. 
{sometimes, assumptivly) 'dsoul-ei; {vulgarly) 'dsou-la-^i. 

jeurely adj. like a jewel [also spelt jewelly} 'dsou-a-h. 

jeur's-liarp ». (musical instrument; Jew's trump) 'dsoiw- 
haizp. 

jheel ». pool [also spelt jhil, jeil, jeet] dsiil. 

jibe V. (put about; sail round) dsaib. see gybe. 

jibe V. be in accord ; agree [also spelt gibe} dsaib. 

jigamaree ». (thingumbob, contraption) dsigama'zii, 'dsiga- 
ma-rii. 

jig-saw n. (reciprocating saw; sciuH-saw) 'dsig-sc: . com- 
pare gig-saw, 

jill n. dsil. see gill* gill* 

jingo ». blatant patriot ; Chauvinist [ploral jingoes'] 'dsiqgo. 

jinn n. pi. an order of spirits [also used as a singular, mean- 
ing one of the spirits of this order; singular jinnee; fcmi- 
nin synonymous cognate jinneeyeh; also spelt ginn, dschin, 
djin, jin} dsin. 

jinnee n. spirit [also, sometimes, spelt genie; synonymous 

J ye, c cure ; d the, 6 thin; 5 azure, dj ioy ; S shoe, tS rfcew; 
wwhen; tj sing; u whoever, \ react, iiiuu, ^>\\oo\, \\\., vinee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o\^oot, ;iOTio, t\ie\, ^^^<:ft.^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 297 



cognates jinn, djinn, ginn; feminin cognate jinneeyeh\ dsi- 

'nii, 'dsii-ni, 'dsii-ni. 
jinrikslia n. [also spelt jinricksha ; synonymous cognate jin- 

rikishd] dsin'^ikSd. 
Jiu-jitsu n. (Japanese mode of wrestling) dsu'dsit-stu 
Jobbemoirl n. pate ; blockhead [synonymous cognate jobber- 

Joekey n. [also spelt jockie, jocky; ploral jockeys, jockiesi 
'dsoki. 

Joeose adj, (full of jokes; waggish) dsolcoos. 

Joeosity n. (mirthf ulness ; mirth) dso'kesi-ti. 

Jcieular adj, (disposed to joking; merry) 'dsok^o-ls?. 

Joeund adj. (merry, blithe) 'dsekdnd, 'd330-k9nd. 

Jod n. (Hebrew letter) dsod, JDod. 

Joluumes n, gold coin [also, sometimes, spelt jonannes, jo- 
anesel dso'ae-niz, dso'hae-niz. 

Join V. unite, link [past participle and preterit joined, joindl 
dsein; {vulgarly) dsain. 

Joist n. (timber) dseist ; (dialectally or vulgarly) dseis, dsaist. 

Jonquil n. daffodil [also spelt jonquille and, formerly, jun- 
quitl 'dson-kujil, 'dsegkiuil; 'dsAqkit'il. 

Jostle V, push and shove; elbow; hustle [synonymous cog- 
nate jusiW] 'dsosal. 

Jostling n. pushing about [synonymous cognate justling'\ 
MsosLiq; (improperly) 'dsosttiq. 

Jougs n. (instrument of punishment) dsougz, dsAgz. 

Joule n. (elecric unit) d^aol, 

Jounoe v., n. (bump, bounce, jolt) dsaunts, dsaons. 

Journal v. record in a journal ; provide with a journal -bear- 
ing [present participle journaling, journalling; past partici- 
ple and preterit journaled, journalled, journald'\ 'dsernl, 
'dsBir-na!. 

Journalize v, [also spelt journalise'] 'd^Eznl-aiz. 

Journey n. round of travel; day's work [ploral journeysl 
MsB^ni, 'd58:z-ni. 

Joust n,, V, dsAst, dsoust. same meaning as just. 

Joviality n. (quality of being jovial; also, jollity) dsovi'aeli- 
ti. 

Jo^rl n. jawbone ; cheek ; external throat ; dewlap ; crop ; 
wattle; head of a fish [also, sometimes, spelt jolel dsoo!, 
dsGot. 

Jo^rl v., n. (dialectal) bump ; knock ; knell [also, sometimes, 
spelt join d^ool. 

c: law, b: fwr, a cat, o hot, oi boy; a: far, ao tiotj), ^•. a^, «vV\\s.% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sovlt^^ ia \«Wk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ioWQN«\xv^ ^-'f^sJwfc* 



I 



298 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

joy n. delight [ploral joysl dsei. 

joyous adj. (full of joy) 'dsei-as. 

jnbe n. (rood-loft) 'dsou-bi, 'dsou-bi. 

jnbilate v, (rejoice, exult) 'dsou-bi-let. 

jubilate n. (psalm) dsubi'lee-ti, dsubilce-ti, jubila:-ti. 

juok V. make a sound resembling this word, as a partridge 
[synonymous cognate jukel dsAk. 

Judaic adj. (Jewish) dso'dee-ik. 

Judaism n. (Jewish religion, etc.) Msou-di-izsm, 'dsou-de- 
izam. 

Judaise v, [also spelt Judaisel 'dsou-di-aiz, 'dsou-de-aiz. 

judgfinent n. decision ; opinion ; discretion [also spelt judge- 
ment) 'dsAdsmant. 

judioative adj. judicial [also spelt judicative 'dsou-diks-tiv. 

judicatory adj. 'dsou-dika-to^i, 'dsou-dika-ta^i, dso'dikata-ri. 

judicature n. 'dsou-dika-tjo?, 'dsou-dika-tgoz, 'dsou-di- 
ket^a?. 

judicial adj, (of judgment) d3oMiS9l. 

judiciary adj. (judicial) dso'diji-ezi, dso'diSa-^i, dso'dij^i. 

judicious adj. (discreet; wise; prudent) dsu'diSdS. 

juger n. (Roman unit of land-measure) 'dsou-dsa?. 

jugger n. falcon of India [also spelt juggarl 'dsAga?. 

Juggernaut n. (object of worship) 'dsAgae-ncit. 

jugular adj,, n. 'd3Agjo-l3?, 'd3ou-gjo-l3^. 

jujube n. (fruit ; plant ; lozenge) 'dsou-dsub. 

juke tf. d5uuk. same meaning as juck. 

julep n, (drink) 'dsou-lap, 'dsou-lep. 

junior adj, (younger) 'dsou-njaz. 

junker n. (young German noble, etc.) 'jogkaz. 

junta n. (deliberativ or administrativ council or committee; 
legislativ assembly) 'dsAnta. 

junto n. (private council or assembly ; clique ; faction ; cabal ; 
club; coterie; ring) 'dsAnto. 

jupon n, (jacket; surcoat) 'dsou-pan, dsu'pen. 

Jurisconsult n. (jurist) dsur-zis'ken-sAlt, dsui-ziskan'sAlt. 

juror n. (juryman) 'dsoi-za?. 

jus n. (law) dsAS. 

just n. combat; knightly tilt [also spelt jousti d3ASt, dsoust. 

Just adv, (exactly ; verily ; simply) dsAst ; (sometimes, when 
unstrest) dsast; (dialectally) dsest, dses. 

justice n. equity; judge [also spelt justisi 'dsAstis. 

justiciable adj, (subject to jurisdiction) dsAs'tiSi-a-bal ; 
(rarely) dsAs'tiSa-bal. 

Jyc, gcure; bthe, 6 thin; ^asMte, d^foy; ^ shoe, tl chevr', 
wwhen; tj sing; u whoever, \Teac\^, ii^uW, \i>\\oo\, ^.\\., -ds«e; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o\Aoot» -^ioxvo, ^.X^e^, "c^^^fcfcN 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 299 

jnatioiary n. (justiciar; justice; justicer) d3As'ti$i-e?i. 
justifiable adj. (defensible) 'dsAsti-fai-d-bsl, {occasionally) 

dsASti'fai-d-bdt. 
jnatifieatiTe adj. [also spelt justificativ'\ dsAs'tifi-ketiv, 

'dsAstifx-ketiv; ijalso) dsAs'tifika-tiv, {assumptivly) dsAs'tifi- 

kdtiv. 
jnatificatory adj. d3As'tTfik9-t37i^ dsAs'tif ikd-ts^i ; {also) 

'd3AStifi-ket9-3i, {assumptivly) 'dsAstifi-ketazi. 
Jnating n. tilt, just, tournament [also spelt jousting'\ 'dsAStir). 
Justinianiaii adj. (of Justinian) dsAS-tini'ee-ni-sn. 
juvenile adj, young, youthful; for youth [also spelt juvenil} 

'dsou-vx-n!, 'dsou-vi-niJ, 'dsou-vi-nail. 



»• Giaour ; Bantu ; nativ of Kaf iristan ; in ploral, Afri- 
can mining-stock [also spelt Kaffir, Kaffer, Kaffre and, ex- 
cept in the sense of mining-stock, Cafer, Coffer, Caff re; 
synonymous cognate Caffree} 'kaefaz, 'kai-fa?. 

;o n. palanquin [synonymous cognate cangol 'ka:-go, 
'kaego, 

kag^ n. bird [synonymous cognate kagon\ 'ka:-gu. 

kairine n. chinolin compound [also, sometimes, spelt kairin\ 
'kai-rin, Tcai-zram. 

kaiser n. (emperor) 'kai-zs?. 

kale n. cabbage [also spelt kaill keeL 

kaleege n. pheasant [also spelt kalij, calidge, kallege'\ kaliids, 
Tcar-lids, 

kaleidoscope n. (tube containing fragments of colord glass 
and mirrors for producing symmetrical figures) ka'lai-da- 
skop. 

kali n. (prickly saltwort; potash) 'ka:-h, 'kaeh, 'kee-h, 'kce-H. 

Kalmnok n. member of a branch of the Mongolian family 
of peoples ; language [also spelt Calmuck, Calmuc'\ 'kal-mAk. 

kalsomine n.,v. 'ks^sa-main, 'kaelss-Qiin. same meaning as 
calcimine. 

kamala n. (dyestuff ; vermifuge) 'ksemd-ls. 

kamila n. [also spelt kamela, kameelal ka'mii-ld. same mean^ 
ing as kamala. 

Kanaka n. (Hawaiian) 'kaens-kd, ks'nxkd. 

kangaroo n. (marsupial mammal) kaerigs'^ou. 

Kantian adj. (of the German philosopher Immanuel Kant) 
Icaenti-sn. 

c: law, s: fur, ae cot, e hot, oi hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
Icngth-iuork (:) indicates that the preceditv^ ^c»\t^^ \^ \ww> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \b.e ie>Wo^vcv% ^^>X^S^fe. 



300 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

kajiticoy n, Amerindian dance [also spelt canticoy"] Icaeiiti- 
kei. 

kaolin n. (fine white clay) lcee-9-tin, 'ka:-3-}in. 

kapellmeliter n. leader or conductor of a kapelle or musical 
establishment [also spelt capellmeister} ka'pel-mai-stds. 

karoo n. barren table-land [also spelt karroo} k^'zavL 

karyokinesia n. nucUus-movement in indirect cell-division; 
mitosis [synonymous cognate caryocinesis'\ kaeri-o-kz'nii-sis, 
kaezi-o-kai'nii-sis. 

katydid n. (insect) Hcee-ti-did. 

kavass n. constable ; armd servant or courier [also spelt ca- 
vass, cawass, kawassl ka'vais. 

kayak n. canoe [also spelt kajac, kayack, cayac and, some- 
times, kyackl 'kai-9k, 'kai-xk, 'kee-jaek, 'kx-jxk. 

kaii n. cadi, judge [also, formerly, spelt kasi, cast, cazee, 
easy; synonymous cognates cauzee, cauzyl Icar-zi, lcc:-zi. 

keen adj. (sharp; clear; eager) kiin, {when unstrest) kin. 

keen-eyed adj. kiin'aid, (assumptivly) 'kiin-aid. 

keep V, (observe ; maintain ; retain ; preserv) kiip, {when un- 
strest) kip. 

kes n, small cask [dialectal synonymous cognate ca^].keg. 

keitloa n. rhinoceros [synonymous cognate ketloa'l Hciit-to-a, 
Tceet-lo-d. 

kekrypkalos n. (head-dress) ki'k^ifd-les. 

kelson n. line of timbers or combination of plates over the 
keel of a ship [also spelt keelson} 'kelssn. 

Kelt n. keh. see Celt. 

kennel v, lie in a kennel; put in a kennel [present partici- 
ple kenneling, kennelling] past participle and preterit ken- 
neled, kennelled, kenneld} ^enl, 'kenal. 

kept V, (past participle and preterit of keep) kept ; (vulgarly) 
kep. 

kerb n. ksizh. see curb. 

kerokief n. (head-dress; neckerchief; handkerchief) 'kss- 

tSif. 
kermes n. (dyestuff) 'keir-miz, 'keir-miz. 
kermis n. annual fair [also spelt kermess, kirmess} 'ksiz- 

mis. 
kern n. foot-soldier [also spelt kernel ksizn. 
kernel n. (seed ; inner body of a seed ; grain, as of wheat) 

'kernl, 'karr-nl, 'kaizr-nal. 
kemeled adj. having a kernel [also spelt kernelled, kerneldl 

'karnld. 

J yc, fcure; d^fie, OtHin; 5 azure, ds/oy; S j/toe, tSr^ew; 
wzt/Jten; ijsing; u whoever, iTcact., iiiuW, xi>\\©oV \\v, \v«e<; 
o poetic; 9 over, e oerial, a. but, o*. ^oot, •aoia.o, ^\ie^, ^^%aEt.v^ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 301 

adj. kernel-like [also spelt kernellyl liBznl-i. 
iLerosene n. (mineral oil; lamp-oil) 'kezs-sin, kers'siin. 
kerfley n,, adj, (coarse woolen cloth) 'kB:7-zi. 
keteli n. (vessel) ketS. 
iLetelmp n. [synonymous cognates catchup, catsup, katsup 

and, formerly, kitchup'\ 'kctjap. 
kettle n. (pot, cauldron) 'ketl; (dialectally or vulgarly) 'kiti. 
key n. lock-fastening device [ploral keysl kii. 
key n. (obsolete) kii. see quay. 
key n. low island near a coast [synonymous cognates cay, 

kay; ploral keysl kii. 

n. (dust-colord fabric) 'ka:-ki. 
n. (Tartar prince) ka:n, ksn, kc:n. 
kkan n. (caravanserai) kxn, ka:n. 
kkedive n. (prince, sovereign : title of the viceroy or ruler 

of Egypt) ki'diiv; (less properly) 'kii-div, ki'daiv, 'kii-daiv. 
kidnap v, steal, carry off [past participle and preterit kid- 

napped, kidnaptj Tcid-naep. 
kidnapper n. (one who kidnaps children, etc.) 'kid-nxps?. 
kidney n. organ, gland [ploral kidneysl 'kidni. 
kier n. vat [also spelt keir'\ kr.z. 

kilerg ». (work-measure of one thousand ergs) 'kilarg. 
kiln n, oven, as for baking bricks [also, sometimes, spelt kill 

and, formerly, kii"] kil, kiln. 
kilosram n. one thousand grams [also spelt kilogrammel 

'kil3-g?aem. 
kilosramnieter n. work-measure [also spelt kilogramme- 

trel kila'gzrami-ta?, kila-g^aem'mii-tazr. 
kiloliter n. capacity-measure of one thousand liters [also 

spelt kilolitre'] 'kila-hi-ta?. 
kilometer n. measure of one thousand meters [also spelt 

kilometre] 'kila-mii-tazr, 
kilter n. good condition; order [synonymous cognate kelter] 

Tcihas:. 
kimono n. (Japanese robe) ki'moo-no, ki'moo-no. 
kind adj., n. kaind ; (dialectally) kgaind. 
kindergarten n. (school for young children) 'kind97-ga:?-tn. 
kind-kearted adj. [also spelt kind-harted] kaind'hartid, 

(assumptivly) 'kaind-hartid. 
kind-keartedness n. [also spelt kind-hartedness] kaind'ha?- 

ti-dnis, 'kaind-horti-dnis. 
kindness n. (quality of being kind, etc.) 'kain-dnis, 'kain- 

nis. 

c: law, b: fi«r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a*, ask, «Ak\\^% 
Icngth-marlf (:) indicates that the preceding somxv^ t^ \^xv^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ioWo^-Ltv^ s^\\aX^fc, 



302 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

kinematio adj, (of pure motion) kini'mxtik, kai-nx'maetik. 
kinematograph n. moving-picture device [synenjonous cog- 
nate cinematographl kini'msto-gza:!, kai-ni'maet9-gza:£, kai- 

'nii-mata-gzarf. 
kinesthesli n. the muscular sense [also spelt kimiesthesis] 

kines'Oii-sis, kai-nes'Oii-sis. 
kinetie adj, (causing motion; of motion; due to motion) ki- 

'netik, kai'netik. 
kinetosoope n. (moving-picture device, etc.) ki'netd-skop, 

kai'nii-t9-skop. 
kinnikinio n. Amerindian smoking-mixture [also speli iirtn- 

nikinick'l kiniki'nik. 
kino n. (catechu-like substance; gum kino) ^li-no. 
kiosk n. open pavilion [also spelt kiosque^ ki'esk, Icii-esk. 
kirsokiraiser n. (wild cherry liquor) 'kizS-wes^z. 
kirtle n. (man's tunic or coat; woman's gown; skirt) HcBTt}. 
kismet n. destiny, fate [synonymous cognates kismat, kisntut] 

'kis-met. 
kitchen n. (cooking-room; cooking-device; food) Hatpin. 
kleptomania n. theft-mania [also spelt cleptomania} loep- 

t9'mee-ni-3. 
knack n. (trick; dodge; art) nxk. 
knaggy adj. (full of knots; cross) 'naegi. 
knapsack n. (bag or case worn by soldiers) 'nsp>saek. 
knave n, (rogue; jack) neev. 

knead v. (mix or work up, as dough; mold) mid. 
knebelite n. (mineral) 'neba-lait, (rarely) 'kNcba-lait. 
knee-deep ». nii'diip, (assumptivly) 'nii-diip. 
knee-kigk adj, nii'hai, (assutnptivly) 'nii-hai. 
kneel n, (fall on the knees or a knee) mil. 
knell n. (sound, as of a bell) nel. 
knew V. (preterit of know) njou; (dialectally) nou. 
knickerbockers n. pi. (loose knee-breeches) 'nikssr-bekdzz. 
knickknaok n. trinket, gimcrack [also spelt knicknack, niclt- 

nack, nicnacl 'nik-naek. 
knife n, cutting-tool [ploral knivesl naif. 
knight n. (man-at-arms; warrior, etc.) nait. 
knit V, (tie, knot, weave) nit. 

knob n. rounded projection; knop [also spelt nohl neb. 
knobbed adj. having a knob [also spelt nobbed'} nebd, 'nebid. 
knock-kneed adj, nek'niid, (assumptivly) 'nek-niid. 
knoll n. (top of a hill; hillock, mound) nool. 
knot n. (intertwining, as of a cord) net. 

J ye, 9 cure; bthe, Bthin; 3 arure, ds/oy; S^^oe, tS c/tew; 

wwhen; x}s{ng\ u whoever, itcaict, \3iu\\» \i\3Liool, itt, lis^^; 

o poetic; dov^r, eoerial, a. but, t>*. dooT, -^i^xio, ^\ke^^ ^^%,(b^».\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 303 

knovt n.,v» (whip, scourge) naot, nout. 

kno'W V, (perceive; recognize) noo. 

know^ledse n. (fact of knowing, etc) 'nelids; (also, in 
Britain) 'noo-lids. 

knuekle n. (bone at a finger-joint; joint) 'nAksl. 

knur n» knar, knot; ball [also spelt nur, nurrli ns'.z, 

knnrl n. knot, knob, boss, nodule [also spelt nurl'\ nsizl. 

koala n. ko'aMd, 'kou-ld. same meaning as koolah. 

kobold n. (spirit) Icoo-beld, 'koo-bdld. 

koodoo n. antelope [also spelt kudu, coodoo, koudou} 'kuu-du. 

koolak n. marsupial [also spelt koola, coolah, coola; synon- 
ymous cognates koala, coala^ 'kou-U. 

kopje n. small hill [also spelt koppie, kopjie, koppje] 'kepi. 

Koran n. sacred book of the Mohammedans [also spelt 
Coran; synonymous cognate Kuran'\ ka'za:n, 'kor-ean, ko- 
'zxn, 

koran n. (bustard) ka'zam. 

Koranie adj, (of the Koran) ko'rsenik, Io'z:a:-nik. 

Korean adj, of Korea [also spelt Corean'\ ko'rii-sn. 

kotow n. a touching of the forehead on the ground while 
prostrating one's self in reverence or worship [also spelt 
kowtow, kotou and, sometimes, kotoo, kootoo'i ko'tao, ko'too. 

kraal n. African village [also spelt crall and, sometimes, 
kraul, krawll kzail, kzcil. 

kraken n, (mythic sea-monster) 'k^ar-kan, 'ksee-kan. 

krentzer n, coin [also spelt kreuzer"} 'kseit-saz; (less prop- 
erly) Treout-sa?. 

knmiss n. beverage [also spelt kutnyss, koumiss, kumis, ku- 
mys, koumys, koumis, koomissi 'ko'u-mis. 

kiimmel n. cordial [also spelt kummei'] 'kimal, 'kgomal. 

Knrd n. inhabitant of Kurdistan [also spelt Koord, Curd"! 
ko'.zd. 

kyang n. wild horse of Tibet [also spelt kiangl kgaer). 

kyanize v, impregnate with corrosiv sublimate [also spelt 
kyanise'l 'kai-a-naiz. 

Kyrie n. (the petition 'Kyrie eleison,' Lord, have mercy) 'kar- 
ri, 'kai-ei-i:, lai-ri-e. 



laager n,,v, camp [also spelt lager'\ lai-gs?. 

label n. (band, strip, marking-slip) lee-bal. 

label V, [also, rarely, spelt lable; present participle labeling, 

c: Iflw, b: fi«r, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, go now, a: ask^ ai ktte ; 
]ength-mark (:) indicates that the ptecediw?, ^o>3».t^^ ^^ Vsto^V^ 
stress-mark (0 indicates chief stress on \he iek>\o^\T^?» ^^>\^i^«.. 



304 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

labelling; past participle and preterit labeled, labelled, la- 

beld'\ Izt'h^L 
labeler n. one who labels [also spelt Idbeller] lee-bs-laz. 
labial adj. (of the lips) lee-bi-al. 
labialise v. [also spelt labialisel lee-bi-9-laiz. 
labile adj, unstable [also spelt labil} '^ee-bil, Isbi). 
labiodental adj, (formd with the lips and teeth) )ee-bi-3- 

'dentl. 
labor n.,v, work [also spelt labour'} Ite-hsz. 
labor age n. payment for labor [also spelt labouragel lee-ba- 

sridj. 
laboratory n. (room or building for chemical, physical or 

other work) laeba^a-to^i, laebaea-tari ; (rapidly) laebzo-tost, 

'laeb?9-t3?i, labea-tji, 
labored adj, [also spelt laboured, labord"} 'lee-bard. 
laborer n. one who labors; workman [also spelt labourer] 

'Iee-b3-r9r, (rapidly) lee-bz^z. 
laborsome ». laborious [also spelt laboursomel lee-b^z-sam. 
labrnm n. lip [ploral labral lee-hzom, 
labyrinth n. (maze) Ixhi-zinO. 
labsrrintbine adj. maze-like, intricate [also, sometimes, spelt 

labyrinthin} labi'rinGin, laebi'ein-Gain. 
lao n. gum-lac [also, formerly, spelt lacque, laque] laek. 
lao n. one hundred thousand [also spelt lakh, lack and, for- 
merly, lak] laek. 
laoertian adj, (lizard-like, saurian) Id'sB^S^Qt Id'sntr-Ssn. 
laoertine adj. lacertian ; consisting of lizard-like figures [al- 
so, sometimes, spelt lacertin] la'se^trn, Id'sa^-tain. 
laoiniate adj. (jagged, slasht) Is'sini-st. 
laokadaisioal adj. (like one crying 'lackaday!' languishing) 

laeka'dee-zi-kal. 
laokaday inter j, (alackaday!) laeks'dee, laek^-dee. 
laokage n. shortage [also spelt laccagel 'Isekids. 
laokey n. footman; valet; hanger-on [also spelt lacquey', 

ploral lackeys] ^aeki. 
laoonioism n. (laconic expression; a laconism) ta'keni- 

sizam. 
laoonism n, (brevity of speech; a laconic sentence) laka- 

nizam. 
laoonize v, favor or imitate the Lacedaemonians [also spelt 

laconise] laeka-naiz. 
laoqner n, varnish, polish [also spelt lacker] laeks?. 
lacrosse n. (game) Id'k^eis. 

J ye, gcure; dthe, 9 thin*, 5as>3iTe, d^foy; ^ shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, tiiuW, ^>3l\ooV "^Vt, \\«e«; 
o poetic; ^ov^r, e aerial, a. but, o*. Aoot, -aoTvo, «.>Qe^, ^^v^fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 305 

lacsrymal tidj, of tears [also spelt lachrymal, lacrimall 'laeksi- 

laerymose adj. given to tears; suffused with tears; mourn- 
ful [also spelt lachrymose, lacrimosel Iselcsi'moos, (assump- 
tivly) Islcsi-mos. 

laetein. n. solidified milk [also spelt lacteine'\ ^xkti-in. 

lactometer n. (milk-gage) laek'temi-tdz. 

laeuna n. hiatus, gap [ploral lacunae, lacunasl Id'kgou-nd. 

laoustrine adj. of lakes [also spelt lacustrinl Is'kAstsin. 

lady n. woman of superior position, etc. [ploral ladies'] 'lee- 
di; (dialectally) ^edi, lai-di. 

lafayette n. (fish) lofe'jet, lafe'jet; lafi'et, lafi'et. 

las^i^ w, (beer) la: -gar ; {less properly) 'lc:-g3?. 

lasoon n. pool-like or lake-like stretch of water [also spelt 
lagune] la'goun. 

laie adj, (lay, secular) ^ee-ik. 

laiciflation n, [also spelt laicisation] lee-isi'zee-$9n, lee-i- 
sai'zee-Sdn. 

laicise v. render lay [also spelt laicise] lee-i-saiz. 

lair n. (place of rest; bed, couch) Iziz. 

laisses-faire n. the let-alone principle or policy [synony- 
mous cognate, with same pronunciation, laisser-faire] lese- 
'feiz, 

laity n, (state of a layman; laymen collectivly) lee-i-ti. 

lam V* beat soundly; thrash; whack [past participle and 
preterit lammed, lamd] Isem. 

lama n. (priest) la^md. 

lamb n. young sheep [also spelt lam] Isem, (often) Is'.m. 

lambda n. (Greek letter) 'Isemds. 

lambkin n. (little lamb) ^xmkin. 

lambrequin n. (helmet-cover; cornice; scallop) 'lsemb?i-kin. 

lamellar adj. (disposed in lamellae) Is'mela?, Istmo-l^z. 

lamellate adj. (lamellar) Isems-lst. 

lamellibranob n. (mollusk with lamellate gills) Is'meh- 
hz2a}k. 

lamentable adj. (to be lamented; doleful; deplorable) 
Isemdntd-bdl ; (improperly) la'menta-bal. 

lameter n. lame person [also spelt lamiter] 'lee-mi-ts?. 

lammergeier n. bird [also spelt lammergeyer] 'lsem9?-gai-9?. 

lanceolate adj. (shaped like a lance-head) 'la:n-si-9-l9t, 'laen- 
si-3-let. 

landan n. (carriage) ^aen-dao, laen-dc: ; (less properly) Ian- 
do, ten'doo. 

c: law, b: iut, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedmv^ ^omtA \^ V»^n.V* 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \3tte i€>>\ovj\Tv% ^>f\^J^^. 



306 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

landgraTiate n. (office or province of a landgrave) brad- 

'gree-vi-et, laend'gree-vi-at. 
landlord n. {lord or owner of land, etc.; innkeeper) laend- 

leizd; (vulgarly) IxnAeizd. 
land'v^ebr n. (reservs, militia) 1and-ve:;, lant-ve:?, Ixnt- 

ve:z. 
lane n. (path; byway) leen. 

langsyne adv, (long ago) lanj'sain; (less properly) laeg'zaiiL 
lang^nage n. (tongue; mode of expression) laeggwids. 
lang^net n. tongue-shaped part [synonymous cognate laih 

guettel laerigwit, laeqgit. 
lang^nette n. Ixg'get. same meaning as languet. 
lang^nid adj. (faint; weak; spiritless; dull) laeggwid. 
lang^nisli v, grow weak; pine [past participle and preterit 

languished, languishtl laerjgwiS. 
languor n. (faintness; lassitude) Ixijgd?, 1xi)gw9z. 
lang^norons adj, (full of languor) 1xr|g9-79S, laeggwa-^os. 
laniary adj. (of teeth) laeni-en, lee-ni-en. 
lansqnenet n. (one of a class of mercenary soldiers; card- 
game) Ixnskd-nst, 'lain-ska-net. 
lantern n. (lamp with a protectiv case) Ixntszn, 
lannginons adj, (downy) Id'njou-dsi-nss. 
lanyard n. short rope [also spelt laniardl 1xnJ9?d. 
Laodicean adj, (of Laodicea; lukewarm) lee-ddi'sii-an, le- 

edi'sii-an. 
lapel n. that part of the front of a coat which is folded over 

toward either shoulder [also spelt lappel, lapelle"] Is'pel, la- 

'pel. 
lapelled adj, having a lapel [also spelt lapeld"} Ix'peld. 
lapidary n, (gem-cutter) laepi-de^i, laepi-dan. 
lapides n. (ploral of lapis) 'Ixpi-diz, 'lee-pi-diz. 
lapis n, stone [ploral lapidesl 'lee-pis, Ixpis. 
lapis-laznli n, (blue stone) Ixpis'lxzjo-lai, Ixpislaesd-li, 

lepis'laezjo-lai; (improperly) laepis-la'zou-h. 
larboard n. (left) 'laiz-hoizd, 1a:?-ba?d; (dialectally) lae- 

bsrd. 
larseM n. liberality, gift [also spelt largessel 1a:7-d3is, Icz- 

dscs. 
lariat n. picketing-rope ; lasso [also spelt larriet, lariettel 

1ae?i-3t. 
larin n. (Persian nd Arabic money) laenn. 
larine adj, of the larina or gulls [also, sometimes, spelt larinl 

lawrin, lae-rain. 

J yc, gcure; bthe, *ftin ; 3 axrure, ds/oy; I shoe, tSchem; 
wwhen; 13 sing; u whoever, 1 react, \jiuW, ^^wiooV, \\t^ lisee; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, Abut, o*. doot, ^otio, ^\ie^, ^^^0!^^% 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 307 

n. (call to arms; uproar) 'lei-eam, 'laeram, 'lai-ram. 
n. ghost; insect in the grub state [plural larvae'] 'laiz- 

laryngeal adj, (of the larynx) IsVindsi-dl, te^in'dsii-dl. 
laryngitis n. inflammation of the larynx) Ix^in'dsai-tis, 
■ }aezin'd3ii-tis. 

laryngoscope n. (device for inspecting the larynx) la'zirjgd- 
skop. 

laryngotomy n. (a cutting into the larynx) laeeig'geta-mi. 

larsmx n. organ of fonation [ploral larynges, rarely larynx- 
es] 'lae^iqks; {rarely) 'le:-?ii3ks. 

lascar n. (sailor; tent-pitcher; artilleryman) lae'skax, 'Ixskdz. 

lasciTions adj, (lewd, wanton) Id'sivi-ds. 

lass n. (girl) la:s, la:s, }ae:s. 

lasso n. rope with a noose [ploral lassos, lassoes] 'Iscso; (im- 
properly) te'soo. 

last n., adj,, adv., v. la:st, }a:st, l3e:st. 

lateen n. sail [also spelt latine, lattine, latteen] Is'tiin. 

latent adj, (hidden) 'lee-tnt, lee-tant; (improperly) 'leet-nt, 
'tet-nt. 

later adv, (afterward; hereafter; subsequently) 'lee-ta?. 

laterad adj. (toward the side) 'Ixts-zaed. 

lateral adj, 'laeta-ral, (anteriorly) 'laeta^al; (rapidly) 'laetjol. 

lath n. strip of wood [ploral laths] }a:6, }a:6, lae:6. 

lath v, (cover with laths) la: 6, }a:d. 

lathe n. (turning-machine) leed. 

laths n. (ploral of lath) la:dz, la:6s. 

Latin adj, (of Latium) 'laetin, (assumptivly) 'laetn. 

Latin n. (language) 'laetin, 'laetn ; (improperly) laet-n. 

Latinise v. [also spelt Latinise] 'laetn-aiz, 'laeti-naiz. 

latria n. (the supreme worship due to God alone : distxn- 
guisht from dulia, hyperdulia) la'tjai-a, 'lee-tji-a. 

latrine n. (privy) la'tjiin. 

latten n. (metal) laetn, 'laetsn. 

latter adj. (later ; more recent ; being the second of two : 
opposed to former) laeta?. 

lattice n. openwork made of laths, etc. [also spelt lattis] 
'laetis. 

latns ft. side [ploral latera] lee-tss. 

landable adj. (praiseworthy) 'Ici-ds-bdl. 

landannm n. (tincture of opium) '}c:-dn-9m, ^ods-nsm; 
(rapidly) 1c:d-n3m; (less properly) 'leda-nam, Ic'dee-nam. 

langh v. (express mirth, joy, etc.) la:f, la:f, lae:f. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy\ a: for, ao now, a: ask, «Lik\l<t% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precedmc soMtv^ \^ \^Ti%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tlie wVo^vci^ «^'^'aX^fe% 



306 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lanslutble adj, (that may be laughed at) ^ai-fa-bat. 
launch v, hurl; send off; set afloat [former synonymous 

cognate lanch; past participle and preterit launched, 

launchtl }c:nt$, }a:ntS, }a:ntS ; {also, and in Britain normally) 

lc:nS, ia:n$, }a:n$. 
launder v. wash; do up [former synonymous cognate lander; 

past participle and preterit laundered, launderdj 1c:n-dK, 

1a:n-dar, lain-dar. 
laundress n. [former synonymous cognate landres^^ Ian- 

dris, 'la:n-dris, la:n-dris. 
laundry n. [former synonymous cognate landryl Icm-dn, 

'la:n-dri, 1a:n-dri. 
laureate adj. (crownd with laurel) 1c:-n-9t. 
laurel n. (bay-tree, etc.; wreath or crown of glory) 1c:-s^. 

1e:-z^l, 'lezdl. 
laureled adj, crownd with laurel [also spelt laurelled, lau- 

reld} 'Ici-rald. 
lava n. (volcanic rock) ^a:-v3, ^a:-v3; (improperly) Ice-va, 

'laev3, 
laver n. (basin, bowl) 1ee-v9?. 

lavic adj, (of lava) 'la:-vik; (improperly) ^ee-vik, laevik. 
la'v^leMneM n. 'lolas-nis. 
lauryer n. (one verst in law; attorney) 1c:-J32. 
lay V. (cause to lie) lee, (when unstrest) le. 
layette n. (outfit for new-born child) le'jet. 
laxar n. (leper) lee-zsz, 
laxineM n. (slothfulness) 'lee-zi-nis. 
laxzarone n. Neapolitan lounger [also spelt lasarone; ploral 

lazzaronil laeza'eoo-ni, }aetsa'?D0-ni. 
lea n. field, meadow [also, formerly, spelt lee, ley} hi. 
leach n. cause to percolate; lixiviate; wash out by percola- 
tion [also spelt leech; synonymous cognates letch, latch; 

past participle and preterit leached, leachtl hitj. 
lead V, conduct [past participle and preterit led'\ hid, (when 

unstrest) lid. 
lead n. metal [also spelt led'\ led. 

leaden adj, made of led; heavy, dull [also spelt ledenl ledn. 
leaf n. plant-organ [ploral leavesl hif. 
leafed adj. having a leaf or leaves [also spelt leaftl hift 
leaene v. form into a league or alliance; join a league [also 

spelt leag; past participle and preterit leagued, leagd} hig. 
leaguer n. camp; besieging force [also spelt leager, legerl 

'hi-ga?. 

J yc, g cure ; 5 the, thin ; 3 axrure, ds ;oy ; S j^oe, tS c^w; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, itcaitX., \jiu\V ^>aiiool, itt, liwe; 
o poetic; 3 pv^r, eawal, /vWt, ;>*. doox, *:>ox^o» ^\ie^» ^^^<to.\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 309 

. V, pass out thru a crevis or hole [past participle and 

^terit leaked, leakt} hik. 

. V. incline [past participle and preterit leaned, hand, 

nt, lent"} hin, {when unstrest) lin. 

t V. past participle and preterit of lean [also spelt lent^ 

t. 

V. jump, spring; throb [past participle and preterit 
ped, leapt, lept} hip. 

ed V. past participle and preterit of leap [also spelt leapt 
1, sometimes, leptl hipt, lept. 

t V, past participle and preterit of leap [also, sometimes, 
It lept} lept, hipt. 

a V. acquire knowledge of; vulgarly, teach [past parti- 
le and preterit learned, learnd, learnt'[ iB'.zti. 
Aed adj. (erudite) 'lernid, 'lB:?-nid; {erroneously) iB'.znd. 
i&ed V. past participle and preterit of learn [also, some- 
es, spelt learnd, learntl Isiznd, lei^nt, Isznt, 
i&edly adv. 'leeni-dh, 'l8:?-ni-dh. 
5 n, (contract, etc.) his. 

) n. (crossing of warp-threads [also spelt leas; syneny- 
us cognate lays'] his. 
) V. dialectal (glean; pick) hiz. 
i n. (thong; string; cord; set of three) hij. 
ler n. drest skin [also spelt lether] 'ledar. 
lem adj. of leather [also spelt lethernl ledaen. 
9 V. cause to remain ; commit ; allow, let ; quit [past par- 
pie and preterit left] hiv, {when unstrest) liv. 
Bd adj. having leaves or foliage; in leaf [also spelt 
vd] liivd. 

»n V. ferment, raise, etc. ; imbue [also spelt leven ; past 
ticiple and preterit leavened, levend] levan. 
lomancy n. obsolete (divination by means of water in 
•asin) 'lekana-maensi, h'kaena-maensi. 
sr n. (libertin) 'letja?. 

im n. reading-desk [also, but rarely now, spelt lectum] 
:t97n. 

'. (past participle and preterit of lead) led, 
Br n. book; timber; stone; agent [also spelt leger] 

Br adj, laid, fixt; resident; also, in *ledger line, *ledger 

ce [also spelt leger] 'ledsae. 

ment n. string-course of moldings [also spelt ledgement] 

Ismant. 

, b: fttr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, ^\ a?J«., ^\V>xs.\ 
i-mark (:) indicates that the preceding ^omtv^ "v.^ Vixv"tN 
mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie i^Wo-^ix^^ ^^^X-sJ^^' 



310 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lee n. protection, shelter [also, rarely, spelt lea; dialectal syn- 
onymous cognate lewl hi. 

lee n. (sediment of wine, etc.) hi. 

leech n. (aquatic worm) hit^. 

leech n. sloping side of a sail [also spelt leach'l hitS* 

leech n. physician [also spelt leach} hitS. 

leek n. (plant) hik. 

leeward adj., adv. (away from the wind) lii-ward, ^iou-STd. 

leeway n. (drift to leeward; retrogression) lii-wee. 

left-handed adj. teft'hxndid, (assumptivly) left-hsendid. 

les n. (limb; ^upport) leg; (dialectally) leeg. 

legacy n. (bequest) lega-si. 

legalisation n. [also spelt legalisationl tigdli'zee-Son, liga- 
lai'zee-San. 

legalise v. make legal [also spelt legalise} lii-gs-laiz. 

legate n. (deputy, etc.) 'legit, 'leget; {improperly) 'hi-get 

legatine adj. of a legate [also spelt legatin} legs-tin. 

legato adj. (connected, smooth : opposed to staccato) le'go:- 
to ; (less properly) h'gee-to. 

legator n. (testator) lega'te:?, h'gee-t3?. 

legend n. (story of a saint's life; lesson-book; story; inscrip- 
tion) ledsand, lii-dsand. 

legendary adj. ledsan-de^i, ledsan-dari ; lii-dsan-de^i. 

legerdemain n. (sleight of hand) ledss^-di'meen. 

legged adj. [also, sometimes, spelt legd} legid, legd. 

leggi'Mis n. leg-covering [synonymous cognate leggin} legiQ. 

legible adj. (readable) ledss-bsl. 

legislative adj., n. [also spelt legislativ} ledsis-letiv, ledsi- 
stetiv; {also) ledsista-tiv, {assumptivly) ledsis-lativ. 

legislator n. (lawmaker, lawgiver) ledsis-letae, ledsi-SLetar. 

legislature n. 'ledsis-let^s?, 'ledsi-sLetSs? ; 'ledsis-let^d?, 
led3i-SLetQ3? ; {vulgarly) ledsislee-tSar. 

legitimatise z'. render legitimate [also spelt legititnatise} br 
'dsitima-taiz. 

legitimise v. legitimatize [also spelt legitimise} h'dsiti-maix. 

leg^nme «. (pulse ; edible vegetable) le-gjum, h'gjoum. 

legnminons adj. (of pulse) h'gjou-mi-nss. 

leisnrable adj. (leisurely) lii-sa^a-bal, lesa^s-bal. 

leisure n. (spare time) 1ii-33?, lesa?. 

leman n. (sweetheart, lover; mistress) leman, lii-man. 

lemma n. proposition; theme [plural lemmas, lemmata] 
lema. , 

lemma n. husk : outer layer [ploral lemmata} 'lema. 

J yc, ccure; 5 ffie, thin; ^sismt^, A-sioY; W/ioe, tSchtw] 
wwhen; r} sing\ u whoever, itcaitX., ^iuW, \i>\\oc\, ^\v vi%ee] 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, a. but, o*. ^oot, ':i^wo, ^\ie^, ^.^^yfe^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 311 

lemon, n. (fruit) 'teman. 

lemur n. in ploral, spirits of the departed; in singular, mon- 
key-like animal [ploral lemurs, lemuresl 'hi-mae. 

lemnres n. (ploral of lemur) 'lemjo-dz. 

lend V, grant temporarily; give, bestow [past participle and 
preterit lent} lend. 

lensth, adj. (quality of being long, etc.) lerjO; (dialectally) 
leeqO. 

leniency n. (quality of being lenient) 'hi-ni-sn-si, 'hi-njdn- 
si; (less properly) leni-an-si, 'lenjan-si. 

lenient adj, (softening; mild) 'hi-ni-3nt, lii-njsnt; (less 
properly) 'leni-ant, 'lenjant. 

lenitive adj. of medicins; soothing, etc. [also spelt lenitiv'] 
leni-tiv. 

lenten adj. of Lent [also spelt Lenten"} 'lentn, 'lentan. 

leonine adj. (lion-like; of a lion) 1ii-9-nain, lii-9-nin. 

leopard n. (panther, pard) lepszd. 

leper n. (leprous person) 'lepd?. 

lepidolite n. (mica) lepi-dd-lait, h'pids-lait. 

leporine adj. (of a hare; lagomorphic) 'leps-zain, lep3-7in. 

leprecliann n. pigmy sprite [also spelt leprechawn, lepre- 
caivn; synonymous cognates leprehaun, lepreehawn, lepra- 
chawn, luprachaun} 'lep3i-kc:n. 

leprosy n. (disease) lep^s-si. 

leprons adj. (afflicted with leprosy) lepras. 

Lesbian adj. (of Lesbos) 'lezbi-sn, lesbi-sn. 

lese-majesty n. (treason) hiz'mxdsi-sti. 

lesion n. damage, hurt [also, rarely, spelt laesion} 1ii-39n. 

lessen v. become less; make less [past participle and pret- 
erit lessened, lessend} 'lesan, lesn. 

lessening n. (diminution) 'less-nii], 'lesn-ig, lesNig. 

lesser adj. (less; small; minor) less?. 

lesson n. (reading; task; reproof) 'lessn, lesn. 

lessor n. (one who grants a lease) le'se:?, 'less?. 

lethal adj. (causing death; deadly; mortal) 'hi-Osl. 

lethargic adj. (dull, sleepy, sluggish) )i'6a:7-d3ik ; (less 
properly) leQsz-d^ik. 

lethargiie v. [also spelt lethargise} leOsr-dsaiz. 

lethargy n. (morbid drowsiness; torpor) leOdz-dsi. 

IfCthean adj. (of the river Lethe) h'Oii-sn. 

lettnce n. plant [also spelt lettis} 'letis. 

lencin n. aposepidin [also spelt leucine} liou-sin. 

lencorrhea n. whites [also spelt leucorrhoea} Hukd'ni-d. 

c: law, b: fi*r, ae cat, e h^t, .01 hoy ; a: for, qo now, ^•'. a^, ^\VA\fc\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvR so>axv^ \^ Vtmln 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress Oti the foWo^-ni^ %>jWsCw«.. 



312 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Levant n, (the East; Asia Minor, etc.) h'vaent. 

levant n. (leather) h'vxnt. 

levant adj, (in law, in * levant and couchant) Levant; (Jess 

properly) lii-vant. 
levant n. (bet made with the intention of absconding if it is 

lost) li'vant. 
levant v, (steal away; bolt; abscond) ti'vxnt. 
levantine adj. of the Levant ; eastern [also spelt levantin] 

h'vaentin, 'le van-tin, h'vaen-tain, levdn-tain. 
levator n. (muscle) h'vee-ta?. 
levee n. embankment [also, sometimes, spelt levyj le'vii, 

h'vii, le-vi. 
levee n. reception [synonymous cognate leviel leVii, h'vii, 

le-vi. 
level n. (instrument; position, etc.) levat 
level V. [present participle leveling, levelling', past pcutici- 

ple and preterit leveled, levelled, leveldl leval. 
leveler n. one who or that which levels [also spelt leveller"! 

'}ev3-l3?. 
lever n. (prizing-bar ; crowbar, etc.) Iii-V3?, leva?. 
leverage n. (action of a lever, etc.) 1ii-ya-?id3, 1ey9-zid$, 
levog^yrate adj. causing to turn toward the left ''Uso spelt 

laevogyratel hi-vo'dsai-^at. 
levy V. (raise; impose) 'levi. 

lewd adj. (lascivious; unchaste) Huud; (dtalectally) loud. 
lewis n. contrivance for raising blocks of strne [also spelt 

lewiss, louisl 'Hou-is; (dtalectally) 'Jou-is. 
Leyden adj. (of Leyden, Holland) lai-dn, ^ai-dan; (less 

properly) 'lee-dn. 
liaison n. (thickening for sauces; illicit intimacy; linking) 

li-e'zeq, li'ee-zen. 
liana n. plant [synonymous cognate liane"] ti'ee-na, li'ona, 

H'aena.- 
liar n. (one who lies or utters falsehood) 1ai-9z. 
lias n. blue limestone, etc. [also spelt Liasl lai-9s. 
liassic adj. of the lias [also spelt liasicl lai'xsik. 
libel n. (writing; defamatory statement) lai-bal. 
libel V. [present participle libeling, libelling; past partici- 
ple and preterit libeled, libelled, libeldl 'lai-bal. 
libelant n. one who institutes a suit in an ecclesiastical or 

admiralty court; also, libeler [also spelt libellant"! lai-ba- 

lant. 
libeler n. one who libels [also spelt libeller'^ lai-bd-ld?. 

J ye, 5 cure; 5f/ie, OtKin; ^sizure, dj/oy; Sshoe, tScAew; 
wwhen; i} sing; u whoever, ireaitX., xviuW, ^m\ooV -s-it, lisee; 
Q poetic; a ov^r, e aeml, xbut, :>*. dQot, •aoxio^ ^.'^e^^ ^.^^<fc.v> 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 313 

Ubelons adj. [also spelt libellous'} lai-bs-las. 

Uber n. (inner bark; bast) lai-ba?. 

liberal adj., n. 'hba-rol, (rapidly) libral. 

liberalise v. [also spelt liberalise'} 'Xih^z^Amz. 

libertine n. [also, sometimes, spelt libertin} 'hbsz-tin, libd?- 
tain. 

library n. (place for books) lai-bra-ei, (anteriorly) lai- 
bz^zi; (also) 'lai-been, 'lai-bee^i; (often, less properly) lai- 
ba-n; (rapidly) 'Jai-b?i. 

libretto n. booklet containing the words of an opera, etc. 
[ploral libretti, librettos} h^b^eto. 

license n. liberty, leave ; permit ; libertinism [also spelt li- 
cence} 'lai-sans, 'lai-sants. 

license v. [also spelt licence; past participle and preterit li- 
censed, licenst} 'lai-sdns, 'lai-sants. 

licentiate n. (graduate, etc.; probationer) lai'senjit, lai'sen- 
Si-3t, lai'senji-et. 

licentions adj. (using license; immoral) lai'sen^ds. 

licben n. (plant; skin-disease) 'lai-kin; (less properly) litjin. 

licorice n. rhizome, etc.; plant [also spelt liquorice, Hcoris; 
dialectal synonymous cognate lickerish} 'hka-eis; (rapidly) 
^ik^is; (dialectally) 'hka-jij, 'hk^ij. 

lie V. rest recumbent ; have place [present participle lying^ 
past participle lain, preterit lay} lai. 

lie V, speak falsely [present participle lying, past participle 
and preterit lied} lai. 

lie n. (falsehood) lai. 

lief adj. beloved, dear; agreeable, acceptable [also spelt leaf 
and, formerly, leef; synonymous cognates leave, leve} hif. 

lief adj. dearly, gladly, willingly : as, / 'd as *lief, etc. [syn- 
onymous cognate lieve ; comparativ liefer, liever} hif. 

liege adj. (entitled to feudal service ; bound to render feudal 
service) hids. 

lien n. (claim) lii-an, hin, lai-an. 

Her n, (one who lies down ; one who rests or remains) 1ai-3z. 

lien n. (place, sted) Huu, lou. 

lientenancy n. lio'tenan-si, laf'tenan-si, lef'tenan-si, lav- 
'tenan-si. 

lientenant n. (substitute; officer's title) lio'tendnt, Isf- 
'tenant, lef'tenant, lav'tenant. 

life-bnoy n. 'laif-bou-i, laif-boi. 

lifelong adj. (lasting thru life) laif-lorq. 

lightening n. (the rendering light ; alleviation) lai-tn-iq. 

c: \aw, b: iuv, ae cat, o hot, ox hoy ; a: far, ao tvoiu, ^\ a^V:, ^^.VA.\s.\ 
\ength-mark (:) indicates that the precedititt ^o>axv^ \% VkWSkN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on ^e iQ\\o^\T^Sk ^-^^^2^^' 



314 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



liehteninK n. the shedding of light; enlightenment [also* 

sometimes, spelt lightning'] 'lai-tn-iq, lait-niij. 
lightening mdj, (that lights, shines, flashes) lai-tn-ig. 
lightning n. (flash of light due to atmosferic electricity) 

'lait-niq. 
lignaloes n. the bitter drug aloes; aloes-wood; aloe [also 

spelt lign-aloes] lain'aeloz, hg'nxloz. 
lignin n. xylogen [also spelt ligninel lignin. 
lignnm-Titae n. (tree; wood; resin; guaiacum) hgnam- 

'vai-ti. 
likable adj. that can be liked; pleasing [also spelt likeable] 

lai-ka-bal. 
like adj, (similar to) laik, (often, anteriorly, when unstrest) 

Idk. 
lilao n. shrub; color [dialectal synonymous cognates lay- 
lock, layloc, lalock] 'lai-lak. 
Lillipntian n. inhabitant of Lilliput [also spelt Liliputian] 

hh'pgou-San. 
lily n. plant; flower [ploral lilies] lih. 
Lima adj, (in *Lima bean, etc.) lai-ma, ^li-ma. 
limail n. metal filings [also spelt lemel] lii-mal, h'mee}. 
limb n. bodily organ, member; arm, wing, leg; branch [also 

spelt lim] hm. 
limbec n. alembic [also spelt limbeck] lim-bek. 
limn V. (paint; depict) hm. 
limner n. (illuminator; painter) 'hmna?. 
limning n. (illuminating; painting) 'hmig, limniQ. 
limonite n. (brown hematite) 'lai-md-nait. 
limonsine n. (carriage) Hmu'ziin. 

lin n. waterfall ; pool ; precipice [also spelt linn, lynn] hn. 
Unable adj, ranged in a straight line [also spelt lineable] 

lai-na-bal. 
lineament n. (outline, contour; feature) 'hni-a-mant. 
linear adj. (of a line; line-like) 'hni-o?. 
linen adj. (made of flax) 'hnin. 

lingel «. shoemaker's waxt thread [also spelt lingle] ligga!. 
lingel n. thong, latchet [also spelt lingle] 'hqgal. 
lingerie n. (linen collectivly) laendsa'^ii, laerjsa'rii. 
lingo n. language [also, formerly, spelt linguo] liggo. 
lingo n. tree [also spelt lingoa] 'hi]go. 
lingot n. ingot [also, formerly, spelt linget] liggst. 
lingnal adj. (of the tongue) 'hi]gw3}. 
liniment n. (liquid preparation) lini-mant. 

J ye, ccure; 5 f/ie, thin-, ^sisMie, d^foy; S j/ioe, tScAew; 
w when; ij sing; u whoever, iTcatX., \3iu\\, ^wiooV ^\v \iaee; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, Abut, :>•. doot, -a^xio, ^.X^e^, ^^5ysft*.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 3l5 



IdinneaiL adj. of the Swedish naturalist C. Linnaeus [also 
spelt Linnaean\ h'nii-3n. 

Unolenni n. (floor-cloth) h'noo-li-dm. 

linotype n. (composing-machine) 'lai-na-taip ; {less proper- 
ly) 'hna-taip; {erroneously) 'hni-3-taip. 

linsey-xv'oolsey n. (fabric, garment) hnzi'wolzi. 

lintel n. (horizontal piece over a door or window) lint}, 
'hntal. 

lionize v. visit, see, or show the lions or sights of a place; 
also, make a lion or hero of [also spelt lionise'} 1ai-9-naiz. 

lipogram n. (a writing from which all words containing a 
particular letter are omitted) 'hpa-graem, 'lai-pa-geaem. 

liqnate v, (liquify; melt) lai-kwet. 

liqnefy v. reduce to liquid [also, formerly, spelt liquify} 
likiui-fai. 

liqnenr n. (cordial) h'ke:?, li'ke:? ; {less properly) h'kgo:?. 

liqnidixe v. make liquid [also spelt liquidise} 'hkiui-daiz. 

liqnor n. (liquid; alcoholic drink) 'hkdz. 

lira n. Italian silver coin [plural lire, liras} 'h:-z3. 

lis n. controversy; litigation [plural lites} hs. 

lis n. in heraldry, fleur-de-lis [plural lis, lisses} his. 

lis n. circular enclosure ; fort [also spelt liss} hs. 

lissoni adj. supple, lithe [also spelt lissome} 'hssm. 

listen V, give ear [past participle and preterit listened. Its- 
tend} 'hsan, 'hsn. 

listerine n. antiseptic [also, sometimes, spelt listerin} 'hstd- 
rin, 'hst3-?in. 

litany n. (prayer) 'htn-i, 'hta-ni. 

litchi n. tree [also spelt lichi, lichee, leechee} H'tjii, li-tji. 

liter «. capacity-measure [also spelt litre} lii-t^z. 

literal adj. (of letters; exact) 'hta-^al, {rapidly) 'htial. 

literalise v. render literal, etc. [also spelt literalise} 'htsrd- 
laiz. 

literary adj. (of letters) lit3-?e?i; {also) 'htara-n, {anterior- 
ly) 1it3-r3?i, {rapidly) litjaei; {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) 'htj3-?i. 

literati n, (plural of literatus) hta'?ee-tai. 

literatim adv. (letter for letter; literally) hta'^ee-tim. 

literature «. (literary culture; realm of letters; writings or 
books collectivly) 'hta^a-tjur, 'hta^a-tja?, {rapidly) litsa- 
tjar; {also, older) 'htara-tgu?, 'hta^a-tgo?, 'ht£a-tg3?. 

litharge «. (protoxid of led) 'h-9a:?d3, 'hOards. 

lithe adj. (mild, pleasant; flexible, supple) laid, laiG. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, au now, a: osk, ai k»te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precediti^ %omti^ "v.^ X^^SkN 
stress-mark ( ) indicates chief stress on tilt A©>\QHiva.\|, ^^'^•2^^ 



316 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lithiasis n. (formation of stones in the bladder, etc.) h'6ai-9- 

SIS. 

lithograplier n. h'Oegz^-i^z; (less properly) liOd-gzai-far. 

litliog^rapliy n. (stone engraving) li'6eg73-fi. 

lithotomy n. (cutting for stone in the bladder) h'Oeta-mi. 

lithotrity n. (crushing a stone in the bladder) h'Oet{i-ti, 
'hOa-tjai-ti. 

litigious adj. (contentious; fond of going to law; dispu- 
table; of litigation) h'tidsds. 

litoral n. of the shore [also spelt littorall lita-??}. 

litterateur n. literary man [also spelt littSrateurl htard- 

'tB'.Z, 

little adj, (small ; short ; trivial ; mean) 'htl ; . (dialectcUly) 
'hi-tl, {sometimes, as in singing) lital; (dialectally) liW. 

litnrgic adj. (of public worship, liturgy, etc.) li'tBzdsik. 

litnrgist n. (one who uses or makes a liturgy; minister) 
litar-dsist. 

litnrgy n. (service, etc.) Iita^-dsi. 

live V. continue in being; remain alive [also spelt liv; past 
participle and preterit lived, livdl hv. 

live adj. (being in life ; lively ; fresh) laiv. 

livelong adj. (that livs long ; lasting ; tedious) livAeiT} ; (im- 
properly) 'laiv-lerq. 

iivery n. (provision ; distinctiv clothing ; delivery of proper- 
ty; livery-stable) 'hv3-?i, (rapidly) livei. 

lives n. (ploral of life) laivz. 

lives V. (third person singular present indicativ of live; al- 
so spelt livsl hvz. 

livre «. (old French coin) lii-va?, hivr. 

lixiviate v. (subject to lixiviation) hk'sivi-et. 

llama n. quadruped [also spelt lantal 1a:-m9, Ijai-ms; (less 
properly) lee-ma, 

llano n. (plain) 1a:-no, 1ja:-nD. 

load n, (burden) lood. 

loaf n. bread, etc. [ploral loaves'] loof. 

loaf V. spend time idly [also spelt loafe; past participle and 
preterit loafed, haft] iDof. 

loam n. soil [former synonymous cognate loom] loom; (dia- 
lectally) loum. 

loan V. lend [past participle and preterit loaned, loand] loon. 

loath adj. averse, unwilling [also spelt loth] }3o6. 

loathe V, feel aversion for; dislike [past participle and pret- 
erit loathed, loathd] lood. 

j ye, gcure; bthe, G*fiin; sasure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tS cAew; 
wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, itcatt, v>iu\\, v^m^ooV 'i-xl, ilsee; 
o poetic; o ov^r, eoerial, Abut, o-.dooT, oo^xio, «.\ic^> ^^^q!(&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 317 

loatluioiiie adj. (disgusting, odious) lood-ssm. 

lobelia n. (plant) lo^bii-Hd. 

local adj. (of place; belonging to a particular region) 'loo-kdh 

locale n. (place, locality) blca:}. 

localisation n. [also spelt localisation'i loksh'zee-San, lokd- 

lai'zee-San. 
localiBe v. [also spelt localise'\ loo-k^Aaiz. 
locate V. (place; settle) loo-ket, (also, especially in Britain, 

sometimes) loTceet. 
locative adj. of place or location [also spelt locativl leks- 

tiv, (less often) loo-ka-tiv. 
loch n. (lake) lek. 
lochia n.pl. (evacuations following childbirth) 'loo-ki-s, 

'leki-3; (less properly) lo'kai-a, lo'tSai-a. 
locliiis n. Greek army-division [plural lochil 'lekds. 
locomotiTe adj, of movement from place to place [also 

spelt locomotivl loka'moo-tiv. 
locns n. [ploral loci^ loo-kds. 
locatory n. (parlor of a monastery; parlor) ^ekqo-tozi, 

'lekgo-tan. 
lode n. (vein of ore) bod. 
lodestar n. guiding star; pole-star [also spelt loadstarl 'bod- 

StQ'.Z. 

lodestone n. magnetic oxid of iron [also spelt loadstone! 

iDod-stoon. 
lodge n. (cottage; meeting-place) leds. 
lodgement n. [also spelt lodgement} ledsmant. 
loeM n. (loam) }b:s, loo-es. 

loft n. (attic; gallery; story) le:ft; (dialectally) Xc.it. 
logaoedic adj. (prose-poetic) lega'ii-dik; (less properly) 

legs'edik. 
logarithni n. (the exponent of the power to which a basal 

number must be raised to equal a given number) 'lega- 

^idam, lega-^idm, lega-riOam, 'lega-^iOm. 
logarithmic adj. legsVidmik, legs'^iOMik. 
loggia n. open gallery or arcade [ploral loggias, loggiel 

1ed39, ledsi-a. 
logician n. (one verst in logic) b'dsiSsn. 
logomachy n. contention about words; game [ploral logomc^ 

cities'} b'gema-ki. 
Logos n. (Word; Divine Reason) 'leges. 
logy adj. (heavy, slow, stupid) loo-gi. 
lollipop n, sweetmeat [also spelt lollypop} leh-pep. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: for, oo now, a: osk, aik-Cte-^ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preoedm^ ^omtv^ "v.^ \«tvM»% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the ieiWoHiva^ ^-^Vvai^^* 



318 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

Iiombard n. (one of a Germanic people; nativ of Lombardy) 

lem-bard, 'lembard, lAmbard. 
Londonize v. [also spelt Londonise\ lAndd-naxz. 
lone adj. (solitary) loon; (dialectally) Ion. 
lonely adj, loo-nlx; (dialectally) lonli. 
lonesome adj. (lonely, solitary) loon-sam; ^dialectally) lon- 

ssm. 
Ions a(//., adv„ v,, n. [as verb, past participle and preterit 

longed, longdl le:t}, leg ; . (dialectally) lc:t}, 
longe n. (lake-trout) lends, see lunge, 
longevity «. (long life) len'dsevi-ti. 
long-headed adj. [also spelt long-hededl leig'hedid, (or- 

sumptivly) leiq-hcdid. 
loose V, make free; release; relax [past participle and pret- 
erit loosed, loostl lous. 
loot V. (plunder) lout. 
loqnaoions adj, (talkativ) b'ktuee-Sss ; (improperly) b* 

'kwaeSds. 
loqnaoity n. (talkativness) lolcwssi-ti. 
lord n. (master, ruler, prince; owner) leizd, lesd, }c:d. 
lore n. (learning) lo:z. 

lorgnette n, (long-handled glasses) loT'njet, lesn'jet. 
lorica n. cuirass ; paste ; sheath [ploral loricae) Id'^ai-ka. 
losable adj, capable of being lost [also spelt loseable'\ lou- 

zd-bdl. 
lose V. (fail to keep; miss) louz, (when unstrest) luz. 
losel n. good-for-nothing [also spelt lozeH loo-zsl. 
lotto n. game [synonymous cegnate loto'\ leto. 
lotns n. plant, tree, lily, clover [also spelt lotos; ploral loiui' 

es"] loo-t3s. 
lonnge v., n. loonds, (in Britain, often) loons. 
lonr V, lao7. same meaning as lower. 
lonse n. insect [ploral lice'\ loos. 
lonse V. (clear of lice) laoz. 
lonsy adj. (full of lice ; filthy) 1ao-zi. 
lonver n, turret [also spelt louvre and, formerly, looverl Ion- 

V3?. 

lovable adj. deserving to be loved, amiable [also spelt love- 

ablel 'lAV3-b3l. 
loveliness n. (quality of being lovely) 'Uvh-nis. 
low adj. (not tall or high; humble) bo, (when unstrest) lo. 
low V. bellow softly ; moo [past participle and preterit lowed, 

lowdl loo. 

J yc, ?cure; 5*fce, 0«fiin; saxrure, dj/oy; S<rAoe, tlchem: 
wzvhen; t)sing\ u whoever, itcslcV, \il\CCi, w\lool, itt, lis^e; 
o poetic; oov^, e aerial, xbut, v.doot, -r^c^Tvo, ^\ic\^ ^^^*r.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 319 

Icorer v» cause to descend; humble [past participle and pret- 
erit lowered, lowerd} 'loo-a^. 

lo'orer v. frown; be clouded [synonymous cognate lour; past 
participle and preterit lowered, lowerd'\ 'lau-a^. 

lo'wery adj, [synonymous cognate loury'\ 'lau-3-zi. 

loyal adj, (faithful, true) 'loi-al. 

losense n. (rhomb, diamond; tablet) 'lezinds. 

luoem ft. plant [also spelt lucerne} Iw'ssizn. 

lucid adj, (bright, shining; clear) 'liou-sid; (d'alectally) lou- 
sid. 

lucrative adj, profitable [also spelt lucrative 'Hou-lci9-tiv ; 
(dialectally) 'lou-lcsa-tiv. 

lucre ft. (gain; profit; greed) liou-kar; {dialectally) 'lou-kae. 

IdUcnllean adj. liukslii-sn. same meaning as Lucullian, 

Lucullian adj, of the rich Roman Lucullus [synonymous 
cognate Lucullean} Ho'kAli-an. 

ludicrous adj. (laughably absurd) liou-di-k^ss ; {dialectally) 
1ou-dT-ks3s. 

lues n. (plague) liou-iz. 

lusrnbrions adj, (doleful, mournful) }u'gjou-b?i-as. 

lukewarm adj, (tepid; indifferent) '}iouk-wc:?m ; {dialectal- 
ly) ^ouk-wciem. 

lullaby n. (song sung to children to soothe them to rest) 
lAla-bai. 

lumachelle n, fire-marble [also spelt lumachel; synonymous 
cognates lumachella, lumachelle} liou-ma-kel. 

lumbar adj. (of the loins) 'lAmbo?. 

lumber n. (things; sawed timber) 'Xkmb^z, 

luminary n. (light-giving body) 'Hou-mi-nezi ; {dialectally) 
1ou-mi-ne?i. 

lunatic adj. (insane; mad; idiotic; crazy) liou-ns-tik; {dia- 
lectally) lou-na-tik. 

luncb n., v. UntJ, {in Britain) IauS. 

luncbeon n. (lunch) 'lAntSdn, {also, and in Britain normally) 
lAnSsn. 

lunge n. rope; training-ground [also spelt longe} Unds, {in 
Britain, often) lAns. 

lunge n. thrust; plunge [also, formerly, spelt longe, lounge} 
lAnds, }An3. 

lunge n, lake-trout [also spelt 'lunge \ synonymous cognates 
longe, 'longe} Unds, Uns. 

Lupercal n. (festival in honor of Lupercus) liou-par-kael, 
liou-pa^-kal, Ho'po^-kael. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-morli- (;) indicates that the precedinv^ somtv^ \^ \«v\^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie i^WoHiwi^ %^>\'2Mv&, 



320 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

lupin n. plant [also spelt lupinel liou-pin. 

lupine adj. (of a wolf) 'hou-pain, liou-pin. 

lure v. (recall to the lure; allurd; tempt) lioiz; (jiialecUiily) 

)o:7. 
Inrid adj. (wan; ghastly) 1io:-?id; (dialectally) loi-zid, 
luscious adj. (highly pleasant to the taste, etc.) ^a$98. 
Inster n. period of five years [also spelt lustre'\ ^AStae. 
luster v, [also spelt lustre"] IasX^z. 
luster n. sheen; gloss [also spelt lustrel 'lAstar. 
luster n. (one who lusts) lAstsz. 
Instered adj. [also spelt lustred, lusterdl lAstdzd. 
Insterins n. the action of the verb luster; polish [also spelt 

lustring] lASta-nrj, 'lAStjiq. 
Instring n. (glossy silk fabric) lAstsig. 
lustring n. lAstd-?ii], lAstsii]. see lustering, 
Inte n. (stringd instrument) Hout; (dialectally) lout. 
luxuriance n. (state of being luxuriant ; exuberance) lag'so-' 

ri-9ns, lAg'3o:-?i-3ns, lAk'sQo:-?i-3ns. 
luxuriant adj. (exuberant in growth; abundant) }9g'3o:-n- 

ant, lag'zjor-ei-ant, lAk'sgor-^i-ant. 
luxuriate v. (grow rank; indulge in luxury) l9g'3o:-ri-et, 

l3g'zjo:-ri-et, lAk'sQo:-ri-et. 
luxurious adj. (of luxury, etc.) l9g'3o:-7i-9s, l9g'zjo:-ri-9S, 

lAk'sgo:-ri-3s. 
luxury n. (indulgence in refined abundance, etc.) lAkSa-?i, 

lAksgo-ri, '}Ag33-?i; (also, rapidly) lAkJ^i. 
lycanthrope n. (were-wolf) 'lai-kan-Gsop, lailcaen-Gsop. 
lyeantliropy n. (insanity in which the patient imagins him- 
self a wolf; power to change into a wolf) lai'kaenOsa-pi. 
Iyc6e n. (secondary state school in France) li'see. 
lyceum n. (place of instruction) lai'sii-sm; (sometimes) lai- 

si-3m. 
lye n. alkalized water [also, formerly, spelt lie, ley] lai. 
lympli n. (water ; sap ; bodily fluid) hmf . 
lynch V. punish by lynch-law [past participle and preterit 

lynched, lyncht] lintS, (also, and in Britain normally) hnj. 
lynx n. (wild cat) hr)ks. 

lyonnaise adj. (of Lyons, France; Lyonnese) H-d'neez. 
lyric adj, (of the lyre, etc.) 'h?ik. 
lyricisni n. (lyric style) 'h^i-sizam. 
lyrism n. (lyricism) li-^izam, 'lai-^izam. 
lyrist n. (player on the lyre; lyric poet) lizist; (rarely) lai- 

zist. 

j ve, g cure ; btht, tKitv; ^ -j asure, dj /oy ; S j^oe, tj c^ew; 
w wJien; 13 sin^; u whoever, itcaitX., \3iu\V ^>aiioo\, i.\V \V8«^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, xbuV, ;>*. doot, •;>otvo, «.\ic^> ^.^%qSs.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 321 

n. (mama, mother) ma: . 
b'ajn n. [also spelt mam; vulgar synonymous cognates 
marm, mum} maem, ma:m; {often) mae:m; {when unstrest) 
mdm, m. 

maead am tie v, [also spelt macadamisel md'kaedd-maiz. 

ataoaqne it. monkey [also spelt macac} md'kaek, m^'kaik. 

maoaroni ft. dried wheat paste in the form of tubes, etc. 
[ploral macaronies} maekd'zoo-ni. 

maoaw n. parrot [also, formerly, spelt macao, maccaw, 
mackaw} ms'kc: . 

ataoooboy n. snuff [also spelt maccahoy; synonymous cog- 
nates maccouba, macouba, maccubau} 'mxks-bei. 

ataomeolation n. (opening between the corbels of a pro- 
jecting parapet, etc.) makiks'lee-Jan, ma-tSikalee-San. 

machinal adf» obsolete (of machines) 'maeki-nl; (less prop- 
erly) ma'Jii-nl. 

ataoldnation n. (contrivance, intrigue; scheme) mxki'nee- 
San. 

2iiAokerel n. fish [also, formerly, spelt mackerell, mackarel\ 
former synonymous cognate mackrell 'mxkd-^dl, 'mxkd-^el, 
'maeks^}. 

ataokintofli ft. waterproof [also spelt macintosh} 'maekin- 
te$. 

maokle ft. in printing, blur [also spelt made} 'mxksl. 

ataole ft. (twin crystal; also chiastolite) 'maeksl. 

ataoroeoim ft. (universe, cosmos : opposit of microcosm) 
'mxk39-kez3m ; (less properly) 'mee-ksa-kozam. 

maeron ft. (length-mark) 'mee-kssn, 'mee-k^on, 'mae-kson. 

mad adj. (insane; unwise; angry) mxd, (familiarly) mae:d. 

madam ft. lady, etc. [also spelt madame} 'mxdsm. 

madame ft. madam, my lady [plural mesdames} ms'dacm, 
mx'da:m, 'mxdsm. 

maddening adj. (that makes mad; that enrages) 'mxdn-ii], 
'maednii]. 

maddins adj. (becoming mad; frenzied) 'maedii]; (errone- 
ously) 'maednii]. 

Madeira ft. (wine) m9'di:-?9, md'dei-^d. 

inademoiaelle ft. miss [plural mesdemoiselles} maeddm^'zel, 
mxdd-mwo'zel, (anteriorly) 'maedama-zel, (rarely) 'maem-zel. 

madraa ft. (fabric) mo'dra-.s, 'msedrss. 

madrier ft. (timber) 'maedri-ar; (less properly) ma'dri:?. 

maelstrom ft. (whirlpool ; resistless movement) 'meel-st£9m. 

maestoso adv. (in music ^ majestically) ma-es'too-so. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-morlr (:) indicates that the preceding so\m^ \^ \^tiv> 
jstrcffs-mark (") indicate^ chief stress on X\l^ ioWovniv^ ^^Vi^Ns., 



322 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

maeitro n. (master in music) ma'estso, ma'ee-stsa. 
masaiine n. (warehouse; storage-chamber; periodical) 

mxgd'ziin, {sometimes) 'maega-zin. 
magdalen n. reformd prostitute [synonymous cognate maif- 

dalenel 'maegda-lsn. 
Magellanio adj, (of Magellan) maedsi'taenik, mjegilKnik. 
mas^nta n. (anilin red; fuchsin) ma'dsenta. 
massot n. (worm, grub; crotchet) 'mxgst. 
Magi n. (ploral of Magus, wise man) 'mee-dsai. 
masna el&arta n. (Great Charter of English liberty) nueg- 

ndlcQ^td, maegnslcarr-td. 
maKneiia n. (hydrated magnesium carborate; magnesitiin 

oxide) mag'nii-Ss, msg'nii-sa; maeg'nii-Si-s, maeg'nii-si-d, 

mag'nii-zi-3. 
magnetisation n. [also spelt magnetisation^ maegniti'zee- 

Sdn, maegni-tai'zee-$3n. 
magnetise v, render magnetic ; also, attract [also spelt mag* 

netisel 'mxgni-taiz. 
magneto n. (magneto-electric machine) maeg'nii-to, 'meg' 

ni-to. 
magneto-eleetrio adj. mxg-nii-to-ilektsik, maegni-to-i- 

Icktjik. 
magnificent adj. (grand, splendid) mxg'nif i-sant ; {less 

properly) maeg'nivi-sant. 
magnolia n. (tree ; bark) mseg'noo-H-d. 
maguey n. (American aloe) 'maegwe, mae'gwce. 
Magyar n. (Mongoloid Hungarian) 'maeg-ja?, 'ma:d-j<ir, mst- 

malilftiok ft. hand-supporting stick used by painters [also, 
sometimes, spelt maulstick, malstickl 'mc:l-stik, 'ma:)-8tik. 

mahogany n. (wood; tree; table) md'hegd-ni. 

maieutie adj, (of intellectual midwif ry ; clarifying the mind) 
me'jou-tik. 

mail n. (armor) meel. 

mail n*. (payment; tax; tribute) mcel. 

mail n. (bag; post) meel. 

mailable adj. (capable of being mailed) 'mee-ta-bd}. 

main n. (strength ; main part ; open ocean) meen. 

main adj. (principal, chief) meen. 

main n. (throw of dice ; match) meen. 

mainmait n. (principal mast) 'meen-ma:st, 'meen-mast. 

mainprise v., n, obsolete [also sprit mainprisci 'meen-p^aiz. 

mainsail «. 'mren-seel, 'mpen-sol, 'meen-sl. 

} ye, ccure: bthe, Of/iin; 5 a^ure, d^foy: ^ shoe, t^cheyr; 
wwhen; tjsinfj; u whoever, iTcacl, q\u\\, vk>\\oo\, \\\., ^\«e€; 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, xbut, ;>*. dooi, -^ot^o, ^,\i«^, ^^%q^^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 323 



V. carry on; keep up; support [past participle and 
preterit maintained, maintaindl menHeen, msn'teen, men- 
'teen. 

maintainer ft. [also, in law, spelt maintainorl men'tee-ns?, 
men'tee-na?, man'tee-n9?. 

maiiLtenanoe n. (action of maintaining) 'meen-tn-ans, 
'meen-ti-nans. 

maixe n. (Indian corn) meez. 

majolioa n. pottery [also, sometimes, spelt tnaiolical ms- 
'dseh-ka, ma'jeh-ks. 

majnioiile adj. (large : said of capital or uncial letters ; al- 
so, written in majuscules) ma'dsA-skgtd. 

make v. (produce, fashion, etc.) meek, (when unstrest) mek. 

malacliite n. (green carbonate of copper) 'maels-kait. 

maladroit adj. (not adroit; clumsy) mxls'dreit. 

malaise n. (uneasiness) mse'leez. 

malapropos adv, (inappropriately) mael-aep39'p30 ; (less prop- 
erly) maeraep33-po. 

malar adj. (of a cheek) 'mee-lsr. 

malaria n. (bad air; fever) m3'le:-n-3. 

Malay n, (Malayan) 'mee-le, ms'lee. 

mal de mer n. (seasickness) mxl-ds'me:?. 

male adj., n. (the epposit of female) meel. 

malefactor n. (felon, criminal; evil-doer) mxh'fxktsz, 
'maeh-faekta?. 

maleficent adj. (harmful) mslefi-sdnt. 

malevolent adj. (malicious; hostil) ms'levd-ldnt. 

malfeaiance n. evil-doing [also, formerly, spelt malfesance; 
former synonymous cognate malfaisancel maerfii-zans. 

malic adj. (of apples) 'mee-hk; (less properly) 'maehk. 

malice n. ill-will [also spelt malis'l 'maehs. 

malign v. speak ill of; slander [past participle and preterit 
maligned, maligndl ma'lain. 

maligner n. (one who maligns; traducer) ms'lai-ns?. 

malinger v, (pretend illness, etc.) ms'lindsa?, md'hrigsr. 

malkin n. untidy female ; slut ; slattern [also, sometimes, 
spelt mawkinl 'mcrl-kin, 'mc:-kin. 

mall n. (promenade, walk) mael, mc:l, mel. see maul for 
other senses. 

mallard n. (wild drake or duck) 'maelard. 

malleable adj, (that may be hammerd out) 'mxH-d-bdl. 

malleclio n. (evil-doings) 'maeh-tSo. 

malleolar adj. (of the malleolus) ma'hi-a-la?, 'maeli-a-lar. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao no7v^ a: ask, ai kite ; 
]enffth-njork (:) indicates that the pteceditvvt, so\xtv^ \^ X^tvsj^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief Stress on t'he ioWo'^vci^ ^>3^^.•a^c^R., 



324 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

malleolns n. bony protuberance on either side of the ankle 
[ploral malleoli} malii-d-lds. 

mallet n. (wooden hammer) 'maeht. 

malm n. soft brick [also, formerly, spelt malme; former syn* 
enymous cognate maum'] ma:m. 

malmsey n. (grape; wine) 'ma:m-zi. 

malodor n. bad odor; stench [also spelt malodourl ma^oo- 
dd?. 

malodorous adj. mad'oo-dd-rds. 

malpractice n. improper treatment; illegal action [also 
spelt malpracHsl mxl'psxktis. 

Malteie adj. of Malta [vulgar synonymous cognate Maltee] 
mcl'tiis, {assumptivly) 'mc:l-tis. 

maltster n. (one who makes malt) 'mc:}t-std;; (.improperly) 
'mc:l-st9?. 

mama n. mother [synonymous cognate mammal 'ma:-nu; 
ms'ma: ; (dialectally) 'mAma, 'moma. 

mameluke n. member of a military body originally com- 
posed of Caucasian slaves but which became the ruling class 
of Egypt; fighting slave; slave [also spelt mamaluke] 
'maems-liuk. 

mamilla n. nipple [also spelt mammilla; ploral mamillae] 
mae'mila. 

mamillar adj. [also spelt mammillarl 'maemi-ls?. 

mamillary adj. [also spelt mammillaryl 'mxmi-le?i. 

mamillated adj. [also spelt mammillatedl 'maemi-letid. 

mamilliform adj. [also spelt mammilliformi mae'mih-fe:zi.L 

mamma n. ms'ma: . same meaning as mama. 

mamma n. milk-gland [plural mammae'] 'msems. 

mammal n. (one of the mammalia or animals having mam- 
mae) 'maemal. 

mammalian adj. (of the mammalia) md'mee-li-dn. 

mammary adj. (of the mamma or breast; mamma-like) 
•'maema-ri. 

mammon n. riches [also, when personified, spelt Mammon] 
'maeman. 

mammoth n. (large extinct elephant) 'maemsO. 

man n. human being; adult male, etc. [ploral men"] msn, 
(often) mae:n. 

manacle n. (fetter for the hand; handcuff) 'maens-ks}. 

manageable adj. (that can be managed) 'maenidss-bdl. 

managerial adj. (of a manager) maeni'd3i:-7i-9}. 

manakin n. bird [synonymous cognate manikin] 'maena-kin. 

J ye, c cure ; bthe, th'm ; 3 amre, ds /oy ; S shoe, tS cfcew; 
wzt'hen; i)sing\ uwVioever, iteaict, xjiu\V ^m^ooI, itt, lisee; 
o poetic; 3 over, e aerial, a. bait, -d*. ^oox, -^iCkxio, ^\ic^, ^^\ytoi\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 325 

manolie n. sleeve [also, fermerly, spelt nianch; synonymous 
cognates maunche and, formerly, maunch] ma:ntS, ma:ntS> 
maemtS; {in Britain) ma:nS, marnj, maeinj. 

MandLn n. one of a Ural-altaic race which conquerd China 
in the seventeenth century; language [also spelt Manchoo, 
Mantchoo; synonymous cognate Manchow} mxn'tSou, 'mxn- 

tSu. 
Mandaean n. member of a Gnostic sect ; language [also spelt 

Mandean; synonymous cognate Mendaeani 'maendi-sn, mxn- 

'dii-9n. 
mandamiui n. (writ) msn'dee-mas; (Jess properly) mxn- 

'dxmds. 
mandarin n. official [also, formerly, spelt mandarinel 

'maendd-sin, maendd'riin. 
mandarin n. fruit [also spelt mandarine'] 'mxndd-rin, 

mxnd^'ziin. 
mandat n. (grant of power ; note) moij'da: . 
mandatary ». (one to whom a mandate is given) 'maends- 

tezi, 'maendd-tdri. 
mandate n. (command; contract) 'maen-det, 'msendst. 
mandate v, (command) 'maen-det, (m Britain) maen'deet. 
mandator it. (one who gives a mandate) maenMee-ts?. 
mandatory adj. (of the nature of a mandate) 'maends-tori, 

'maendd-tsri ; (improperly) maen'dee-ta-n. 
mandatory it. (mandatary; also, mandate) 'maenda-tori, 

'maend9-t97i. 
mandible n. (jaw; jaw-bone) 'maenda-bdl. 
mandolin n. lute-like instrument [also spelt mandoline] 

'maendd-lin. 
mandragora ft. (mandrake, a plant) msen'draegd-^s. 
mandrel n. pick; rod; core [synonymous cognate mandril] 

'maendtdl. 
mandrill n. baboon [also spelt mandril] 'maendril. 
n. (hair on the neck of a horse or lion) meen. 

n. riding-school, horsemanship, etc. [also spelt ma- 
nage] ma'nees, mae'nees. 
manei n,pl. (deified souls) 'mee-niz. 

manganese n. (black mineral; metal) maengs'niis, (anterior- 
ly) 'maenga-nis; (also) maenga'niiz, 'maeng3-niz. 
mange n. (skin-disease) meends. 
mangel-wnrsel n. large coarse beet [synonymous cognate 

mangold-wurzel] 'maerigal-wB^zal. 

n. (feed-trough for horses or cattle) 'mcen-dsar. 



c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark (9 indicates chief stress on t3ie ie\\o^\xi^ ^^XSa^^, 



326 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



I 



Lneis n. (state of being mangy) 'meen-dsi-nis. 

nuu&so n. fruit ; tree ; pickle ; bird ; fish [ploral mangos, man- 
goes} 'maeqgD. 

n. (tree) 'maen-g^Dov, 'maao-gzoov. 
n. (viverrin quadruped) maegg. 
adj. (having the mange) 'meen-dsi. 

mania n. (a form of insanity; craze) 'mee-ni-9; (less prop- 
erly) 'mce-nJ9. 

maniac adj, (affected with mania; of mania; raving; fran- 
tic) 'mee-ni-aek. 

maniacal ad/, (affected with mania; of mania or maniacs) 
ms'nai-d-kdh 

Manichean adj, of the Manichees [also spelt Mantchaean] 
maeni'kii-3n. 

Bfanicheixm n. doctrin of the Manichees [also spelt Mani- 
chaeism; synonymous cognate Manicheanistn'] 'maeniki-izsin. 

manikin n. little man, dwarf; artist's lay figure [also spelt 
mannikin; synonymous cognates manakin, mannakinl 'nueni- 
kin. 

manila n. hemp; paper [also spelt manillal md'nila. 

manilla n. (bracelet) m^'nils. 

manioc n. (cassava-plant) 'maeni-ek, 'mee-ni-ok. 

maniton n. Amerindian spirit; fetish [also spelt tnanitu; 
synonymous cognates manito, maneto'] 'maeni-tu. 

mankind n. (the human race) maen'kaind; (the male sex) 
'maen-kaind. 

manna n. (food) 'maena. 

manner n. (way; demeanor) 'maens?. 

manoeuver n. strategic movement of troops or ships; in- 
trigue [also spelt manoeuvre, maneuver, maneuvre} ma- 
'njou-var, ma'nou-va?. 

manoeuver v. [also spelt manoeuvre, maneuver, maneuvre; 
present participle manoeuvering, manoeuvring \ past parti- 
ciple and preterit manoeuvered, manoeuvred, maneuverd} 
ma'njou-var. 

manoeuverer n. [also spelt maneuverer; synon3rmous cog- 
nates manoeuvrer, maneuvrerl ma'njou-va-rd?. 

manoeuvrer n. ms'njou-vrd?. same meaning as manoeu- 
verer, 

manor n. (dwelling; landed estate) 'maens?. 

mansard n. (a form of curb-roof) 'maen-sa?d 

mansuete adj. (gentle ; mild ; tame) maen'siuiit, 'maen-swit. 

mansuetude n. (gentleness, meekness) 'maenswi-tQud. 

jye, Qcure; d //te, G^Ain; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; \shoQ, tScliew; 

wwhen; tjsing; u whoever, i react, o f uli, oufool, itt, lisee; 

o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, a. but, ;i;doot, ;iQxio, ^.bed, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 327 

mantel ». the work round a fireplace [also, formerly, spelt 

mantlel 'masntL 
mantelet n. cloak; shelter [also, sometimes, spelt ntanHefl 

'mxntl-et, 'maenttat, 'maenttit, 'maenta-let, maenta'let. 
mantelpiece n. mantel; mantelshelf [also spelt mantlepiecel 

'maentl-piis. 
mantelslielf n. (shelf of a mantelpiece) 'mxntl-S^lf* 
mantissa n. (decimal-part of a logarithm) maen'tisa. 
mantle n. (garment; cover) 'maentl. 

mantna n. (gown, manteau) 'mxntgu-s, 'mxnt$u-3, 'maentu-s. 
mannf aetory n. formerly, manufacture ; now, factory [ploral 

manufactories} maenjo'faektSa-ri, manjo'faekta-^i. 
manufacture n.,v. maenjo'faektSs?, msnjo'fsektgs?, (also, 

sometimes) 'maenjo-faektSa?; (vulgarly) maena'faektSazr. 
manwmise v, (obsolete) manumit [also spelt manumise ; syn- 
onymous cognate manumiss} maenjo'maiz. 
mannmit v. (release from slavery; set free) maenjo'mit. 
' manure v. (formerly, hold, manage ; now, enrich with dung) 

md'njo:?; (dialectally) ma'no:^. 
many adj, (numerous; plural) 'mem. 

marabou n. bird; plume [also spelt marabout'^ 'maer-s-bu. 
nuuranatl&a n. (terrible curse) maers'naeOd, mae?9'na:-G9. 
maraimuf n. (wasting away) ma'zsezmss. 
marbleise v. give the appearance of marble [also spelt mar- 

bleisel 'marr-ba-laiz. 
marc n. (refuse of prest grapes, etc. ; murk) ma:rk. 
marcli v, walk in step [past participle and preterit marched, 

marcht} maiztS, (when unstrcst) martS. 
marcl&ioneM n. (wife of a marquis, etc.) 'ma^Jd-nis. 
mare n. (female horse) me:?. 

margarie adj. (pearly : said of an acid) ma^'gae^ik. 
marsarin n. glycerid of margaric acid [also spelt marga- 
rine] 'ma:r-g9-3in. 
margarine n. (oleomargarine) ^maiz-g^-zin. 
marguerite n. (daisy) ma^ga'^iit, 'rtiaiz-gs-zit. 
marigold n. plant [also, formerly, spelt marygold] 'maszi- 

gold, (rarely) 'me:-ri-gold. 
Mariolatry n. (idolatrous worship of the Virgin Mary) me:- 

zi'ola-tji. 
marital adj. (of a husband; matrimonial) 'mae^i-tl, 'maen-tal. 
maritime adj, (living near the sea; of the sea) 'mae?i-taim, 

'maezi-tim. 
marjoraui n. (plant) 'maiz-d^^-z^m, 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, © hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on l\ie lQ\\o^ixi% ^^j^-s^^r,^ 



328 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mark n. unit of weight; coin [also spelt marcl tnaizk, 

market n. (meeting for trade ; trading-place ; sale ; demand) 
'ma^kit, 'ma:3-kit. 

marline n. two-strand line [also spelt marlini 'maizAitL 

marmalade n. (preserve; fruit) 'ma:z-m3-led. 

marmoreal n. (of marble) maz'moi-zi-dl. 

marmoiet n. monkey [also, formerly, spelt fnarmosetl 'maiz- 
md-zet, ma^ms'zet. 

marmot n. (rodent) 'ma:7-m9t. 

marmot n. bathing-cap [also spelt martnotte'] 'ma:7-mat 

marque n. (seizure) ma:?k. 

marquee n, tent [also spelt markeel ma?^ii. 

marquetry n. inlaid work [also spelt marqueteriel 'marki- 
tli. 

marquif n. nobleman [also spelt marquessl 'mcurkwis. 

marquisate n. (status or domain of a marquis) 'morkioi' 
zet, 'mazkuji-set, 'ma?kuji-S3t. 

marriage n. (wedlock, spousehood) 'maezids. 

marriageable adj. 'mxridss-bsl. 

Marseillaiie n. (song of the French Republic) mozsileez. 

marseillei n. (cotton fabric) mar'seelz. 

marshal n. (officer) 'marjal, 'maiz-Jal. 

xuarskal v. dispose in order; array [past participle and pret- 
erit marshaled, marshalled, marshaldl 'marjal, 'mar^-Jal. 

marskaler n. one who marshals or disposes in due order 
[also spelt marshallerl 'ma^Ja-la?. 

marskmallow n. (plant; candy) mazYmasiOf 'maizl-msdo; 
(improperly) ma^S'melo. 

marten n. quadruped [also, formerly, spelt martini 'mosrtin, 
'ma:?-tin. 

martial adj. (of war; military; warlike) 'maz^a), 'maiz-S^h 

martin n. (bird) 'martin, 'ma:r-tin. 

martinet n. (rigid disciplinarian) mazti'net. 

martinet n. (bird) mazti'net, 'mazti-net. 

martingale n. (strap; rope; dolphin-striker; gambling-sys- 
tem) 'moztn-gel. 

Martinmai n. (feast of St. Martin) 'maztn-ma:s, 'marr-tn- 
ma:s, 'maztin-mas. 

martyr n. (one who undergoes death for creed, etc.) 'maZ' 

t3?. 

martyrdom n. 'mazt^z-d^m. 

martsrrixe v, [also spelt martyrise"! 'mart3-?aiz. 

marvel v, wonder [present participle marveling, fnarveUing^ 

i yCf 9 cure; bthe, Qthin; 3 axrure, ds/oy; S<r^oe, tlchewl 

to when; r}s\ng\ u whoever, ireaicX., \siu\\, ^jufool, itt, lisee; 

o poetic; sov^r, eoerial, ^but, o-.doot, ^qtio, ^.\ie^, ^^^q^; 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 329 

past participle and preterit marveled, marvelled, marveld"] 
'mazz-vsL 

marrelonf adj. wonderful [also spelt marvellous! 'ma:;- 
v3-t3s, (rapidly) 'marr-vlas, 'maizv^as. 

masculine adj, male, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt masculini 
'rnxskgo-hn, 'maeskgo-lain. 

mask n. cover for the face; masquerade [also, in the sense 
of masquerade, etc., spelt masque} ma:sk, ma:sk, mae:sk. 

masked adj. [also spelt maskt} ma:skt. 

masker n. [also spelt masquer} 'ma:-sk97. 

maskinonse n. pike [synonymous cognate maskalonge} 
mxski'nonds, 'maeski-nonds, maeski'nondsi. 

Masorete n. one of the Jewish scholars who contributed to 
the formation of the Masora [also spelt Massorete} 'maesa- 
zit. 

masquerade n. (maskt ball; disguise; travesty) mxsks'^eed. 

mass n,,v, (in all senses) ma:s, ma:s, mx:s. 

massacre v. kill indiscriminately [present . participle massa- 
cring; past participle and preterit massacred} 'maesa-ka?; 
(less properly) 'ma:-s9-k3?. 

massacred v, (past participle and preterit of massacre) 
'maesd-kdrd. 

massacring v. (present participle of massacre) 'msesd-k^ir). 

massage n. (treatment by kneading, etc.) ma'sais, mae'sa:3, 
ma'saids; 'maesids, 'mai-sids. 

massed adj. gatherd into a mass [also spelt mast} ma:st, 
ma:st, mae:st. 

masseter n. (muscle) mae'sii-ta?; (less properly) 'maesi-tar. 

massive adj, having mass; solid [also spelt massiv} 'ma:-siv, 
'ma:-siv, 'mae:-siv, 'maesiv. 

mast n. (tall pole or spar rising from a ship) ma:st, ma:st, 
mae:st. 

master n. 'ma:-st3?, 'mar-star, 'maei-sta?; (anteriorly, as a ti- 
tle) 'mastar, 'masta?, 'maesta?. 

mastic n. [also spelt mastich} 'maestik, 'ma:-stik. 

masticatory adj. (of mastication) 'maestiks-tan. 

mastiff n. dog [plural mastiffs} 'ma:-stif, 'ma:-stif, 'mae:-stif. 

mastodon n. (extinct elephant-like mammal) 'maests-dan, 
'maesta-don, 'mai-sta-dan. 

matador n. man appointed to kill the bull in a bull-fight [al- 
so spelt matadore} 'maeta-doz:, maeta'do:?. 

mat6 n. cup; tea; shrub [also spelt mate} 'ma:-te, 'mae-te. 

materialise v. [also spelt materialise} m3'ti:-7i-9-laiz. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: for, ao now, ^\ a^, ^-vVaX^n 

Jength-mark (:) indicates that the precediM somti^ \% ^^"S*' 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on l\ie fe\\o^\XL^ ^-^f^ai^^ 



330 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mathematician n. (one skild in mathematics) nueOmid- 

'tijan, (rapidly) msOma'tiSdn, mxOMd'tiSdn. • 

malin n. morning service, etc. [ploral matinsl 'maetxn. 
matinee n. (afternoon performance) maeti'nee; {anteriorly) 

'mati-ne; (also, less properly) mactn'ee, 'nwetn-e; nuetn'n. 
matrass n. (glass vessel used by chemists) 'mxtsas. 
matrioal adj. (of the matrix) 'mxtsi-kst, md'tsai-kdi. 
matrice n. [also spelt matris} 'mee-t£is, 'maetsis. same 

meaning as matrix. 
matrices n. ploral of matrix [also spelt tnatrisesl 'maetsi- 

siz, (sometimes, especially iH senses other than molds) ma- 

'tjai-siz. 
matricide ft. (action of killing one's own mother) 'nuetxi- 

said, 'mee-tji-said. 
matrimony n. (marriage) 'mxt£i-moni, (also) 'maetximd-ni, 

(anteriorly) 'maetji-mani. 
matrix n. womb ; f ormativ part ; enclosing mass ; mold [plor- 
al matrices, matrixes'] 'mee-tjiks, 'maetjiks. 
matron n. (married woman) 'mee-tssn, 'mxtsdn; (dialectaUy) 

'meet-tjan. 
matronal adj. (of a matron; matron-like) 'maets9-n), 'mee- 

t£3-n}. 
matronize v. [also spelt matronisel 'maetsd-naiz, 'mee-tja- 

naiz. 
matronly n. (like a matron, etc.) 'maetj3-n!i, 'mce-tja-nh. 
mattock n. (pickax) 'maetsk. 
mattress n. (bed) 'maet^ss. 
mature adj, (full-grown, ripe) ma'tQo:?; (improperly) ma- 

'tSo:r; (dialectaUy) ma'toir. 
matutinal adj, (of the morning; early) md'tgou-ti-n), maet^ 

'tai-nl. 
matutine adj. matutinal [also, sometimes, spelt matutin] 

'maetQo-tin, 'maetgo-tain. 
maudlin adj. (tearful, mawkishly emotional) 'mc:-dhn. 
maugre prep, in spite of [also spelt mauger, magrel 'mc:-g3r. 
maul n. (mallet, game, alley) [also spelt malll mc:t 
maunder v. whine ; talk incoherently [former synonymous 

cognate mander; past participle and preterit maundered, 

maunderd'] 'mcin-dar, 'ma:n-do?, 'marn-dar. 
mausoleum n. stately tomb [ploral mausolea, mausoleums] 

mcsalii-am. 
mauve n. (reddish-purple dye or color) moov, mc:v. 
mavis n. (song-thrush) 'maevis, 'mee-vis. 

J ye, gcure; 5 the, tKitv; ^slsmt^, ^\Ja^\ \s.W, t^c^w; 
w when ; n sing: u whoever, itcslcX., xsiuXN., xi\\.\oo\, ^V^ ^^v> s 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, /.but, o\^oot, ^otio, ^\.c^ ^«:^«fefc. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 331 

n. (stomach ; crop) mc: . 

mawkish adj. (sickly) 'moki^. 

maxilla n. jaw; jaw-bone; one of a pair of gnathites [plor- 
al maxillael maek'siU. 

maxillary adj. (of the jaw; of the maxillae) 'maeksi-lezri, 
'mseksi-l^zi, mak'sila-zi. 

maximiini n. greatest value; highest amount; superior lim- 
it [ploral maxima, rarely maximums'] 'macksi-msm. 

may v. mee, (when less stresi) me, ms. 

maybe adv. 'mee-bi, {when less stresi) 'mebi; (dialectally) 
'mebi. 

mayliem n. (in law, maim) 'mee-sm, 'mee-hem. 

mayonnaise n. (egg sauce) me-s'neez. 

mayor n. (chief magistrate of a city or boro) 'mee-9?, me:?. 

mayoral n. (conductor of beasts) majo'zail. 

mayoral adj, (of a mayor) 'mce-a-ral, 'mcr-ral. 

mayoralty n. (office of a mayor or the period of his ser- 
vice) 'mee-aral-ti, 'me:-?3l-ti. 

mazarine n., adj. (blue) mxza'^iin, (anteriorly) 'mxz^-zin. 

maie n. (labyrinth) meez. 

mazurka n. Polish dance [also, sometimes, spelt mazourka] 
ms'zB^kd, m3'zo:3-k9. 

mead n. (liquor) miid. 

mead n. (meadow) miid. 

meadonv n. low grass-land [also spelt medow] 'medo; (dia- 
lectally) 'meda. 

meager adj. lean, thin ; scanty [also spelt meagrel 'mii-gar. 

mean n., adj. (medium) mzin. 

mean adj. (common ; humble ; stingy) miin. 

mean v, (intend) miin, (when unstrest) min. 

meander n. winding course ; deviation [also, formerly, spelt 
maeander"] mi'aenda^. 

meandrine adj. characterized by windings : said of certain 
corals [also, sometimes, spelt maeandrine, meandrin] mi- 
'aen-drain, mi'aendnn. 

meanness n. (condition of being mean) 'miin-nis. 

measles n. (disease) 'mii-zslz. 

measly adj. (of measles; contemptible) 'miiz-li, 'mii-zh. 

measure n. size ; tape, rod, etc. ; unit [also spelt mesurel 
'Tm$9z; (dialectally) 'mee-33?. 

meat n. (food; flesh) miit. 

meatus n. passage [ploral meatus, meatuses] mi'ee-tss. 

meatus n. (ploral of meatus) mi'ee-tgus. 

c: law, b: f«r, a? cat, e hot, er hoy, a: far, ao now, «•, a^, ^-vVVv&n 

Jengtb-mark (:) indicates that the preceding soaxti^ a& \^x\^% 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on l\ie ie\\o^\n% «^f^sMvt. 



\ 



332 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

meol&aiiioian n. (mechanic, artisan; one verst in machine- 
ry) mekd'nijdn. 
meeliaiiist n. (machinist; mechanician) 'meko-nist. 
mecl&anize v. [also spelt mechanise'\ 'meka-naiz. 
meohlin n. (lace) 'mekLin. 
medal n. (metal disk) 'medl, 'medsl. 

medal v, [present participle medaling, medalling\ pCMt par- 
ticiple and preterit meddled, medalled, medaldl 'medt, 

'medal. 
medalist n. one verst in medals; medal-maker; recipient of 

a medal [also spelt medallisf] 'medt-ist, 'medd-tist. 
medallion n. (large medal, etc.) ihi'daetian. 
meddle v, (interfere) 'medl. 
meddler n. (one who meddles) 'medlar. 
Median adj. (of the Medes) mi'dii-sn. 
mediastinum n. median septum [ploral mediastinal midi- 

aes'tai-nsm. 
mediatise v. reduce to the position of a mediate vassal; 

mediate [also spelt mediatisel 'mii-di-9-taiz. 
mediatrices n. (ploral of mediatrix) midi-a'tsai-siz. 
mediatrix n. female mediator [ploral mediatrices} midi'ee- 

t£iks. 
medic adj. (medical) 'medik. 
medic n. plant [also spelt medick"} 'mii-dik. 
medicament n. (curativ substance) 'medi-ks-mant, mi'dikd- 

mant. 
Medicean adj. (of the Medici) medi'sii-sn. 
medicinable adj. (medicinal) mi'disina-bdl, 'medsina-bs!. 
medicinal adj. (curativ; remedial) mi'disi-nl, (assumptivly) 

mi'disinl; (formerly) 'medisi-nl. 
medicine n. art of curing disease, etc.; remedy; cure [also 

spelt medicin\ 'medi-san, 'medi-sn, 'medi-sin, 'medsan, 

'medsn. 
mediciner n. mi'disi-nsr, 'medisi-na?, 'medsi-nsz:. 
mediety n. (moiety) mi'dai-i-ti. 
medieval adj. of the Middle Ages [also spelt mediaeval\ mi- 

di'ii-v9l, medi'ii-val. 
medievalixe v. [also spelt mediaevalize, mediaevalisel mi- 

di'ii-v3-}aiz, medi'ii-va-laiz. 
mediocre n. (middling quality) midi'oo-ksz, 'mii-di-oks;; 

(less properly) 'mii-di-eka?. 
mediocrity n. (mean state; mediety; mediocre condition) 

midi'ek^i-ti. 

J ye, gcure; 5f/ie, thin-, ^asMte, ^-bi^^N ^sKoe, t^cfcew; 
wwhen; rising', u whoever, \ react, xiiuW, xiM\ooV^\\., <\^e\ 
o poetic; oov^r, e oeria\, ^bwt, o-.^oox, -^i^xio, ^\iee^, ^.^%<frfcN 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 333 

meditative adj, of meditation [also spelt tneditativl 'medi- 
tetiv, 'medita-tiv. 

medium n. middle quality; intervening substance; instru- 
mentality; clairvoyant, etc. [ploral media and, especially in 
the sense of clairvoyant, etc., tnediunisl 'mii-di-am, 

medlar n. tree [also, formerly, spelt medler'] 'medldz. 

medulla n. (marrow, etc.) mi'dAls. 

medullar adj, (medullary) mi'dAlsr. 

medullary adj. (of marrow, etc.) mi'dxld-ri, 'meds-lezi. 

meed n. (reward ; gift) miid. 

meerscl&aum n. (sepiolite) 'miiz-l^m, 'mi:3-Scm, ^mr.z-lem, 
'mc:z-Saom, 'mi:?-Saom. 

meet adj. (fit; adapted) miit. 

megrim n. (headache) 'mii-gnm. 

meistersinger n. mastersinger : member of an old German 
musical gild [synonymous cognate meisters'dngerl 'mai-st93- 
sir^^z. 

melancholy n. (melancholia; sadness) 'melsn-keh; (also) 
'melsnkd-li, (assumpHvly) 'melan-kah. 

melange n. (mixture) me'lens, me'lends. 

mS16e n. (confused conflict ; mixup) melee. 

meliorate v. (improve) 'mii-lia-ret, 'mii-H-a-ret. 

melloiv adj, (soft with ripeness; rich and soft) 'melo; (dia- 
lectally or vulgarly) 'mela. 

melodeon n. reed-organ, harmonium, melodium; also, accor- 
dion [also spelt melodioni milDO-di-an. 

melodic adj. (of melody) mi'ledik. 

melodious adj, (full of melody) miloo-di-as; {vulgarly) mi- 
1oo-d33s. 

melodrama n. (drama with music; opera, etc.) meb'dra:-m9, 
'melo-dra:-m3 ; (also) mela'drai-ma, 'mela-drai-ma. 

melody n. sweet music; tune [ploral melodies'] 'mels-di. 

melon n. (gourd) 'melan. 

membraneous adj, mem'bzee-ni-ds. same meaning as mem- 
hranous. 

membranous adj. (consisting of membranes; membrana- 
ceous) 'memb?3-n3s. 

memento n. prayer; reminder; souvenir [ploral mementos, 
mementoes] mi'mento. 

memoir n. (record; biography) 'mem-we:?, 'mii-mo:?, 'me- 
mei-ar, mim'we:?, 'mii-mwo:?. 

memorandum n. note [ploral memoranda, memorandums] 
mema'zraendam. 

c: low, b: fur, ae cot, e h<9t, ei hoy\ a: fat, qd tvow, «•. a"^, ^-vVKxr-n 

length-mark (:) indicates that the ptecediM ao>\Ti^ ts^ \«^n%\ 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ift ?©\\o^m«» ^i^X-sJo^i 



334 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

memorialize v. address a memorial to, etc [also spelt me- 
morialisel mi'moi-zi-a-laiz. 

memorise v. [also spelt memorisel 'mema-zaiz. 

memory n. (mental retention; recollection) 'mema-n, {rap- 
idly) 'mem?i. 

menace n. (threat) 'menis. 

menad n. bacchante [also spelt maenadl 'mii-naed. 

mtease n. housekeeping; domestic establishment [also spelt 
menagel me'nais. 

menagerie n. (collection of wild animals; animal-house) 
mi'naed33-;i, {rapidly) mi'mtd^zi; mi'nac33-?i, mi'na:-59-ei. 

menaion n. volume of the Greek breviary [ploral menaid] 
mi'nai-en. 

menhaden n. fish [synonymous cognate manhadenl man- ' 
'hee-dn, men'hee-ddn. 

menl&ir n. (upright monumental stone) 'men-hizr. 

menial adj. (of service; degrading) 'mii-ni-dl, 'mxi-njdt. 

meninges n. (ploral of meninx) mi'nin-dsiz. 

meningitis n. (inflammation of the membranes of the brain 
or spinal cord) menin'dsai-tis, menin'dsii-tis. 

menses n,pl. (monthly discharges; catamenia) 'men-siz. 

mensual adj. (of a month) 'menju-dl, 'mensQU-sl. 

mensural adj, (of measure) 'men$9-?3l, 'mensgo-rs). 

mensuration n. (measuring) men$9'zee-$3n, mensQo'zee-Ssn. 

menthol n. (peppermint-camfor) 'men-6o!, 'men-Oel, 'men- 
Gal. 

mentor n. (intimate counselor) 'mentor, 'men-te?. 

menu n. (bill of fare) me'njou, 'mee-nju. 

mercantile adj, of merchants [also, sometimes, spelt mer- 
cantill 'merkan-til, 'mBrkan-tail, 'merkdn-til. 

mercenary adj. (actuated by gain; hired; sordid) 'msrsi- 
neri; {also) 'mersina-ri, {assumpHvly) 'mersi-nan. 

mercerise v. prepare for dyeing by treating with caustic pot- 
ash, etc. [also spelt mercerise! 'mersa-zraiz. 

merchandise n. trade ; commodities of commerce [also spelt 
merchandize'! 'msztSan-daiz. 

merchandise v. trade [also spelt merchandise! 'martSdn- 
daiz. 

merciful adj, (having mercy) 'mersi-fal, 'mB^si-fol. 

mercurial aJj. (like Mercury; sprightly; of quicksilver) 
mB^'k^or-zri-al. 

mercurialise v. [also spelt mercurialise! mer'kQo^ri-d-taxz. 

mercury n. (quicksilver) 'mB^kgo-^i. 

} y^, Q cure ; 5 the, tkin; j azMte, ^-^ ici>j \ \ sK^^, t^ cfcew ; 
tvwhen; tj sing; u whoever, \Te3tC\., xsiuW, vsm\oo\, -s.xx., <\^ee\ 
o poetic; s ov^r, e aerial, xbut, ^-.doot, ^oxvo, ^X^e^, ^^^a\.^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 335 



mere n. (pool, pond) mi:;. 

mere adj. (pure; only) mi:;. 

meretrieious adj, (of or like a harlot; showily attractiv) 

mezi'tsiSds. 
meringne n. (confection) mi'^aeq, mi'zxtig. 
merismatie adj. (of cells or tissues; dividing into parts) 

mezizfmastikf me?is'mxtik. 
mermaid n. (fabled creature having the form of a woman 

above the waist and that of a fish below) 'm8:?-meed. 
merriment n. (merry-making, mirth) 'mesi-msnt. 
merry adj. pleasant [also, occasionally, spelt merriel *mezT. 
m^ialliance n. (misalliance) mezxli'eriks, mezaerjer)ks. 
mesdames ft. (ploral of madame; substitutiv ploral of Mrs,) 

me'da:m. 
mesdemoiselles ft. (ploral of mademoiselle) medsms^zel, 

medd-mwe'zel. 
meieneeplialio adj. (of the mesencephalon) mes-en-si'fxlik, 

mesan'sefd-lik. 
mesentery ft. (fold of the peritoneum investing the intes- 

tin, etc.) 'mes9n-te;i, 'mezan-teri. 
mesial adj. (of the middle line) 'mii-zi-sl, 'mesi-dl, 'mii-sdl, 

'mczi-al. 
mesmerise v, hypnotize [also spelt mesmerised 'mezm9-?aiz. 
mesne adj, (in law^ mean, middle) miin. 
mesoderm ft. (middle tissue; mesoblast) 'mes9-dB:7m,^^mez9- 

d8:;m. 
Mesoxoie adj. (of middle animal life) mess'zoo-ik. 
mesquite ft. tree [synonymous cognates mesquit, mezquitel 

mis'kii-ti, 'me-skit, mes'kiit. 
Messrs. ft. ^/. Messieurs (substitutrv ploral of Mr,) 'mes^zz, 

'mesQd^z, 'mejarz, 'meSjarz. 
messuage ft. (dwelling-house) 'mcswids. 
mestee ft. mestizo [synonymous cognate mustee"] mis'tii, mes- 

'tii. 
metabolic adj. (of metabolism) mets'belik. 
metabolism ft. (change, transformation) mi'taebs-lizdm. 
metacenter ft. center of cavity [also spelt metacentre'] meta- 

'senta?, 'meta-sentazr. 
metal ft. (substance; ballast) 'met), 'metal. 
metaled adj. coverd with metal [also spelt metalled, metaldl 

'metld, 'metald. 
metaling ft. road-metal; metal-work [also spelt meiallingi 

'metl-iq, 'meta-hq. ^^^ 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: fat, ao ivoiw, ^•. a^, ^^V\\r.\ 

length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvtt %o>3iTv^ \s ^x'^'' 

stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on. t\ie \e\\o>N\Tv% ««jV^?2w^* 



336 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

metalist n. [also spelt metallistl 'mett-ist, 'mets-list. 
metallize v. [also spelt metallise and, formerly, metalise] 

'metl-aiz, 'mets-laiz. 
metallograplLio adj. mi-tseld'gzsefik, meti-d'grxfik. 
metallog^rapliy n. (descriptiv study of metals) meU'egrd-fi, 

meta'logra-fi. 
metallnrgio adj, metl'Bzdsik, mets'lezdsik. 
metallnrgist n. 'metl-szdsist, 'mets-lBzdsist. 
metallnrg^ n. (art of working metals, smelting, refining, 

etc.) 'metl-B^dsi, 'mets-lBzdsi. 
metamerio adj, (having metamerism; of metameres) meta* 

'merik. 
metamerism n. (a form of isomerism) mi'tsma-nzdm, 

'metdms-zizdm. 
metamerized v. [also spelt metatnerisedj mi'txms-raizd, 

'metdms-raizd. 
metamorphize v. {obsolete) metamorphose [also spelt meta- 

morphisel met9'me:z-faiz. 
metamorphose v. (change in form) met9'me:7-fos, metd- 

'mo:e-foz. 
metamorphosis n. changing in form, etc. [plural metamor- 

phosesl met3'me:e-f3-sis. 
metaphor n. (implied comparison by transference of terms) 

'meta-fae. 
metastasis n. transference, transformation [ploral metasta- 
ses'] mi'taest3-sis. 
metatarsal adj. (of the metatarsus or group of bones be- 
tween the tarsus and the toes) 'meta-ta^sal, metd'tazsal. 
metathesis n. interchange [ploral metathesesl mi'taeOi-sis. 
mete v., n, (measure) miit. 
metempsychosis n. (transmigration of the soul) mi-temsi- 

'koo-sis, mi-tempsi'koo-sis. 
meteor n. (atmospheric phenomenon ; fireball ; shooting star) 

'mii-ti-3?. 
meteorolite n. (meteorite) 'mii-ti-aza-lait, miti'ers-lait. 
meter n. (one who measures) 'mii-ta^. 
meter n. measuring-device [also, rarely, spelt metrel 'mii- 

ta?. 
meter n. form of poetic rhythm; form of verse [also spelt 

metrel 'mii-tazr. 
meter n. metric unit [also spelt metrel 'mii-ta?. 
methodize v. [also spelt methodisel 'meOs-daiz. 
methol n. (liquid) 'me-0ol, 'me-Gel. 

J ye, gcure; dthe, 6 thin; ^asMxe, d-siov, ^sfioe, tS r/»ew; 
wwhen; ijsing; u whoever, ireaeV, oiuW, \i>\\oo\, \^\., <\%ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial. Abut, o-.doot, ;>otvo, t>ac^, ^.^%53^^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 337 

metl&yl n. (radical) 'meOil. 

metl&ylio adj. (of methyl) mi'Oihk. 

metlo n. (resident alien) 'metik, 'mii-tik. 

metionlons adj. (over-careful) mi'tikgu-lds. 

metonymy n. (change of name, etc.) mi'teni-mi. 

metope n. (slab between the triglyphs in the Doric frieze) 
'meta-pi, (older) 'mets-pi. 

metric adj, (metrical, etc.) 'metjik; {impropei^ly) 'mii-tjik. 

metropolis n. (chief town, seat, or center; capital) mi't^epa- 
hs. 

metropolitan n.,adj. metsd'peli-tn, metsd'peh-tsn ; {less 
properly) mitja'peh-tn, 

mettle n. (temperament; courage) 'me^. 

mense n.' (dialectal) gap in a fence or hedge thru which 
hares, etc., pass; muset; loophole; form of a hare [also spelt 
muse, muese; synonymous cognate meeshl mjous, mjouz. 

mexr n. (gull, sea-mew) mjou. 

niew n. (cage for molting hawks) mjotL 

meir v. cry as a cat [past participle and preterit mewed, 
mewdj mjotu 

me'wl V. cry feebly, as an infant; mew [also spelt mule'} 
mjou}. 

mezzanine n. (low story between two higher ones; secon- 
dary floor; window) 'mezd-nain, 'meza-nin, 'mezs-nin. 

mezzo adj, (in music, middle; half) 'medzo. 

mezzo-rilievo n. middle relief [ploral mezso-rilievosl 
mcdzo-?il'jee-vo. 

niezzo-zoprano adj. (voice or part between soprano and al- 
to) mcdzD-sd'p3a:-no. 

mezzotint ft. (method of engraving) 'mezd-tint, 'medzs-tint, 
'metsa-tint. 

ml&orr n. gazelle [also spelt m'horr, mohr; synonymous cog- 
nate mohor} me:?. 

miaoxr n. cry of a cat Calso spelt miaw, mieaou, meaow, mi- 
auw, miow, mi-owe, meeowl mjao, mi'aio. 

miasma n. aerial poison ; malaria [ploral miasmata, mias- 
mas'] mai'xzms, mi'xzmd, mi'sesMd. 

Mioliaelmas n. (feast of St Michael) 'mai-ksl-mss, 'miksl- 
mds. 

miorobe n« (minute organism) 'mai-lnob, {less often) 'mi- 
k30b. 

microcosm n. (the little world of human nature ; the cosmos 
in miniature : opposit of macrocosm) 'mai-lrea-kezam. 



c: lew, b: f «r, ae cot, e hot, ei boy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, fii k.\\fc\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding aoMtvd. \^ \w!i^% 
Btress-mcu-k (0 indicates chief stress on t)ie ioWo^^ixx^ %V^^a^^< 



340 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

minuend n. (the number from which another number is sub- 
tracted) 'minju-end. 

minnet n. (slow, stately dance; music) 'minju-et, minju'et 

minus adj, (less) 'mai-nss. 

minuscule adj. (small ; lower-case : said of letters) mi'nA- 
skgul. 

minute n. (unit of time ; sixtieth of a degree ; note) 'minit 

minute adj. (very small) mi'njuut, mai'njout. 

minutely adj, (happening every minute) 'mini-tz.i. 

minutely adv, (exactly; very finely) mi'njou-tLi, {anterior- 
ly) mi'njutr.1. 

minuteness n. (smallness; exactness) mi'njout-nis. 

minutia n. precise detail; trivial matter [plural minutiae] 
mi'njou-Ja, mi'njou-Si-a. 

minutiae n. (ploral of minutia) mi'njou-Si-i: . 

Miocene adj, new, recent [also spelt Meiocenel 'mai-9-sin. 

miraculize v, make miraculous [also spelt miraculise2 nu- 
'raekgo-laiz. 

miraculous adj. (of the nature of a miracle; wonder-work- 
ing) mi'raekgo-las. 

mirage n. (optical illusion) mi'za:3. 

mirror n. (looking-glass) 'mirsz. 

misalliance n. (improper alliance or union) misdlai-9ns. 

misanthrope n. (hater of mankind; man-hater) 'missn- 
Osop. 

misanthropic adj, missn'O^epik. 

misantliropist n. (misanthrope) mis'xnOss-pist. 

misantliropise v. be or cause to be, a misanthrope [also 
spelt misanthropisel mis'aen033-paiz. 

misanthropy n. (hatred of mankind) mis'aenOss-pi. 

misbehavior n. [also spelt misbehaviour^ mis-bi'hee-visz. 

miscegenation n. (race-mixture) misidsi'nee-Ssn. 

miscellaneous adj. (mixt) misi'lee-ni-ds, mis'lee-ni-ss. 

miscellanist n. (writer of miscellanies) 'misi-lenist, mi- 
'sela-nist. 

miscellany n. (mixture, medley) 'misi-leni, 'misi-lsni, mi- 
'sela-ni. 

mischief n. (harm, etc.) 'mistjif, 'miJtSif. 

mischieve v. archaic (suffer harm; afflict with misfortune) 
mis'tjiiv. 

mischievous adj. (full of mischief) 'mist$i-v3s, 'mi$tSi-v3s; 
{formerly, and now dialectally and vulgarly) mis'tjii-vas. 

mischievously adv. 'mistSiv3s-h; {vulgarly) mis'tjii-vas-h. 

j ye, 5 cure ; 5 the, 9 thin; 3 asure, ds joy ; I shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; T)sing] u whoever, i react, o f«ll, uufool, i tt, lis^e; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, xbuV, o'.^oot, -li^icvo, ^.bedL, eegote; 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 341 

ii&isoliieTOiU]i.eM n. 'mistSiv3s-nis ; (vulgarly) mis'tSii-v3s- 

nis. 
miscible adj. (capable of being mixt) 'miss-bol. 
misooiuiirae v. (construe wrongly; misinterpret) mis-ksn- 

'st£ou, mislcen-stsu. 
misdemeanor n. ill behavior; misdeed [also spelt misdemea- 

nourl mis-di'mii-nae. 
mise n. (outlay ; tribute ; issue in a writ of right ; arbitration) 

miiz, maiz. 
miser n. (wretch; avaricious person) 'mai-zs?. 
miser n. boring-tool [also spelt miserl 'mai-zs?. 
miserable adj, (full of misery; wretched) 'mizdzs-bsl, (rap- 

idly) 'miz^a-bal. 
miserere n. (psalm) miz9'zi:-zi, mizo^zii-zi. 
misericord n. mercy ; room ; shelf ; dagger [also spelt mise- 

ricordel 'mizazi-kerrd, mi'zezi-ke:?d, miza^i'kei^d. 
misfeasance n. transgression, trespass [also spelt misfea- 

sancel mis'fii-zans. 
misfeasor n. one who commits a misfeasance [also spelt 

misfeazorl mis'fii-zae. 
misfortune n. (bad fortune; ill-luck) mis'fe:7-tS9n. 
misjndgment n. [also spelt misjudgement'^ mis'dsAdsmsnt. 
mislay v. (misplace; lay or put in a place afterward forgot- 
ten) mislee. 
misnomer n. (misnaming; wrong name) mis'noo-maz. 
misogamist ft. (hater of marriage) mi'segs-mist, mai'segs- 

mist. 
misogynist n. (woman-hater) mi'sedsi-nist, mai'sedsi-nist ; 

{erroneously) mi'segi-nist. 
misprision n. (wrong action; mistake) mis'psisdn. 
misprision n. (contempt, scorn; failure to appreciate) mis- 

'p^isan. 
misprize v,, n. scorn [also spelt misprise'^ mis'psaiz. 
missal n. (mass-book) 'missl. 
misseltlimsli n. [also spelt mistlethrushi 'missl-OsAS, 'misl- 

e^Aj. 

missile adj, capable of being thrown [also, sometimes, spelt 

missitl 'misil, 'mi-sail. 
missile n. missil object; anything thrown [also, sometimes, 

spelt missill 'misil, 'mi-sail. 
missionary adj., n. 'miSd-ne^i, 'miSs-na?!. 
missis n. {vulgar or dialectal) Mrs. [synonymous cognate 

missus'i 'misTz, 'misis. 

c: \aw, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, a^ now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
"iength-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ ^omw^ a.^ \«tw^C% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on VVie ieWo'vvci^ ^>\"aid«.. 



342 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



misspell v, [also spelt miS'Spelll mis'spel. 

misspend v. [also spelt mis-spendl mis'spend. 

misstate v. [also spelt mis-state'^ mis'steet. 

misstep v, [also spelt mis-step'\ mis'step. 

missy n. little miss; girl [also spelt missey, missie\ 'misi. 

mistake n. (error, fault) mi'steek. 

mistake v, (do wrong; make a mistake; err) mi'steek; (take 
for something else) mis'teek, mi'steek. compare mistook. 

mistletoe n. plant [also, formerly, spelt misseltoe, miseltoe, 
misletoe, misteltol 'misal-to, 'misl-to, 'mizl-to. 

mistook V. (preterit of mistake^ in the sense of take for 
something else) mis'tok, mi'stok. 

mistral n. (wind) 'mistsdl, mis'tso:!. 

mistress n. (woman who rules, etc. ; instructress ; sweetheart) 
'mistjis. 

mistrial n. (inconclusiv trial) mis'tsai-dl. 

misuse v. (use wrongly) mis'jouz, miS'jouz. 

mite n. (acarid) mait. 

mite n. (coin) mait. 

miter n., v, in all senses [also spelt mitre ; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit mitered, miterdl 'mai-ta?. 

mitosis ti. splitting of nuclear threads in indirect cell-divi- 
sion [ploral mitoses'] mai'too-sis, mi'too-sis. 

mitriform adj. (miter-shaped) 'mai-tji-fe.^m, 'mitji-feiem. 

mitt n. (short-fingerd glove) mit. 

mitten n. (hand-covering) 'mitn, 'mitan; (dialectally) 'mitiiu 

mixture n. (mixing; medley) 'mikstja^, 'mikStJa?. 

mnemonic adj. (aiding the memory; of memory) ni'menik. 

mo adv,, adj. more, longer, again [also spelt moel moo. 

moa n. (extinct bird) 'moo-a. 

moat n. (ditch) moot. 

mobile adj. (movable, free ; moving easily ; versatil) 'moo- 
bil, 'moo-bil, 'mebil, mo'hiil, (rarely) 'moo-bail. 

mobile n. (populace, rabble, mob) 'moo-bi-h, 'mebi-h. 

mobilization n. [also spelt mobilisation'] mobih'zee-Ssn, 
mobi-lai'zee-San, mebih'zee-Jan. 

mobilize v, [also spelt mobilise] 'moo-bi-laiz, 'mebi-laiz. 

moble V, (archaic) muffle (the face) ; mob [also spelt mobble] 
'mebal; (improperly) 'moo-bal. 

moccasin n. shoe ; snake [also, sometimes, spelt moccason] 
'meka-sin, 'meka-san, 'meka-sn. 

mocka n. (coffee) 'moo-ka. 

mockery n. (derision; mimicry; futil action) 'meka-?i. 

J ye, gcure; 5 ffie, thin-, -ssiSMTe, d^sfoy; \shoe, tSchew; 
wwhen; ij sing\ u whoever, \TcaLC\^, v>W\\, vi>3iiooV ^%V ^\^«; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, A-buV, ;)\doot, -ao^^o, ^\ie^^ ^.^^ffiv^N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 343 

modal adj. (of a mode or manner) 'm3o-d}, 'moo-ddt. 

mode n. (musical scale; way; method; form; manner; va- 
riety; mood) mood. 

model V, fashion in clay, etc.; form {present participle mo- 
deling, modelling', past participle and preterit modeled, mo- 
delled, modeldj 'modi, 'meddl. 

modeler n. [also spelt modeller^ 'medl-3?, 'meds-ld?. 

moderate adj, 'medd-rst, {assumptivly) 'medsrst; {rapidly) 
'medcdt. 

moderato adv, (moderately) meds'^ai-to. 

moderator n. (ruler; arbiter; chairman; regulator) 'meda- 

modemization n. [also spelt modernisation'^ medsrni'zee- 

Sdn, meddr-nai'zee-S^n. 
modernize v. [also spelt modernise^ 'medsz-naiz. 
modest adj, (unassuming; decorous, etc.) 'medist. 
modionnt n. (small quantity) 'medi-ksm. 
modillion n. bracket [also spelt modilloni mo'diHsn. 
modiolar adj, (of the modiolus of the ear) mo^ai-d-ldz; 

(less properly) 'moo-di-»-l3?. 
modiste n. (milliner; dressmaker) mo'diist. 
modulate n. (adjust, regulate) 'medsa-let, 'mod jo-let. 
module n. (unit or standard of measure) 'me-djul. 
modus operandi n. (mode or plan for working) moo-dss- 

epaVaen-dai. 
modus Tiveudi n. (mode or way of living) moo-das-vi'ven- 

dai. 
moellou n. (rubble) 'moo-i-lan, mwe'loi]. 
Moesogotli n. a Goth of Moesia [also spelt Maesogothl 'mii- 

so-ge9. 
mof ette n. gaseous exhalation ; fissure [also spelt moffettel 

mo'fet. 
moff n. special pair of compasses [also spelt mophi me:f, 

mef. 
mofussil n. (country) mo'fAsi). 
Mog^nl n. (Mongol; Great Mogul, etc.) mo'gAl. 
Moham m edan adj., n, [synonymous cognates Mahomedan, 

Mohammadan, Muhammadan, Mahomet an"] mo'haemi-dn, mo- 

'haemi-dan. 
Mohican n. [synonymous cognate Mohegani mD'hii-kan. 
moider v, confuse; toil [synonymous cognate moitherl 'moi- 

dd?. 
n?oidore n. (coin) 'moi-do:?. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, ©i hoy ; a: for, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ soMtv^ \^ V»tvv% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on ^^ ie\\oHi\Ti\^ «f5ka5«J«^ 



344 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



I 



moiety n. (half) 'mei-i-ti ; (improperly) 'moo-i-ti. 

moire ft. (waterd or clouded silk) mv/e:z, mo:z. 

inoir^ adj. (waterd; clouded) mwe'eee, mo'eee. 

moisten v, make moist ; dampen [past participle and pret- 
erit moistened, moistendl 'mei-san, 'moi-sn. 

molar adj. (grinding, of the grinders) 'mooA^z. 

molar adj. (of mass; in bulk) 'moo-ldz. 

molasses n. (syrup draind from raw sugar) malaz-siz, ma- 
Issiz. 

mold n. soft earth [also spelt mouldl m3o}d. 

mold V. grow musty [also spelt mould"] moold. 

mold n. fungus ; mucor [also spelt mould] mootd. 

mold n. form ; cast ; matrix [also spelt mould] moold. 

molder n. one who molds or casts [also spelt moulder^ 'mod- 
ddz. 

molder v, turn to dust ; decay [also spelt moulder ; past par- 
ticiple and preterit moldered, molderd] 'mDol-da?. 

moldlness n. [also spelt mouldiness] 'mool-di-nis. 

molding n. [also spelt moulding] 'm3o}-dii]. 

moldy adj. musty [also spelt mouldy] 'mool-di. 

moleonlar adj. (of molecules) mslekgo-tdz, mo^ekqoA^z, 

moleonle n. (particle; group of atoms) 'meh-k^u), /m3o4i- | 
kquU 

molest V. (vex, annoy ; meddle with) malest, mo'lest. 

molestation n. mehs'tee-Ssn, mohs'tee-San. 

moline adj. of a mill [also, sometimes, spelt molin] 'tnoo-tin, 
mo'lain. ' 

molinism n. (doctrin of Molinos; quietism) 'm3o-}i-niz9m, 
'meh-nizam. 

mollient adj. (softening) 'metisnt, 'meli-snt. 

mollnsk n. soft-bodied animal, as an oyster [also spelt mol- ' 
lusc] 'melask. 

molt V. shed, cast [also spelt moult] moolt. 

molybdenum n. (metal) ms'libdi-nam, mehb'dii-nsm. 

moment n. (portion or point of time; instant) 'moo-mant, 
{when less strest) 'momant. 

momentary adj. 'moo-man-teri ; (also) 'moo-mantd-ri, (as- 
sumptivly) 'moo-man-tazi, (rapidly) 'moo-mantji, 

monaclial adj, of a monk [also spelt monacal] 'mend-kd}. 

monad n. (one; unity; simple organism) 'moo-naed, 'me- 
naed, 'menad. 

monadic adj. (of monads or units) ms'naedik, me'nxdik. 

monarohie adj. (of a government or monarchy) ms'na^kik. 

Jy^t Ccure; 5*/ie, 9/^in; 3 a^ure, d^joy; S shoe, tlchew, 
WTi'hen; xjsing; u whoever, itcaict, \iiu\V 'a>xiooV "s-tt^ "dseel 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a. but, ;i*. doot, ^otio, «.\ie\, «.^\ytKXi\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 345 

monastery n. (house for monks) 'meni-steri, (also) 'me- 

n9Std-7i, {anteriorly) 'mens-stdri ; {rapidly) 'mena-stji. 
Monday ft. (day of the week) 'mAndi, 'mAn-de. 
moneron n. moner [plural monera'] mo'tiii-zen. 
monetary adj. (of money) 'meni-te^i, (also) 'menita-ri; (as- 

sumptivly) 'meni-tazi; {also) 'mAni-teri, 'mAnita-ri, {as- 

sumptivly) 'mAni-tazi; {rapidly) 'meni-tji, 'mAni-tji. 
monetliyl n. (compound in which one atom of hydrogen is 

replaced by one molecule of ethyl) men'cGil. 
monetization n. meniti'zee-Sdn, mAniti'zee-$3n, meni-tai- 

'zce-Jan, niAni-tai'zee-San. 
monetise p, give the character of money to [also spelt mo- 

netisel 'meni-taiz, 'mAni-taiz. 
money n. current coin, etc. [ploral moneys, rarely monies'] 

'mAni. 
moneyed adj. having money; consisting of or derived from 

money [also spelt monied, moneyd] 'mAnid. 
monger n. (dealer) 'mAt}g^z. 

Mongol n. one of an Asiatic race [also spelt Monghol; syn- 
onymous cognate Mongole] 'meq-gel, 'mon-gel. 
Mongolian adj. of the Mongols [also spelt Mongholiani 

men'goo-li-an, meq'goo-H-an. 
Mongolize v. [also spelt Mongolise] 'mei]g3-}aiz. 
mongoose n. ichneumon ; lemur, maki [also spelt mongoos ; 

synonymous cognate mungoose, mungoos; ploral mongooses] 

'mon-gous, 'meq-gous; 'mAq-guus. 
mongrel n. (dog of mixt breed; cross) 'mAqg^al. 
monism n. (doctrin of the oneness of all things) 'moo-nizam, 

'me-niz3m. 
monist n. (adherent of monism) 'moo-nist, 'menist. 
monitor n. (admonisher) 'meni-ts?. 
monitory adj. (admonitory) 'raeni-toz:!; (also) 'menita-ri, 

{assumptivly) 'meni-ta^i; {rapidly) 'meni-tji. 
monlc n. (religious hermit) mAi]k. 

monkey n. ape, etc. [ploral monkeys, monkies] 'mAqki. 
monoole n. (single eye-glass) 'mens-kdl. 
monoolinal n. (sloping in the same direction) men3'kz.ai-n}, 

'men3-ktai-nl. 
monoeotyledonons adj. (having one seed-leaf) mena-ketl- 

'ii-dn-3s, mona-ketl'ii-dn-as. 
monocular adj. (having one eye; of one eye) ma'nekgo-la^, 
monody n. (one-voice ode, etc.) 'mena-di. 
monoecious adj. having the unisexual flowers on the same 

c: law, b: f««r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the preceding soutv^ \^ Vi^^N 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ie\\o^\.xv^ s^^^^iiJ^^' 



346 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

plant ; having the sexes together [also spelt moneciousl m»- 
'nii-Sas, me'nii-Sas. 

monogamy n. (the practis of marrying only once : opposed 
to digamy ; also, the practis of marrying only one person at 
a time : opposed to bigamy and polygamy) md'nega-mi. 

monogeny n. (descent from a single pair) md'nedsi-ni. 

monogony n. (asexual reproduction, agamogenesis) md'negd- 
ni. 

monos^am n. (written character composed of two or more 
letters combined) 'mena-graem; (less properly) 'moo-ns- 
gzxm, 

monos^apli n. (separate treatis on a single subject) 'mens- 
gzBif; (less properly) 'moo-na-graif. 

monologue n. something spoken by one person alone; dra- 
matic soliloquy [also spelt monolog} 'mena-leg ; (less prop- 
erly) 'moo-na-leg. 

monomania n. (mania for one thing; craziness on one sub- 
ject) mena'mee-ni-a, mona'mee-ni-a. 

monomaniac n. (one having monomania) mend'mee-ni-flck, 
mona'mee-ni-aek. 

monoplitliong n. (single vowel sound) 'mendf-Oeii} ; (less 
properly) ma'nef-Oe:!], ma'nep-Oeig. 

monopolize v. [also spelt monopoliser md'neps-laiz. 

monopoly n. (exclusiv possession or privilege) ma'nepd-lit 
(rapidly) ma'nepr.!. 

monoptote n. (noun occurring in a single oblique case) 
'menap-tot; (less properly) ma'nep-tot. 

monorhine adj. having a single nasal passage only [abo 
spelt monorrhine^ 'mena-^ain. 

monosyllabic adj. (consisting of one syllable ; consisting of 
words of one syllable) mena-silaebik, mendsilaebik. 

monotheism n. (doctrin that there is but one (jod) 
'men3-0i-iz3m, 'menaGi-izam. 

monotonize v. [also spelt monotonisel ms'netn-aiz. 

monotony n. (sameness of tone or pitch; want of pleasing 
variety) ma'netn-i, ma'neta-ni. 

monoxide n. md'nek-said, (before of) ms'neksid. 

monseig^nenr n. (title of French princes, bishops, etc.) men- 
sen'JB'.z, mense'nJBiz:. 

monsienr n. (sir; mister; gentleman) men'si:?, ms'siiz. 

monsig^nor n. title of Catholic prelates, etc. [synonymous 
cognate monsignore"] men'sii-njoe, mensin'jo:?. 

monsoon n. (seasonal wind) men'suun. 

J yc, Q cure ; 5 the, thin ; 5 axrure, dj ;oy ; J shoe, t$ chevr; 
wwhen; j)sing; u whoever, V-tcaiCt, viluVi, \i>3i^oo\, xtt^ li s^^; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, a. but, o\^oot» •:iQTvo, ^X^e^^ ^^^^^r.\ 



J 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS U1 

monteitli. n. punch-bowl [also spelt montethi men'tiiO. 

montli n. lUAxitO, {also, and in Britain normally) niAnO. 

montlui n: (ploral of month) xnAnts, xnAntOs; {in Britain) 
mAns, niAnOs. 

moo n. (cry as a cow; low) mou. 

mood n. (mode : one of the classes into which each of the 
four figures of syllogism is divided; functional group of 
verbal forms) moud. 

moor n. (tract of land) mo:?, mo'.z. 

Moor n. (dark-skind nativ of Morocco, etc.) mo:?, xno'.z, 

moor V. secure, as a ship, by ropes or chains [past partici- 
ple and preterit moored, moordi mo:?, mo:?. 

moorage n. (action of mooring; mooring-place ; money paid 
for mooring) 'mo:-?id5, 'mo:-?id3. 

mopsy n. pretty child, etc. [also spelt mopseyl 'mepsi. 

moraine n. (mass of detritus) ms'reen, mo'^een. 

moral adj. (ethical) 'mez^l. 

morale n. (morality; behavior, conduct) msVa:!, mo'zQ'A. 

moralization n. [also spelt moralisationj merdh'zee-SdQf 

me?9-lai'zee-S9n« 

moralize v. [also spelt moralise"] 'me?9-}aiz. 

morass n. (swamp, bog, marsh) m9'?a:s, mo'rxs. 

moroeau n. bit, morsel; excerpt [plural morceauxl moz'soo, 

more adi.,adv, moiz, (when unstrest) moz. 

moreen n. (fabric) ms'ziin, ma'riin. 

morel n. (mushroom) 'mez^l, mo'zeL 

Moresque adj. Moorish [also spelt Mauresque"] mo'zesk. 

morganatic adj. (characterized by a man of high rank tak- 
ing a woman of lower station : said of marriage) mezgs- 
'naetik. 

morgne n. (hautiness) meizg. 

morgne n. (dead-house) me:?g. 

moribund n. (dying) 'men-bAnd. 

morion n. (helmet) 'moi-zi-sn ; (less properly) 'me?i-3n. 
n. (morning) m0:?n, mean. 

n. (early part of the day-time) 'me:z-nii], 'me:-niq. 

morocco n. (leather) md'zeko. 

morphine n. (narcotic principle of opium) 'm0:?-fin, 'mo:?- 
f in ; (rarely) 'me:?-f am. 

morroir n. (the day after) 'me?o; (dialectally) 'meza. 

morsel n. (bite; titbit; snack) 'me:?-s3}. 

mortalise v, make or consider mortal [also spelt mortalisel 
'me!?-tl-aiz. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceding sound is long; 
Stress-mark () indicates chief stress on l\ie ieWo^vci^ ^^^^'a&^!^ 



348 DICTIONARY OF HARD W ORDS 

mortar n. (vessel, bowl ; short cannon) 'ine:z-t9z, ■** 

mortar n. (binding-material) 'me:r-t33. I*^ 

mortgage n. (conveyance, etc.) 'me:s:-gid3. I ^ 

mortgagee n. (person to whom property is mortgaged; om 1^ 

who lends money on a mortgage) me?gi'd5ii. ■*•' 

mortgager n. one who mortgages his property [also spelt | (^ 

mortgagor, mortgageorl 'meiz-gi-di^z. 
mortgagor n. in law, epposit of mortgagee [also spelt mtrtr 

gageor} mezgi'd^eiz. 
mortise n. hole cut to receive a tenon [also spelt mortici, 

mortisi 'me:r-tis. 
mortise v. [also spelt mortice, mortis; past participle and 

preterit mortised, mortist'] 'mo:r-tis. 
mortuary adj. (of burial or death) 'meiz-tlu-ezi; {also) 

'mere-tgu-s-^i, (assumptivly) 'me:2-tgu-3ei. 
morula n. mulberry-like body [plural morulael 'mez9^ 

'mo:-2d-l3. 
mosaic adj, (of the production of patterns by small inlaid 

pieces of glass, stone, etc.) mo'zee-ik. 
Mosaic adj. (of Moses) mo'zee-ik. 
Moslem n. Mohammedan [synensrmous cognate- Muslim] 

'mezlam, 'mesLsm. 
mosque n. Mohammedan temple [also spelt moski mesk. 
mosquito n. insect [also spelt musquito; ploral ntosquitos, 

mosquitoes'! mo'skii-to, (popularly) ma'skii-ta. 
moss n. (bog; plant) me:s, (rarely) mes; (dialectally) mc:s. 
most adj. (greatest, etc.) mDOst, (when unstrest) most. 
most adv. (in the greatest degree, etc.) moost, (when unstrest) 

most, most; (also, dialectally) most. 
mostly adv. 'moo-stti, (when less strest) 'mostti. 
mot n. (obsolete) motto ; word [also spelt mott, motte ; syn- 
onymous cognate motel met. 
mot n. (witty saying; bon-mot) moo. 
mot n. (dialectal) mark for players at quoits [also spelt 

motte] met. 
mote n. (particle; speck) moot. 
motet n. vocal composition in harmony [also spelt motett, 

motette, mottett] mo'tet. 
motli n. insect [ploral moths] me:0, meO ; (dialectally) mc:6. 
mother n. (female parent, etc.) 'mAboz. 
moths n. (ploral of moth) me:dz, me:Os. 
motile adj. capable of, or characterized by, motion [also, 

sometimes, spelt motil] 'moo-til, (rarely) 'moo-tail. 

J ye, Qcure; bthe, B thin; 5 a-jure, ds/oy; I shot, tjc/iew; 
wwhen; i}sing; u whoever, i r^act, o full, aufool, i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic I 9 over, e aerial, a. but, o*. doot, -aotio, «.\ic^^ ^.^%a\ft.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 349 

ley adj, (diversified) 'metr.i. 

to n. significant word or phrase [ploral mottos, mottoesl 

3tD. 

Id moold. see mold. 

JLtain n. (great elevation of land) 'maon-tin, 'maon-tn; 

dgarly) 'maon-tiq. 

intainoiu adj. 'maon-ti-nss ; {erroneously) maon'tee- 

9S. 

ntebaiik n. (itinerant quack; charlatan) 'maon-ti-baer)k. 
j?n V. grieve, lament [past participle and preterit mourn- 
, mourndl moizn. 

me V, hunt mice ; prowl ; put a mouse on (a stay) mooz. 
ise n. small rodent [ploral micel maos. 
Lsqnetaire n. (foot-soldier armd with a musket; one of 
; king's household troops; cloak, glove, etc.) muska'tc:?. 
Ltli n. oral opening or cavity; os [plural mouthsl maoO. 
Ltk V. pronounce, utter ; train the mouth to the bit ; grim- 
2 rpast participle and preterit mouthed, mouthdl maod. 
itlied adj. (having a mouth) maodd, maoOt. 
itHfiil n as much as would fill the mouth [ploral mouth- 
■s} 'mao0-ful, 'maoG-fal. 
itlis n. (plural of mouth) maodz. 
able adj., n. [also spelt moveable^ 'mou-va-bal. 
e V. (change position; put in motion, etc.) mouv, (when 
strest) muv. 

7 n.,v, pile Tas verb, past participle and preterit mowed, 
)wrf] mao. 

7 n. (grimace) mao, moo. 

r Vm cut down [past participle mowed, mowd, mown ; pret- 
rt: mowed, mowd] moo, {when unstrest) mo. 
n. Mister [substitutiv plural Messrs,! 'misto?. 
. n. Mistress, Missis [substitutiv ploral Mesdamesl 'misiz, 

ISIS. 

ill adj.-pron., adv. mAtS, {when unstrest) motj. 

tilaginons adj, (like mucilage) mjusi'laedsi-nos. 

tkiy adj. {local) mucky, dirty, slushy [also spelt muxyl 

Aksi. 

tons adj. (of mucus; slimy) 'mjou-kos. 

m.u n. (vicid fluid; slime) 'mjou-kos. 

lar n. shrub [also spelt madar, mudhar, mudarrh, muddar; 

lenymous cognates mudir, madorl ma'da:?. 

)zzin n. (crier) mju'ezin. 

ffin n. (round spongy cake) 'mAfin. 

V, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
th-mark (:) indicates that the preceditvv^ somtA -i.^ Xsjtm^N 
9-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\i^ ie>\\o^\xv^ ««3^"ai^^ 



350 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

mulatto n. (offspring of a white and a negro) mjolaeto. 
miilberry n. (fruit; plant; tree; color) 'mAl-htzi, 'mAlbs-zi, 

'mAltei. 
miileli. V, half-rotten straw [synonymous cognate mulsh] 

nuAtl, {also, and in Britain normally) mAl$. 
miiloli. V. cover with mulch or half-rotten straw [synony- 
mous cognate mulsh; past participle and preterit mulched, 

mulchtl mxhS, (in Britain) mxlj. 
mulct V. punish; deprive [past participle and preterit 

mulcted, mulct} mAlkt. 
muleteer n. (mule-driver) mjuh'ti:?. 
mnley-eoxr n. hornless cow; cow [also, sometimes, spelt 

mulley-cow, mooley-cow"} 'moh-kao, 'mjou-h-kao. 
mnley-sair n. 'moh-sc: , 'mjou-h-sc: . 
miilleiL n. wooly-leaft plant [also spelt mulleinl 'mAhn. 
mnlligata'wiiy n. soup [synonymous cognate mullagataw- 

ny] midiga'toni. 
mnllion n. (division between lights or panels) 'mAlidn. 
mnltiflorons adj. (many-flowerd) mAlti'iL.o:-z9s, 
mnltijngons adj. (having many pairs of leaflets) mxlti- 

'dsou-gas; (less properly) mAl'tidso-gas. 
mnltiparons adj. (many-bearing) mA)'tip3-z:3s. 
mnltipartite adj. (having many parts or divisions) mAlti- 

'pa^-tait; (less properly) mAl'tipar-tait. 
mnltiplioand n. (quantity to be multiplied) mAltipLilcsend, 

'mAltipti-kaend. 
mnltiplioate adj. (multifold; multiplex) 'mAltipLi-ket, mAl- 

'tipti-ket. 
mnltiplioation n. mAltipLi^ee-Ssn. 
mnltitnde n. (numerousness ; great number; host) 'mAlti- 

tgud; (dialectally) 'mAlti-tud. 
mum adj. silent [also, formerly, spelt mumml mAm. 
mum n. beer [also spelt mumm} mAm. 
mnmmy n. (embalmd body) 'mAmi. 
mnnoli. v» chew, champ [past participle and preterit munched, 

munchtl mAntJ, (also, and in Britain normally) mAnJ. 
mnndane adj. (of this world; worldly; earthly; cosmic) 

'mAn-deiu 
mnngo n. cloth [also spelt mungoel 'mArigo. 
mnnicipal adj, (internal, domestic; local, city) mjo'nisi-pdl. 
mnnifioenoe n. (generosity, liberality; bounty) mjo'nifi- 

ssns. 
mnniment n. (defense) 'mjou-ni-mant. 

J ye, QCUTe; 5*fie, 9tftin; 3 a^ure, ds/oy; jshoe, tj c/iew; 
wwhen; i)s\ng\ u whoever, itcslcX., ^lu^, wxiool, itt, lis^^; 
opoeHc; aov^r, e oerial, Kbul, ;i\^oot, -^i^tu), t.\ie\^ ^.^%y*.Vx 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 351 



mnnnioiL n. in ship-building, mullion [also spelt munionl 

'niAnjdn. 
mural adj, (of a wall; wall-like) 'mjo:-z9h 
murderer n. (one who murders) 'mw.z-d^-z^z, 
murez n. shell-fish [ploral murices, murexes'l 'mjo:-?eks. 
muriatic adj. (of salt) mjori'aetik. 
murine adj. (mouse-like) 'mjo:-^in, 'mjo:-eain. 

n. darkness ; thick air or vapor [also spelt mirki meizk. 

od/. obscure, dark [also spelt mirk} msizk. 

n. marc [also spelt mure, mirk and, formerly, murckl 

mB:3k. 
murkiuesB n. state of being murky; darkness [also spelt 

mirkinessi 'merki-nis, 'meir-ki-nis. 
murkness n. darkness [also spelt mirknessi 'mszkNis. 
murky adj, dark, gloomy, thick [also spelt mirky} 'merki. 
murmur v., n. hum, etc. [as verb, past participle and pret- 
erit murmured, murmur d"] 'mBie-mae. 
murrain adj. (disease) 'ms^in, 'mAzrin. 
murre n. guillemot [synonymous cognate marre"] ms:?. 
murrkine adj. of murra, an ornamental stone [also spelt 

murrine; synonymous cognate myrrhinej 'msrin, 'mAzin, 

'mB-?ain, 'mA-rain. 
muscadine n. (wine; grape) 'mAsks-dain, 'mAsks-din. 
muscat n. (grape; wine) 'niA-skset. 
muscatel n. wine; grape; raisin [synonymous cognate mus- 

cadell 'mAska-tel, mAska'tel. 
muscle n. (contractil tissue) 'mAssl, 'mAsl; (erroneously) 

'mAskal. 
muscoid adj. (moss-like) 'mA-skoid. 
muscovado n. (unrefined cane sugar) mAsk3'va:-d3, mAsko- 

'vee-do. 
muscovy n. (musk-duck) 'mAska-vi. 
muscular adj. (of muscle) 'mAskgo-lsz. 
muset n. (obsolete) gap in a fence ; meuse ; also, a hare's 

*form' [also spelt musit, musettl 'mjou-zit, 'mjou-sit. 
musette n. (bagpipe ; air ; dance ; reed-stop) mju'zet. 
museum n. (building or repository for the preservation and 

display of objects of art, curiosities, etc.) mjo'zii-am; (less 

properly) 'mjou-zi-am. 
muskroom n. (fungus) 'mA^-zum. 
music n. (fine art; melody or harmony) 'mjou-zik. 
musical adj. (of music, like music; fond of or skild in mu- 
sic) 'mjou-zi-kal. 

c: law, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, oi bay ; a: far, go naw, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the ptecedixi^ ^Q>axA as^ \wv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress oti \3cl^ i^^X'a^va."^ %-j^k:ii^^« 



352 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



mnsioale n. (musical party; private concert) mjuziTca:!. 
mnsioian n. (one skild in music) mjo'zi^dn. 
mnsiTe adj. mosaic [also spelt musiv'i 'mjou-siv, 'mjou-ziv. 
nmskmeloiL n. [synonymous cognate mushmeloni 'mAsk- 

melsn; {vulgarly) 'mAj-melan. 
miuk-oz n. arctic ruminant [ploral musk-oxen and, coUectiv- 

ly, musk'Oxl 'mAsk-eks. 
mnslin n. (cotton fabric) 'mAzlin. 
mnsTol n. {local or obsolete) nose-band of a bridle [also 

spelt musrole and, formerly, musrolll 'mAz-rol. 
muMel n. mollusk [also spelt musclel 'mAssl, 'mAsl. 
Mnssiiliiian n. Mohammedan [also spelt Musulman, Musal- 

man; ploral Mussulmans and, catachrestically, Mussulmen^ 

'mAsal-man. 
mnst V, (be obliged) mAst, {when unstrest) mds. 
mnstaolie n. the hair on the upper lip [also spelt moustache ; 

synonymous cognate mustachioj ma'staiS, mos'taij ; {vulgar- 
ly) 'mA-sta:S. 
mnstaoliio n. [ploral mustachios'l m9'sta:-$3, m9'sta:-S>-o. 
mnstaoliioed adj. (mustached) m9'sta:-$3d, m9'sta:-Si-od. 
mustard n. (seed-flour ; plant) 'mAstard. 
mnstee n. ms'stii, mAs'tii. same meaning as mestee. 
mutineer n. (one guilty of mutiny) mjuti'niiz. 
mutiny n. (revolt) 'mjou-ti-ni ; {less properly) 'mjou-tn-i. 
mutton n. (flesh of sheep ; sheep) 'mAtn. 
mutual adj, (reciprocal; respectiv; common) 'mjou-tju-a!, 

'mjou-tQu-al. 
mutule n. (modillion of a Doric cornice) 'mjou-tSul, 'mjou- 

tQul. 
muzhik n. Russian peasant [also spelt moujik, mujikl 'mou- 

31k, mu'sik. 
muzzle n. jaws and nose; snout; cage for the jaws; nose- 
cover; discharging-end of a gun) 'mAzal, 'mAzl. 
my adj.-pron. (of or belonging to me) mai, {when unstrest) 

ma; {also, formerly) mi: ; {and still, when unstrest, on the 

stage) mi. 
mycelium n. (vegetativ part of the thallus of fungi) mai'sii- 

H-3m. 
myope n. (short-sighted person) 'mai-op. 
myopia n. (short-sightedness) mai'oo-pi-a. 
myopic adj. (of myopia; short- or near-sighted) mai'opik. 
myopy n. (myopia) 'mai-3-pi. 
myosin n. globulin [also spelt myosin el 'mai-a-sin. 

I yc, gcure; dtht, G tKin; ^azute, d^foy; ^ shoe, tl chew; 
wwAen; Qsing; u whoever, ircacV, xiiuW, x5>x\oo\, i.\\., i\^ee\ 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, a but, o*. doot, -aox^o, t\ic^, ^.«:^a\SL\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 353 



myosotis n. (forget-me-not) mai-a'soo-tis. 
myriad n. (ten thousand; great number; host) 'mid-ad. 
myrianieter n. measure of one myriad or ten thousand me- 
ters [also spelt tnyriametrel mizi'aemi-taz, 'mizi-a-mii-ta?. 
myrloin n. that part of beeswax which is insoluble in boiling 

alcohol [also spelt myricinel miVai-sin, 'mi?i-sin, 'mai-zi- 

sin. 
myrioyl n. (melissyl) mi'eai-sil, 'mi?i-sil. 
myrmeoophyte n. (myrmecophilous plant) ms^'mii-ko-fait, 

'mei^-mika-fait. 
myrmidon n. (faithful follower) 'mei^-mi-den, 'meiz-mi-dan. 
myrrh n. (perfume) msiz. 
myrrl&io adj, (of myrrh) 'mer-nk, 'mink. 
myrrl&ine n. that part of myrrh which is soluble in alcohol 

[also, sometimes, spelt myrrhin\ 'm8:-rin, 'mizin, {less 

often) 'mer-rain, 'mi-zain. 
myrtle n. (plant) 'meetl, 'ms-.r-tl. 
myself noun-pron, mai'self, (when less strest) ms'self (and, 

dialectally) mi'self. 
my«tasogn&e n. one who initiated candidates into the Eleu- 

sinian or other mysteries; teacher of mystic doctrins [also 
, ' spelt mystagog'\ 'mista-gog. 
mystery n. (secret, riddle, enigma; rite) 'mista-n, (rapidly) 

'mistji. 
mysticism n. (doctrin or habits of mystics) 'misti-sizsm. 
mysticize v, render mystical [also spelt mysticise} 'misti- 

saiz. 
mytacism n. (too frequent repetition of the sound of m) 

'mai-t3-siz3m. 
myth n. fictitious narrativ [also, formerly, spelt mythe'] mi0. 
mythicise v, render mythic [also spelt mythicise} 'mi9i- 

saiz. 
mythohistorio adj. (of myth and history) miOa-his'tezik, 

mai-9o-his'terik; (also) miOo-i'stenk, mai-Oo-i'steeik. 
mythological adj. (of mythology) miOa'lodsi-kal. 
mytholog^e v. [also spelt mythologisel mi'Oeld-dsaiz. 
mythology n. (mythical story; body of myths; knowledge 

of myths) mi'Oela-dsi. 
mythopeio adj. myth-making [also spelt mythopoeic; syn- 
onymous cognate mythopoetic} miOa'pii-ik. 
mytiloid adj, (mussel-like) 'miti-leid. 
myxomyoetes n. pL (slime-fungi, slime-molds) miksa-mai- 

'sii-tiz. 

c: low, b: fwr, ae cot, e h^t, ei boy ; a*, iar, ao ivoim, ^*. a^, ^-vVws.*, 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ so>axv^ as \«tv%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ieWo^vcv^ ^-^j^^aJ^^ 



354 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nabob n. (Mohammedan official ; governor) 'nee-bob. 

nacre n. sea-pen ; mother-of-pearl [also, formerly, spelt nd- 
kerl 'nee-ka?. 

nacroons adj. (like nacre; nacrous) 'nee-ksi-ss. 

nadir n. (the point opposit the zenith) 'nee-dar, (rarely) 'na:- 
diz. 

Naiad n. river-nymph [ploral Naiadsl 'nee-ad, 'nai-dd, 'nce- 
jdd. 

Naiades n. pi, (the Naiads ; river-nymphs) 'nee-9-diz, 'nai-a- 
diz, 'nee-J3-diz. 

naiant adj. (in heraldry, swimming) 'nee-ant. 

naif adj. naive [also spelt naifl na:'iif. 

naik n. (Indian prince ; governor ; officer) 'na:-ik, 'nee-ik. 

nail V. fix with nails; spike [past participle and preterit 
nailed, naild"] nee), (when vnstrest) nel. 
. nairfsant adj, (in heraldry , nascent) 'nee-sant. 

naive adj. natural, artless [also spelt naivel na:'iiv, (assump- 
tivly) 'na:-iv; (less properly) ne'iiv; (erroneously) neev. 

naively adv. [also spelt natvelyl na:'iiv-h, 'na:-iv-li, ne'iiv-li. 

naivete n. an artless action or remark; quality of being na- 
ive; artlessness [also spelt natveti'\ na:-iv'tee. 

naked adj. (nude) 'nee-kid; (dialectally) 'nekid. 

namable adj, [also spelt nameablcl 'nee-ma-bal. 

namby-pamby adj. (weakly sentimental; vapid) nxmbi- 
'paembi, (assumptivly) 'naembi-paembi. 

nankeen n. cloth [also spelt nankini naen'kiin, (assumptivly) 
'naen-kin. 

nape n. (the back of the neck) neep; (less properly) naep. 

napery n. (table-linen, etc.) 'nee-pa-n. 

naphtha n. volatil liquid [also, sometimes, spelt napthal 
'naepOa, 'naefOa. 

naphthalene n. (naphthalin) 'nsepOa-lin, 'nsefOa-Hn. 

naphthalin n. benzene hydrocarbon [also spelt naphthaline} 
'naepGa-hn, 'naefOa-hn. 

naphthalixe v. [also spelt naphthalisel 'nsepGa-laiz, 'naefOa- 
laiz. 

napiform adj. (turnip-shaped) 'nee-pi-fe:rm ; (less proper- 
ly) 'naepi-fe:?m. 

narcissus n. (plant) na^'sisas. 

narcotize v. [also spelt narcotise"] 'na?ka-taiz, 'na:?-ka-taiz. 

narghile n. Oriental tobacco-pipe ; hookah [also spelt nargi- 
leh, narghileh, narghyle, narghille, nargile, narguiU; syn- 
onymous cognates narghilly, nargillyl 'na:r-gi-le. 

J ye, gcure; b the, thin; ^asMte, ^-sio^j*, S^skoe, t^r^ew; 
w w/ten; i) sing; u whoever, ireacX., oiuW, \i>\\ooV -s.xX., Ti.^ee\ 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, Abut, ^i-.doot, -aoicio, ^\ie^, ^R.%a\&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 355 

nargliilly n. naz'gih. same meaning as narghile. 
narrate v. (relate, tell, rehearse) nae'reet, na'eeet, 'naeret. 
narro'W adj,, n., adv., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit 

narrowed, narrowd} 'naezo; (dialectally) 'na?a. 
nar'wl&al n. sea-unicorn [also spelt narwhale; synonymous 

cognate narwall 'nare-iual. 
nary adj. not [dialectal variant of ne'er a, never a; synony- 
mous cognate narryl 'ne:-zi, 'neei. 
nasal adj. (of the nose) 'nee-zsl. 
nasalize v, speak nasally; render nasal [also spelt nasalisel 

'nee-za-laiz. 
nascent adj. (being born; incipient) 'nxssnt; (improperly) 

'nee-sant. 
nastnrtinm n. (plant) naes'tsrSdm* nxs'teir-Sam, naes'te^Ji- 

9m, nd'stB^Ssm. 
nasty adj. (foul; offensiv; bad; ill-natured) 'na:-sti, 'na:-sti, 

'naei-sti ; {assumpHvly, when less strest) 'nasti, 'nasti, 'naesti. 
nasnte adj, (formerly, keen-scented, sagacious; latterly, snou- 

ty, etc.) 'nee-sgut, {less often) ne'sgout. 
natal adj. (nativ; of one's birth) 'nee-tl, 'nee-tal. 
natatory adj. (of swimming) 'nee-ta-tD^i. 
natheless adv, nevertheless [synonymous cognate nathless'i 

'neeO-las, 'nee-Gi-as, 'nee-da-les. 
natliless adv. 'nseO^as, 'naed-les. same meaning as natheless. 
national adj. (of a nation) 'naeja-nl, 'nx^d-ndl; {rapidly) 

'naeSNal ; {less properly) 'nee-Ja-nl. 
nationality n. nse$3'naeh-ti. 
nationalize v. [also spelt nationalise"] 'naeSd-nl-aiz, 'nxS^i^d- 

laiz. 
natrolite n« (soda-mesotype, needle-zeolite) 'nxtsd-^ait, 'nee- 

tja-lait 
natron n. (mineral) 'nee-tjon, 'nee-tjan, 'naetjan. 
natnral adj. (of law; just; of nature; normal) 'naetSa-rsl, 

{rapidly) 'naetSsal; {also, older) 'naetgo-ral, 'naetga-ral. 
naturalization n. [also spelt naturalisation] nxtSa-zdh'zee- 

San, natJara-lai'zee-San. 
naturalize v. [also spelt naturalise] 'nxtSsrd-laiz, (rapidly) 

'naetS33-laiz. 
natnre n. (essential character; inherent power or principle; 

universe) 'nee-tjar, {older) 'nee-tgar. 
naught n. nothing; zero, cipher [also spelt nought; synon- 
ymous cognate, in the sense of a cipher, ought] nc:t. 
naught adj. worthless [also spelt nought] nc:t. 

c: law, s: fwr, ae cat, o hot, oi boy ; a: far, clo tvotm, «:. a"sJ«., ^-vVn\r.\ 
Jcn/^b-mark (:) indicates that the precedinv^ ^o>rcv^ "^"^ Vi.xN.'SkN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \h^ ieWo^\Ti% vj^''^^' 



356 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nanshty adj. (wayward; bad) 'nc:-ti, {when less strest) 'nc- 

ti. 
nausea n. (seasickness, etc.; loathing) 'ncr-Ja, 'ncr-Ji-a, 'nc:- 

si-a. 
nauseate v, (reject with nausea; loathe; affect with nausea; 

feel sick) 'nc:-Si-et, 'nc:-si-et. 
nauseous adj, (causing nausea) 'nci-Sas, 'nc:-$i-9s, 'nc:-si-3s. 
nautilus n. argonaut, a cephalopod [plaral nautili^ nauHlttsesI 

'nc:-ti-l3s ; (less properly) 'nc:-tl-3S. 
naval adj. (of ships; of the navy) 'nee-vsl. 
nave n. (main body or middle part of a church) neev. 
navel n, (umbilicus) 'nee-val. 

naveled adj, [also spelt navelled, naveldl 'nee-vsld. 
navicular adj. (boat-shaped, scaphoid, cymbiform) nd'vxkco- 

nay adv. (no; not only so, but) nee. 

Nazarene adj., n. nsezaViin. 

Nazaritisnt n. 'nseza-zai-tizsm, 'naezszi-tizdm, 'naezs-rait- 
izam, 

neap adj. (low; ebb) niip. 

nearsisl&ted adj, ni:r'sai-tid, (assumpHvly) 'ni:7-sai-tid. 

neatherd n. (cowherd) 'niit-hB:?d. 

nebula n. cloudy film or speck in the eye; misty appear- 
ance; cloud-like cluster of stars [ploral nebulae} 'nebjo-la. 

nebulae n. (ploral of nebula) 'nebjo-li. 

nebul6 adj. cloud-like, wavy, nebuly [also spelt nebulSel 
'nebjo-le, nebjo'lee. 

nebulize v, atomize; become nebulous [also, rarely, spelt neb- 
ulise"] 'nebjo-laiz. 

nebulous adj. (cloudy; of nebulae) 'nebjo-las. 

necessarily adv. (of necessity) 'nesi-sen-h ; (also) 'ncsi- 
sari-h, (anteriorly) 'nesi-sazih ; (occasionally) nesi'seei-h. 

necessary adj. (needful) 'nesi-seci; (also) 'nesis3-ri, (as- 
sumptivly) 'nesi-san; (rapidly) 'nesi-S3i, 'nes-s^i, 'nes5i. 

necked adj. having a neck [also spelt neckt"] nekt. 

necklace n. (ornamental chain or band worn around the 
neck) 'nekz^is. 

necrology n. (register of the dead) ni'k^els-dsi. 

necromancy n. (magic, etc.) 'neksa-mxnsi. 

necropolis n. cemetery [also spelt nekropolisi ni'ksepa-hs. 

nectarine n. peach [also, sometimes, spelt nectarini 'nekts- 
nn, 'nekta-rin. 

nectarine adj. nectar-like [also spelt nectarini 'nekta-?in. 

/ yCf 5 cure ; 5 */ie, thin; ^ aiZMte, d-j, ioy ; \ shoe, tS chew ; 
wwhen; i}sing\ u whoever, itcaicX, ^siuW, \i>\\ooV -^Vt, x\%e€; 
o poetic; oov^r, e oerial, xbut, ^-.^oot, -aoicio, ^x^e^, ^ti%q!«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 357 

nee adj. (born) nee. 

ne'er adv, (never) ne:z. 

negation n. (denying; denial; nonentity) ni'gee-Ssn. 

negative n., adj., v, [also spelt negativ ; as verb, past partici- 
ple and preterit negatived, negativdl 'nega-tiv, (assumpHvly) 
'negativ; (dialectally) 'nee-ga-tiv. 

neglig^ n. informal attire [also spelt niglige'[ negh'see. 

neglig^ adj. informal, careless [also spelt negligee'^ negh'see. 

negligee n. (loose gown of the i8th century; necklace) negh- 

'dsii. 
negligee n,,adj. negh'3ee. same meaning as neglige. 
negligible adj. (that may be disregarded; neglectable) 

'neghdsa-bal. \ 

negotiable adj, ni'gDO-Sd-ba}, ni'g30-$i-3-b3}. 
negotiate v, (confer; manage; obtain; transfer; dispose ofj 

ni'goo-Si-et. 
negotiation n. ni-goSi'ee-Ssn. 
Negrito n. (one of a diminutiv Malayo-polynesian negroid 

race) ni'g?ii-to. 
negro n. black man [plural negroes^ and, formerly, negrosi 

'nii-g?o; {dialectally) 'niqzo, 
neigh v.^n, whinny [as verb, past participle and preterit 

neighed, neighd"] nee. 
neighbor n.,adj,,v, [also spelt neighbour; as verb, past par- 
ticiple and preterit neighbored, neighbordi 'nee-bar. 
neighborhood n. [also spelt neighbourhood! 'nee-bar-hod. 
neighboring adj. [also spelt neighbouring! 'nee-bs-eii], {as- 

sumptivly) 'nee-baeiq; (rapidly) 'nee-briq. 
neither adv., conj., adj.-pron,, noun-pron. 'nii-dar, 'nai-dar. 
nematocyst n. (lasso-cell, thread-cell) 'nemata-sist. 
Nemean adj, of Nemea [also spelt Nemaean"] ni'mii-sn, 'nii- 

mi-sn. 
nemertine adj. of the ribbon-worms [also, sometimes, spelt 

nemertin! ni'meztin, ni'mez-tain. 
nennphar n. (water-lily) 'nen jo-far, 'nenjo-far. 
neo-Latin n. (New Latin) ni-a'laetin, ni-a'laetn. 
neologisni n. (use of new words; new expression; tendency 

toward new doctrins) ni'ela-dsizam. 
neologize v. [also spelt neologise! ni'eta-dsaiz. 
neophyte n. (new convert; tyro) 'nii-a-fait. 
nepenthe n. (magic potion) ni'pentOi, ni'penGi, (older) ni- 

'pen-6i. 
nepenthes n. (magic potion; nepenthe) ni'pen-Oiz. 

c: low, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that t\ie ptece^ixv^ ^a>aaA y^ \«\NSk\ 
stres9-mark C) indicates chief stress on )3^^ i^VkaHJTa.% ^^^-si^^* 



358 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nephenv n. brother's or sister's son [dialectal synonymous 

cognates nevey, n^//i] 'nefiu, 'neviu. 
nepliritis n. (inflammation of the kidneys) ni'fsai-tis, ni- 

'fsii-tis. 
nepotisni n. (papal favoritism to nephews, etc.) 'nii-ps-tizdm, 

'ncpa-tizam. 
nepotist n. 'nii-ps-tist, 'neps-tist. 
Nereid n\ (sea-nymph) 'nii-ei-id. 
nereid n. - (sea-centipede ; nereis) 'ni:-zi-id. 
Nereides n. pL (nereids) ni'ni-i-diz, 'ni:-zi-i-diz. 
nerite n. nerita, a gastropod [synonymous cognate nerW] 'ni:- 

rait, 'ne-?ait. 
nerve n. sinew, tendon; strength; impulse-conveying fiber; 

courage; coolness [also spelt nervl nsizv. 
nerved adj. having a nerve; ribd [also spelt nervd"] UBizyd, 
nervine adj, (acting on the nerves) 'nB:?-vin, 'nei^-vain, 

'ne.T-vin. 
nervose adj. (of the nerves; nervd) nsr'voos, (assumpHvly) 

'nsiz-vos, 
nervons adj, (sinewy; vigorous; of nerves, etc.; excitable) 

'neie-vas. 
nervy adj. (vigorous; sinewy; cool; jerky; requiring nerve) 

'nsiz-Yi. 
nescience n. (lack of knj)wledge; ignorance) 'nejans, 'neji- 

9ns, 'nii-Jans, 'nii-Ji-ans; {less properly) 'nesgans, 'nesi-ans. 
nescient adj. (ignorant; agnostic) 'ne^snt, 'ne^i-ant, 'mi-^ant, 

'nii-Si-ant. 
nestle v, (make a nest; settle snugly) 'nesal, 'nesl; (errone- 
ously) 'nestl. 
nestling n. (bird) 'nestz^iri, 'nesLir). 
nestling n. (action of the verb nestle) 'nesz^ir). 
net adj. clear; lowest [also spelt nett"] net. 
netl&er adj. (lower, under) 'nedar. 

nenralgia n. (pain in a nerve) njo'^aeldsa, njo'zaldsi-a. 
nenritis n. (inflammation of a nerve) njoVai-tis, njo'zrii-tis. 
neurology n. (science of nerves) njo'^ela-dsi. 
nenrosis n. nerve-disease; nerve-change [plural neuroses! 

njo'roo-sis. 
nenter adj, (neither masculin nor feminin; neither activ 

nor passiv; intransitiv; neutral) 'njou-tar; (dialectally) 

'nou-tar. 
neutral adj. (not activ either way; indifferent) 'njou-tjal; 

(dialectally) 'nou-tjal. 

J ye, 9 cure; bthe^ 6 <Mn ; 5 asure, ds/oy; I shot, tlchew; 
w when; tj sing; u whoever, IreacX., \3iu\\, vvmCooV 's.Vt, -a^cc; 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, e aerial, Khut, o*. Cloot, -aoivo, ^\ic^, ^^%ox&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 359 

neutralisation n« [also spelt neutralisationi njutssh'zee- 

S^n, njutja-lai'zce-San. 
nentralixe v. [also spelt neutralise'^ 'njou-t£3-}aiz. 
nentrally adv, 'njou<ts9-li. 
ne'W adj, (not existing before; novel) njou, {when unstrest) 

nju; (also, dialectally) nou, nu. 
ne-wel n. (pillar) 'njou-dl. 
ne'wfansled adj, njou'fxij-gdld, (assumptivly) 'njou-faeg- 

gsld. 
Ne'wfonndland n. (dog) njo'faon-dlsnd, 'njou-fsn-dldnd, 

njufdndlaend. 
nenvspaper n. (news-sheet) 'njouz-pee-par, 'njous-pee-pa?; 

(dialectally) 'nouz-pee-p3?, 'nous-pee-por. 
nenvsy adj. (full of news) 'njou-zi. 

n. bond, tie, link [ploral nexus] 'neksss. 

n. free-born person bound by a nexum [ploral nexi"] 

'neksds. 
niaiserie n. (simplicity; foolishness) ni'ee-zs-zi. 
Nioaraguan a(/y., n. nikd'zoi-gwdn, niks'^segju-sn. 
nioe-looking a(/;. nais'tokig, {assumptivly) 'nais-lokir). 
Nioene a^f/. (of Nicaea) 'nai-sin, nai'siin. 
nicety n. formerly, folly; shyness; latterly, scrupulosity; 

fastidiousness; nice point; detail [ploral nicetiesi 'nai-si-ti. 
niche n. (recess) nitS. 
nickel n. (metal) 'niksl, 'nikl, 'nikil. 
nicknack n. 'nik-nxk. see knickknack. 
nicotian adj, {pi tobacco) ni'koo-Jan, ni'koo-Si-an. 
nicotine n. alkaloid in tobacco [also, sometimes, spelt nipo- 

tinl 'nika-tin, 'nika-tin. 
nictitating adj. (winking) 'nikti-tetiq. 
niece n. (daughter of one's brother or sister) mis. 
nigh adv,, adj, (near) nai. 
night n. (dark half of the day) nait. 
nihilisni n. (negativ doctrin; nothingness; doctrin of the 

Russian nihilists) 'nai-i-hzsm, 'nai-hi-hzdm. 
nihilist n. 'nai-i-list, 'nai-hi-hst. 

nihilistic adj. (of nihilism) nai-i'hstik, nai-hi'hstik. 
nihility n. (nullity) nai'hih-ti. 
nilghan n. 'nil-gc: . same meaning as nylghau. 
nimbose adj. (cloudy) 'nim-bos, nim'boos. 
nincompoop n. (blockhead, simpleton, ninny) 'nii]kam-pup. 
nineteen n. (numeral) nain'tiin, {anteriorly; by contrast) 

'nain-tin. 

c: law, b: fi«r, ae cot, e hot, oi boy ; a: f ar, ao tvoim, ^*. a^, ^\^V\\s.\ 
]ength-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ ^omxv^ \s Vtcv^n 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVie ie»Wo^vcv^ ^-f^-sJ^^ 



360 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nineteen adj. nain'tiin, (assumptiviy) 'naiiirtin. 

nineteenth adj. nain'tiinO, (assumptiviy) 'nain-tinO. 

nisi conj. (in law, unless) 'nai-sai. 

nisns n. (effort) 'nai-s9s. 

nit n. (egg of a louse) nit. 

niter n. potassium nitrate; saltpeter [also spelt nitrel 'nai- 
tar. 

nitrify v, (convert into niter; become niter) 'nai-tji-fai. 

nitrile n. cyanogen compound [also spelt nitril, nitrylel 'nai- 
tjil. 

nitrobenzene n. (nitrobenzol) nai-t£3-ben'ziin, nai-taplien- 
zin. 

nitrogen n, (element) 'nai-tsd-dsin. 

nitrogenize v» combine with nitrogen [also spelt nitrogenise] 
nai'tjedsi-naiz, 'nai-tjadsi-naiz. 

nitroglycerin n. explosiv [also spelt nitroglycerine} nai-tp- 
'ghs3-?in. 

nitry adj. obsolete (nitrous) 'nai-tji. 

nitryl n. (nitric peroxide, a radical) 'nai-t£i}. 

Nizam n. (ruler of Hyberabad; Turkish army; soldier) ni- 
'za:m, ni'zam. 

no n. denial; negativ vote [plural noes, no'sl noo. 

no adj. not any, etc. [dialectal synonymous cognates : na, 
naa, nae, nea, neah, nee, neea, ney, neye, nel noo, (when 
unstrest) no, no. 

no adv. expressing dissent, etc. [dialectal synonymous cog- 
nate na"] noo, (when unstrest) no, no; (occasionally) noop, 
nop ; (vulgarly ; offensivly) nc: , ua ; (dialectally) no: . 

nob n. person of wealth or social distinction; swell [former 
synonymous cognate nah'\ nob. 

nob n. head, knob ; in cribbage, knave of the same suit as the 
turn-up card [also, formerly, spelt nohh} nob. 

nobbed adj. having nobs ; knobbed [also spelt nobd} nebd. 

noblesse n. noble birth; nobility [also, formerly, spelt no- 
bless, noblesi no'bles. 

nocturn n. (in the Roman Catholic Church, one of the divi- 
sions of the office of matins) 'nok-tarn. 

nocturn adj. obsolete (nocturnal) 'nok-tarn.. 

nocturnal adj. (of the night) nok'ta^nl, nok'taie-nl. 

nocturne n. in painting, night-piece; in music, notturno 
[also spelt nocturni 'nok-tarn. 

nodal adj. (of a node) 'noo-dl, 'noo-dal. 

noddle n. (head) 'nedl. 

/ ye, q cure ; 5 t!ie, tKltv, ^ 5 atSMte, d^ foy ; \ shoe, tS che-w ; 
w when; i) sing; u whoever, itcact, vjiu\\, v^mIooV, \\V "vV^ee; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, A.\iut, :i\doot, -^iOTvo, «.\ie^. "^^^a}«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 361 

nodose adj, (having knots or nodes; knotty) no'doos, (as- 

sumptivly) 'noo-dos. 
nodule n. (rounded lump; small node or knot) 'ne-djul, 'ne- 

dsul. 
nodulose adj. (knotty, nodulous) nedjoloos, {assumpHvly) 

'nedjo^os. 
noetic adj. (of the mind) no'etik. 

nos n. peg, block; knag, snag, stump [also spelt nogg'[ neg. 
nog n. beer ; egg-nog [also spelt nogg'i neg. 
nosgln n. (vessel; mug) 'negin. 
nogglng n. (brick filling) 'negir). 
noisome adj. (harmful; offensiv) 'nei-ssm. 
noisy adj. (making a noise; full of noise) 'nei-zi. , 

nomad n. wanderer, roamer, rover [synonymous cognate no- 

model 'noo-maed, 'ne-mad, 'neniad. 
nomadlo adj, (wandering; of nomads) no'maedik. 
nomadize v. live as nomads; roam [also spelt nomadisel 

'nemd-daiz. 
nom de plnme n. (pen-name) 'nendi-pz^oum. 
nome n. (province) noom. 
nome n. rule of musical composition [synonymous cognate 

nomosi nDom. 
nomen n. name [ploral nominal 'nDO-man. 
nomenclature n. (name; list; system of names; terminolo- 
gy) 'noo-man-ktetSa?, nD'menkL9-tSo?. 
nominative adj, noting the subject; nominated [also spelt 

nominativl 'nemina-tiv, (assumptivly) 'nemi-nativ, 'nemna- 

tiv. 
nomocanon n. (collection of canons, etc.) no'meka-nen, 'noo- 

ma-kaenan. 
nonage n. (minority; immaturity) 'nenids, 'noo-nids. 
nonage n. (ninth part) 'nao-nids. 
nonce n. (one occasion; once) nents, nens. 
nonchalance n. (state of being nonchalant) 'nen^a-lans, 

'nentSa-lans. 
nonchalant adj. (lacking warmth of feeling, indifferent, 

unconcernd) 'nenja-lant, 'nentja-lant. 
non-combatant n. nen'kembi-tnt. 
non-commlssloned adj. [also spelt non-commissiondl non- 

ka'mijand, (assumptivly) 'nen-ka-miSand. 
none n. (daily office said at the ninth hour or 3 p.m.; nones) 

naon. 
none noun-pron., adj.-pron., adv. nAn ; (dialectally) nan. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
]ength-mark (:) indicates that t\ie ptecedixv^ %a>\w^ V5» VsrwstN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on X\ift i^>\^H<vcvsL «f^s5w«.* 



362 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nonentity n. (non-existence; figment; nothing) nen'enti-ti. 
nones n. (the eighth day before the ides; also, a daily office 

said at the ninth hour, or 3 p.m.) noonz. 
nonjnror n. (one who refused to swear allegiance to the 

sovereign) nen'dso:-?^?, *nen-d$o:-z9z. 
nonpareil adj. (having no equal; peerless) nenpa'^el, nempd- 

'zel; (improperly) nenpa'niL 
nonplns n,, adj, 'nen-p^AS. 
nonplns v, (bring to a nonplus or standstill; perplex) nen- 

'pLAS, 'nen-pLAs. 
nonplnssed adj. [also spelt nonplusfl nen'pLASt, (assumptiv- 

ly) 'nen-pLAst. 
nonsensical adj. (that is nonsense; absurd) nen'sensi-kdl, 

(assumptivly) 'nen-sensikal, nen'sensiksl. 
nook n. (corner; recess) nok; (dialectally) nouk. 
noose n. (running knot; loop) nous; (less properly) nouz. 
noose V, knot [past participle and preterit noosed, noost} 

nuuz, nous. 
nop conj. (and not; than) ne:z, (when less strest) nez, na^, nz. 
normalize v. [also spelt normalisel 'nerr-ms-laiz. 
northeast adj. ne:rG'iist, (assumptivly) 'ne:r9-iist, (or, when 

less strest) 'ne:?G-ist. 
northerner n. (nativ or resident of the north) 'ne:?-6a-n3?. 
northiB^ard adj. (toward the north) 'nei^O-ward. 
nortli'west adj. ne:?0'west, (assumptivly) 'ne:^G-west. 
nosology n. (classification or science of diseases) no'sels- 

dsi. 
nostalgia n. (severe homesickness) nes'taeldsa, nes'taldsi-a. 
nostmm n. (quack medicin; pet Scheme) 'nestjam; (improp- 
erly) 'noo-stjam. 
not adv. (expressing negation) net, (when unstrest) nat, nt. 
nota bene phrase (note well, mark carefully) noo-ta'bii-ni, 

noo-talDii-ni. 
notable adj. (noteworthy; noticeable) 'noo-ta-bal; (capable, 

bustling : said of women) 'noo-ta-bal, 'neta-bal. 
notate adj. (markt with spots or lines) 'noo-tet. 
nota tor ». (noter, recorder; one skild in musical notation) 

no'tee-ta?. 
noteiB^ortby adji (worthy of notice) 'noot-WBr5i. 
nothing noun-pron., adv. 'nA0ii] ; (dialectally) 'nA0ra, 'nAGn ; 

'neGiq, 'neGin. 
notice n. intimation, warning; heed, note [also spelt notisi 

'noo-tis. 

J ye, g cure; d the, 6 th\n\ ^ 5 asMte, d-s joy ; ^ shoe, tS chew ; 
wwAen; ijsing', u whoever, 1 react, wiu\V vvw\oo\, \\\., <\^cc% 
o poetic; o over, e aerial, Abut, o\ doot, ootvo, t>ac^, ^^%.a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 363 

te V. notify; remark upon; observe; recognize [also spelt 
Is; past participle and preterit noticed, notisti 'nDO-tis. 
ieable adj, 'noo-tisa-bal, (assumptivly) 'noo-tisabal, 
d, sometimes, rapidly) 'notsabal. 

chord n, (chorda dorsalis; primitiv backbone) 'noo-ta- 
:d, 

;lit n., adj, nc:t. see naught. 

&enal adj. (of a noumenon) 'noo-mi-nl, 'nou-mi-nl. 
aenon n. object of purely intellectual intuition; thing 
tself [plural noumena} 'nao-mi-nen ; (less properly) 'nou- 
nen. 

n. rnind; gumption [also spelt nouse, nowsel naos, nous. 
'ean riclie n. [ploral nouveaux riches} nuvo'zii^. 
1 adj. (new) 'neval. 

lize V. make novel; produce a novelty; convert into a 
el [also spelt novelise} 'neva-laiz. 
Ity n. something new [ploral novelties} 'neval-ti. 
real adj, (of a stepmother) no'vszkal, no'verr-kal. 
ce n. probationer; tyro [also spelt novis} 'nevis. 
tiate n, probationary period; notice; tyro; 'noviceship 
50 spelt noviciate! no'viji-et, no'viji-at. 
adays adv. in these days; in the present age [also spelt 
v-a-days} 'nau-3-deez. 

ay adv. not at all; by no means [synonymous cognate 
vays} 'noo-wee. 

el n. Christmas [also spelt Nowell, Noel} no'el, 'noo-el. 
b1 n. (the inner part or core of a mold for casting hollow 
inders, etc.) no'el, 'noo-al, 'nou-at. 
Ise adv. (in no way; in no respect) 'noo-woiz. 
ons adj. (injurious, hurtful) 'nekjas. 
kde ». (putting to death by drowning) nwe'jard. 
e n. socket; spout; nose [also spelt nozzle} 'nozal. 
ace n. (slight variation; shade of color; delicate grada- 
n) nju'eqs. 

He adj. marriageable [also, sometimes, spelt nuhil} 'njou- 
; (dialectallv) 'nou-bil; (also, rarely) 'njou-bail, 'nou- 
:l. 

ei n. (ploral of nucleus) 'njou-kti-ai. 
leolns n. small nucleus; paranucleus [ploral nucleoli} 

)'kl-li-3-l3S. 

lens n. kernel; central mass [ploral nuclei} 'njou-kti-as. 
B adj, (not formally attested or recorded; naked, bare) 
jud; (dialectally) noud. 

V, 8! f Mr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, oo now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
h-mark (:) indicates that tlie pteeeCLixv^ ^Cixsxv^ \^ Vi.xv%\ 
t-mor/r C) indicates chief stress on \Vifc i?>>\o^vci% ^nj^-s^^^ 



364 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

nndse v. (touch, push, or poke with the elbow, to call atten- 

tion) nxds. 
nudity n. (state or fact of being nude; nude figure) 'njou- 

di-ti; (dialectally) 'nou-di-ti. 
nugatory adj. (trifling; futil) 'njuu-gd-to^i, 'njou-gd-tszi. 
nnsset n. (rough lump of nativ gold; lump) 'nxgit. 
nni«anoe n. (hurt; annoyance, plague) 'njou-ssns; (dialec- 
tally) 'nou-s9ns. 
nnmb ad}\ deprived of feeling [also spelt numl nAm. 
nnmbed adj. deprived of feeling [also spelt numdl nAmd. 
nnmbered adj, repkond by number; markt with a number 

[also spelt numberdi 'nAmbszd. 
nnmerio adj, obsolete (identical) nju'merik. 
nnmerons adj. (plentiful; many) 'njuu-ms-^ss, 'njum^ss. 
nnmiamatio n. (of coins) njumis'maetik ; (less properly) 

njumiz'maetik. 
nnmmnlite n. (fossil cephalopod) 'uAmjo-lait. 
nnmsknll n. (blockhead; dolt) 'uAm-skAl. 
nnn n. (woman devoted to a religious life under vows) nAU. 
nnnoheon n. luncheon [also spelt nunchioni 'uAntJan, (in 

Britain) 'uAnJan. 
nnnciatnre n. (office of nuncio; period of office of a pa- 
pal nuncio) 'uAnSi-a-tSo?, 'nAnSi-a-tgo?. 
nnncio n. messenger; papal agent [also spelt nuntio; ploral 

nunciosl 'nAnJi-o. 
nnnonpative adj. oral; rarely, designativ [also spelt nun- 

cupativ'l 'nAqkgo-petiv, 'nAnkgo-petiv, nAn'kgou-pa-tiv. 
nnndinal adj., n. (of a fair) 'uAndi-nl, 'nAndi-nsl. 
nnnnery n. convent [ploral nunneriesi 'nAna-n. 
nnptial adj. (of marriage; of a wedding) 'nApJal. 
nnrsery n. (room for children; tree-garden, etc.) 'tibzs^-zi, 

'nsiz-s^-zi, 'ne^ssi, 'nsir-s^i. 
nnrslins n. object of a nurse's care [also spelt nurselingi 

'nezTSi-ii], 'nBirs-hq. 
nnrtnre n. (breeding, food, care) 'nertSar, 'narr-tSaz, 'nsztq^z. 
nntant adj. (drooping; pendent) 'njou-tant. 
nntrient adj. (serving as food; nutrimental) 'njou-tEi-ant. 
nntriment n. (food) 'njou-tji-mant; (dialectally) 'nou-tji- 

mdnt. 
nntrition n. (action of nourishing; nutriment, food) nju- 

'tEiSan; (dialectally) nu'tjijan. 
nntritions adj. nju'tsijas; (dialectally) nu'tjijas. 
nntritive adj. [also spelt nutriliv} 'njou-tji-tiv. 

J ye, ?cure; 5 ffie, thin-, ^aiSMte, d^jioy; \shoe, tS c/»ew; 
w when; ij sing; u whoever, itcacX., vjiuW, v^uiooX, -i.^x, vL%ce\ 
o poetic; o ov^r, e oerial, A.\ittt, o-.doot, ^otvo, t>Qcei., ^^^cX&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 365 

nylshan n. antelope [also spelt nilgau, nilghau and, formerly, 

nylgau; synonymous cognates neelghau, nilgai, nilghye, nyl- 

ghai, neelgyel 'nil-gc: . 
nymph n. (maiden deity; dryad, naiad, etc.) nimf. 
nymphean adj, (of a nymph;'* nymph-like) 'nimfi-sn, nim- 

'fii-3n. 
nymphenBi n. grotto or shrine of the nymphs [also spelt 

nymphaeum; ploral nymphed\ nim'fii-am. 



o prep, on [also spelt <?'] o, {when less strest) o, 9. 

O interj. expressing appeal, entreaty, invocation, surprise, 
pain, lament, gladness, etc, [also, especially when detacht 
from what follows, or when used as a cry of pain or terror, 
or when expressing shame, derisiv astonishment, or dis- 
approbation, spelt ohl 30, (when less strest) o, o. 

o prep, of [also spelt o'] o, (when less strest) o, d. 

o n. zero, cipher; mere nothing; also, anything round, as a 
circle, round spot, orb [ploral, in the sense of anything 
round, oes and, formerly, oaes, oosl oo. 

O n. the interjection O [ploral O'sl do. 

oaf n. elf's child; fool [obsolescent synonymous cognates 
ouph, auf; ploral oafs, oaves'] oof. 

oaknin n. old-rope fiber [also, formerly, spelt okurn] 'oo-ksm. 

oar ». (boat-oar) o:?. 

oasis n. fertil spot in a desert [ploral oasesi o'ee-sis, 'oo-a-sis. 

oath n. solemn appeal to deity, etc. ; curse [ploral oathsY 3oO. 

oaths ». (ploral of oath) oodz; (less properly) oo9s. 

oatmeal n. (meal made from oats, etc.) 'oot-miil, oot'miil. 

obang n. (coin) 'oo-baq, o'baeq. 

obbligato adj. indispensable [also spelt obligatoj ebli'goto. 

obdnraoy n. (stubbornness; relentlessness) 'obdjors-si, eb- 
'djo:-?3-si; (dialectally) 'obdara-si. 

obdnrate adj. (hardend in sin; inexorable) 'obdjo-rst, eb- 
'djo:-r3t. 

obdnrate v, (make obdurate) 'obdjo-ret; eb'djo:-ret. 

obea n. sorcery [also spelt obeah, obeeyah; synonymous cog- 
nates obi, obyl 'oo-bi-a. 

obedience n. (action of obeying) o'bii-di-ans, (when less 
strest) a^Dii-di-ans. 

obeisance n. (formerly, obedience; now, bow, curtsy; defe- 
rence) oliee-sans, o'bii-sans. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, o hot, oi hoy ; a: for, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceAitiv, ^wrcv^ \% Vi.TCi»\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on the i©>\oNivcv^t «^'^'!i^«^' 



366 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

obelisk n. (tapering rectangular shaft or column; also, obe- 
lus) 'ebi-lisk. 

obelize v, mark with an obelus; condemn as spurious [also 
spelt obelise; former erroneous synonymous cognate obo- 
Ujsel 'ebi-laiz. • 

obelns n. spit-like dash or obelisk formerly used in manu- 
scripts to mark spurious passages; in modern use, a dagger 
indicating a foot-note, etc. [plural obelil 'obi-l3s. 

obese adj. (very fat; exceedingly corpulent) o'biis. 

obesity n. (state or quality of being obese) o'besi-ti. 

obey V, comply with the bidding of ; mind [past participle and 
preterit obeyed, obeydl o'bee, (when less strest) a'bee. 

obfnscate v. darken; bewilder [synonymous cognate offus- 
cate"] eb'fAsket, 'ob-fAsket, 'ebfAS-ket. 

obi^ n. 'oo-bi. same meaning as obea. 

obi* n. Japanese sash [ploral obisl 'oo-bi. 

obit w. death; obituary notice; memorial service [synony- 
mous cognate obiiti 'oo-bit, 'obit. 

obiter adv, (by the way) 'obi-ta?. 

obitnary n. (register of obit-days or deaths; death-notice) 
o'bitSu-ezi; (also) D'bitQU-3-ri, (anteriorly) D'bit^u-ari. 

object n, (thing, etc.) 'obdsikt. 

object V, (expose to* oppose, etc.) ab'dsekt. 

objnrgate v. (rebuke severely; chide, scold) ob'd3o:r-get, ab- 
'd3B:?-get, 'ob-dser-get. 

objnrgatory adj, eb'dsorr-ga-to^i ; (also) sb'dsBir-gata-n, 
(assumpHvly) ab'dsBi^-ga-tan. 

oblate adj. (flattend at the poles : opposed to prolate) eb- 
leet, (assumpHvly) 'o-blet. 

oblate V, (offer as an oblation) ebleet. 

oblate ». (person devoted to a monastery or to religious 
work) ©bleet, 'o-blet. 

obligatory adj. (imposing obligation) 'obhga-to^i; (also) 
'obh-gata-ri, (assumptivly) 'obhga-ta^i ; (also) 'obh-geta-ri, 
(assumpHvly) 'obh-getan ; (improperly) o'bhga-to^i. 

oblige v» (engage; bind; constrain; compel) o'blaids, (when 

less strest) aljlaids; (also, formerly) o'bhids. 
lobligee n. (one to whom another is bound by contract; also, 
one who is under obligation) ebh'dsii. 

obliger n. (one who obliges; one who binds or imposes an 
obligation upon another by contract; one who confers an 
obligation or favor) o'blai-dsa?. 

obligor n. (one who binds himself to another by contract; 

J ye, gcure; b t/ie, thin*, ■sasMte, d-^ioy; ishoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; i)sing\ u whoever, iTcacl, \5W\\, xiuiooV, \\\, <\%ee\ 
o poetic; oov^r, e oerial, xbut, o*. ^oot, -aQtvo, ^£.\ie^, ^^^oX5t\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 367 

person who gives a bond or obligation : correlativ of 
gee) 'eWi-ge:z, ebli'ge:?, 
tne adj,,n.,v, o'hliik, (when less strest) 9l>liik; (also, 

often) o'Uaik. 

Lnity n. (quality of being oblique; slant) o'UiktDi-ti. 
tuns n. muscle [ploral obliquil e^lai-kwas. 
erate v. (blot out; efface; destroy) e'biits-ret, d'blitset. 
iny n. (evil-speaking; abuse) 'ebld-kwi. 
xions adj. (exposed to harm; odious) eb'nek$3s, ^h- 
cjds. 

n. (hautboy; reed-stop) 'oo-bei, 'oo-bo-i, 'DO-bo-i. 
it n. (performer on the oboe) 'oo-bo-ist. 

n. silver coin of ancient Greece [also, formerly, spelt 
lei 'ebal. 

5 n. (French coin) 'e-bol. 
KB n. obol; also, obole [ploral oboHl 'ebs-lss. 
ate adj, (inversely ovate; egg-shaped with the broader 
. upmost or forward) eb'oo-vet. 
ptlon n. (obtaining .by craft) o'b?epS3n, ebVepJan. 
Bne adj\ (disgusting; filthy; lewd) eb'siin, ab'siin. 
dnity n. (obscene quality; foulness) eb'seni-ti, sb'seni-ti. 
are adj. sb'skgo:?; (sometimes, anteriorly) 'ebskgor. 
inions adj, (obedient; cringing) eb'sii-ku)i-as, ab'sii-kioi- 

5|ny n. funeral rite ; funeral [ploral obsequiesi 'ebsi-ku)i. 
pve V. keep ; perceive ; watch [also spelt observ ; past par- 
pie and preterit observed, observd^ ab'zerrv. 
lete adj. (no longer used; out of date) 'ebsa^it, (some- 
es predicativly or finally) ebsa'hit. 

Btrio ». (of a midwife or accoucheur) eb'stetjik, sb- 
tjik. 

nde V. (thrust forth; thrust; intrude) ab'tjoud. 
naive adj. [also spelt obtrusivl 3b'tjou-siv; ab'tjou-ziv. 
rator n. (something that stops up) 'ebtgo-retaz. 
•e adj. (blunt; dull) eb'tgous, ab'tgous; (dialec tally) eb- 
is. 

me n. (side of a coin with the head, etc. : correlativ of 
erse; face, front) 'eb-vB?s. 

rse adj. (opposit; of leaves, narrower at the base than 
the top; answering to a counterpart) eb'vB'.rs, (assump- 
ly) 'eb-v8rs. 

ina n. (musical instrument) ekd'rii-ns. 
■ion n. (opportunity; cause; juncture; event) sTcee-san. 

', b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao tvotm, «:. a-aV.^ ^-vVVvs-n 
b-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ ^o>a.Tv^ a.^ ViraskN 
■mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie ie»Wo^\Tv^ ^-fC^^^^. 



368 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oooasioniJly adv, slcee-sd-nl-i, (rapidly) alcee-sd-nh, {an- 
teriorly) ykee-sdnh. 

oooident n,, adj. (west) 'eksi-dnt, 'eksi-dant. 

oooipital adj. (of the occiput) ek'sipi-t!, ek'sipi-ts!. 

oooipnt n. (back of the head) 'eksi-pat, 'eksi-pxt. 

oeonlt adj. (hidden; recondite) s'kAlt, oIcaU, 'e-kxlt. 

ooonltism n. dHcAl-tizam ; (less properly) 'e-kAl-tizam. 

oocnrreaioe n. (fact of occurring; event) dlcB^ans, slcAzdns. 

oeean n. (main sea) 'oo-San. 

Oceanian adj. (of the Pacific ocean; of Oceania) oSi'ee-ni- 
9n, oSi'xni-sn. 

oeeanio adj. (of the ocean; ocean-like) oSi'aenik. 

ooellate adj. (having ocelli; like an eye) 'esi-let, 'esi-ldt, . 
o'seldt. 

ooellns n. little eye; eyelet [ploral ocellil o'selds. 

ooelot n, (leopard-cat, tiger-cat) 'esi-lat, 'oo-si-let. 

ooher n. [also spelt ochre, okerl 'oo-k^z. 

ooherons adj. of the nature of or containing ocher; ocher- 
colord [synonymous cognates ochreous, ochrousi 'oo-ka-ras. 

oohery adj. ocher-colord ; of the nature of ocher [synony- 
mous cognates ochry, ochreyl 'oo-k^-zi. 

oohreons adj. 'ao-k^i-as. same meaning as ocherous. 

oorea n. sheath of a stem or seta; bird's boot [also spelt och- 
rea; ploral ocreael /eksi-a, 'oo-ksi-a. 

ootagon n. (eight-angled figure) 'ekta-gen. 

ootasonal adj. (eight-angled; eight-sided) ek^taegd-nl, ek- 
'taega-nal. 

octahedron n. eight-sided solid [also spelt octahedron; syn- 
onymous cognates octaedron, octoedron; ploral octahedrons, 
octahedral ektd'hii-dran. 

ootastyle adj. having eight columns in front or at the end 
[also spelt octostylel 'ekta-stail. 

octave n. (period of eight days; group of eight lines; note; 
tone-group) 'ek-tev. 

octavo n. book-size [ploral octavos! ©k'tee-vo, ek'ta:-vo. 

octet n. composition for eight voices, etc.; group of eight 
lines [also spelt octette, octetti ek'tet. 

octogenarian adj. (of the age of eighty years) ektd-dsi- 
'ne:-ri-an. 

octogenary adj. (octogenarian) ek'tedsi-ne^i, ek'tedsi-nazri, 
'ektadsi-ne^i ; (improperly) ekta'dsii-na-zri. 

octogynons adj, having eight pistils [synonymous cognate 
octagynousi ek'tedsi-nas. 

j ye, ccure; 5 *fie, thin; ^^lsmt^, ^"si^^N ^ sKoe, t^ c/»ew ; 
wzc'hen; ry s\ng\ u "whoevet, \Tca.c\., viiuW, vy>\\oo\, -s.Kv ^\^ee* 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oeria\, xbut, o*. doox, ^ot».o, vi,>ac^, %.^^aX&\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 369 

ootoped n. eight-footed animal or thing [synonymous cog- 
nate octopede'] 'okta-ped. 

ootopns n. eight-armd cephalopod [plural octopuses, octopi, 
octopodes"} 'okta-pas, ok'too-pas. 

octoroon n. (person having one-eighth negro blood) ekts- 
'^oun. 

octroi n. (tax) ek'tjuje, 'ek-tjei. 

octnple adj, (eightfold) 'ektQo-pd}. 

ocnlar adj. (of the eye; visual; visible) 'ekqoA^z. 

od n. (a supposed force) ed, ood. 

odal n. (shrub) 'oo-dsl, 'edsl. 

odalisk n. female slave or concubine [also spelt odalisque, 
odalisc"] 'oo-da-hsk. 

odd adj, (not even; single; peculiar) ed. 

ode n. (poem) ood. 

odeon n. 'oo-di-an, oMii-sn, o'4ii-6n. same meaning as ode- 
um, 

odenm n. music-hall [synonymous cognate odeon; plural 
odeal o'dii-3m. 

odic adj. (of the supposed force od) 'odik, 'oo-dik. 

odio adj. (of an ode) 'oo-dik. 

odions adj. (hateful; exciting odium) 'oo-di-ss, (rarely) 'oo- 
djas; (vulgarly) 'oo-dsas. 

odinm n. (hatred; opprobrium) 'oo-di-dm. 

odize V, charge with odic force [also, rarely, spelt odisel 'ed- 
aiz, 'e-daiz, 'oo-daiz. 

odontalgia n (toothache) o-den't^ldsa, o-den'taeldsi-d. 

odor n. scent, smell [also spelt odourl 'oo-dae. 

odoriferons adj, (bearing an odor; odorous) odd'nfs-^as. 

odorless adj, [also spelt odourless} 'oo-ds^-lss. 

odorons adj, (emitting an odor; fragrant) 'oo-da-rss. 

oecolosy n. i'keld-dsi. see ecology. 

oedema n. I'dii-ms. see edema, 

o'er adv. (over) o:z. 

oesophagns n. I'sefs-gss. see esophagus. 

oestms n. (gadfly; sting; stimulus; oestrum) 'ii-st£9s, 'est£3s. 

of prep, ev, (when unstrest) av (and, dialectally) 9. 

off adv., prep. e:f, (when unstrest) of. 

offal n, (refuse, waste) 'e:-fal, 'ofal. 

offense n. stumbling-block; attack; act of offending; mis- 
demeanor [also spelt offence} s'fents, a'fens. 

offensible adj, formerly, offensiv; later, liable to take of- 
fense [also, formerly, spelt offencible"] d'fensa-bdl. 

c: law, b: f Mr, ae cat, e hot, oi hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
Ungth-mark (:) indicates that the ptecedixiv^ ^QiMtA \^ V»TkJ%.\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on >i3ii^ i«kWsyw\XL% ««j^^aM«^ 



370 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

offensive adj. aggressiv; displeasing [also spelt offensiv 

and, fermerly, offencive} 9'fentsiv, s'fensiv. 
offer V. present; give [past participle and preterit offered, 

offerdi 'or-fa?, {when less strest) 'ef^z. 
office n. service; position; business-place [also spelt off is] 

'o*— ITS 

official n. (officer) a'fijal. 

officialise v, [also spelt officialisel d'fiSs-laiz. 

officiate v, (discharge an office) s'fiSi-et. 

officinal adj, (of an herb, plant, drug) s'fisi-n!, efi'sai-nl. 

officious* adj. (attentiv ; meddlesome) a'f iSss. 

offspring n. (progeny, issue) 'e:f-sp3ii). 

oft adv, (often) e:ft. 

often adv. (many times; frequently) 'oi-fan, (when less 
strest) 'ofan; (tn parts of the north of. England and Scot- 
land, and the north of Ireland, whence also by some in 
America) 'oif-tan, 'e:f-tn. 

oftentimes adv, (many times; often) e:-f3n'taimz, (when 
less strest) efan'taimz; (anteriorly) 'oi-fan-taimz. 

ogee n. (double curve) o'dsii, 'oo-dsi. 

ogham n. old British and Irish alfabet [also spelt ogam, 
ogum, oghumi 'egam. 

ogive n. (pointed arch) 'Do-dsaiv, o'dsaiv, 'oo-dsiv. 

ogle V. (cast amorous glances; make eyes at; eye) 'oo-gal. 

ogre n. (man-eating monster) 'oo-gsz. 

ogreish adj, ogre-like [synonymous cognate ogrishi 'oo-ga- 

ogress n. (in heraldry, roundel sable; pellet) 'oo-gzis. 

ogress n. (female ogre) 'oo-gzis. 

oil interj. see O. 

oliin n. (unit of electric resistance) oom. 

olio interj, expressing surprise, taunting, exultation, etc. [also 
spelt O'ho, O ho, oh hoi o'hDO. 

oiliness n. (oily quality, etc.) 'ei-h-nis. 

oillet n. eyelet; loophole [also spelt oylet, oeilette and, for- 
merly, oilet, oeillet] 'ei-ht. 

okapi n. (African quadruped) dlca^pi. 

okra n. plant [synonymous cognate okrol 'oo-k^a, 'oksa. 

old adj. (that has livd long; ancient, etc.) aold, (when Mit- 
strest) old, ol. 

olden adj. (of a bygone age; ancient) 'ool-dn, 'ool-dan. 

old-fasUoned adj. ooWfaeJand, (assumptivly) 'oold-fajand. 

oleag^inons adj. (oily, fatty) oli'aedsi-nas. 

f yCf gcure; 5*/ie, thin*, ^a-SMxe, d-sio^; S^shoe, tS chew; 
wwhen; losing', u whoever, ixe^LCl, ^iuW, vy>\iooV \\x, \\^ee\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, /.but. ;>*.Aoot. -aoitio, ^\ic^. ^^%a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 371 

oleander n. (shrub) oU'sends?; {less properly) 'oo-H-aends?. 

oleaster n. (wild olive) oli'aestd?. 

olef iant adj, (oil-making) o1ii-fi-9nt, 'oo-h-fai-ant, o'lefi-snt, 
(rarely) 'oh-fai-ant. 

oleic adj. (of oil; fatty) o'hi-ik, 'oo-li-ik, {rarely) 'eli-ik. 

olein n. (principle of oils and fats; elain) 'oo-h-in. 

oleo n. (oleomargarine) '30-H-o. 

oleomargarine n. artificial butter [also, sometimes, spelt 
oleomargarin} oli-o'mair-gs-ein, oli-D'ma:?-ga-^in ; (less prop- 
erly) oli-o'ma:^-d33-^in. 

olfactory adj. (of smell) orfaekta-^i, (assutnptivly) el'faektaei, 
(rapidly) erfaektji. 

olibanum n. (gum-resin) o'hbd-nsm. 

oligarchy n. (government by the few; small body of exclu- 
siv rulers) 'eh-ga^ki. 

oligemia n. deficiency of blood [also spelt oligaemial eh- 
'd5ii-mi-9. 

olio n. hodgepodge, farrago, medley [also spelt ogliol 'oo-h-o. 

olive n, tree; fruit; color [also spelt olivl 'ohv, 

olivet n. (olive-grove) 'oh-vit. 

olivet n. olive, an oval button; false pearl [synonymous cog- 
nate olivettel 'eh-vet. 

olivil n. substance from olive-tree gum [also spelt olivile} 
'eh-vil. 

olivine n. olive-green chrysolite [also, sometimes, spelt oli- 
vini 'eh-vin, 'eh-vain. 

ollahm n. learned man [also, sometimes, spelt ollav, ollave, 
ollatnl 'elav, 'elam. 

oUa podrida n. (Spanish meat-dish; hodgepodge, olio) eld- 
po'drii-da. 

olympiad n. (period of four years between successiv Olym- 
pian games) o'hmpi-aed, o'hmpi-ad, 

ombre n. card-game [also, sometimes, spelt otnber; synony- 
mous cognate hombre} 'emba?, 'oom-bza. 

omega n. (Greek letter; last word) o'mii-ga, o'mega, 'oo-mi- 
ga. 

omelet n. dish made of eggs, etc. [also spelt omelettel 'emd- 
lat, 'emlat. 

omen n. (presage, augury) 'oo-man. 

omicron n. (Greek letter) 'emi-ksen, o'mai-k^an. 

ominons adj. (of omen; of evil omen) 'emi-nss, (assutnp- 
tivly) 'ominas. 

omissible adj. (capable of being omitted) o'misd-bsh 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, © hot, ei hoy ; a: for, go now, a: osk, ai ktte; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceAiTv^. ^Ci>rcv^ \s Vs.TL"se% 
stress-mark () indicates chief stress on t\i^ ieJ^or^vcv^ ^"^"^tJc^r.* 



372 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

omit V. (leave out) o'mit, {when less strest) d'mit. 
onmeity n, allness [synonymous cognate omnietyl om'nii-X' 

ti. 
onuiiety n. em'nai-i-ti. same meaning as omneity. 
omnipoteiiLt adj. (almighty, all-powerful) em'nipa-tnt, eoH 

'nips-tdnt; (assumptivly) om'nipdtnt, orn'mpstdnt. 
omnisoieiiLoe n. (infinit knowledge) om'niSsns, em'niSi-ans; 

(less properly) om'nisQdns, em'nisi-9ns. 
omoplate n. shoulder-blade, scapula [synonymous cognate 

omoplat'] 'oo-ma-pz-eet. 
on prep, (upon, at, etc.) en, (when unstrest) an, n. 
onaser n. (wild ass) 'ena-d33?. 
onaAism n. (masturbation) 'oo-nd-nizdni. 
onoe adv, (one time) wAnts, (also, and in Britain normally) 

WAns, (also, sometimes, when unstrest) wans. 
one noun-pron. (individual, somebody, something) wau, (when 

unstrest) wan. 
one-horse adj. wAn'he:7s, (assumptivly) 'wAii-he:7s. 
oner n. (slang) one who is unique [also spelt one-er} 'wAnar. 
onera n. (plural of onus) 'ena-za. 
onerons adj, (burdensome) 'ena-^as; (assumptivly) 'enasas; 

(less properly) 'oo-na-^as. 
oneself noun-pron. (one's, self) wAn'seif, (with less stress) 

wan'self. 
one-sided adj. wAn'sai-did, (assumptivly) 'wAU-sai-did. 
onion n. (plant) 'Anjan. 

only adj., adv., conj. 'oo-nh ; (dialectally) 'anh. 
onomatopoeia n. echoism [synonymous cognate onomato- 

poesis"} ona-maeta'pii-a, ena-maeta'pii-ja, a-nomata'pii-ja. 
onomatopoeic adj, ena-mxta'pii-ik, a-nemata'pii-ik. 
onomatopoesis n. (onomatopoeia) ona-mxta-po'ii-sis, 

o-nemata-po'ii-sis. 
onto prep, [also spelt on to} 'onto, (when less strest) 'enta. 
onns n. burden [plural onera} 'ao-nas. 
onyx n. agate-like quartz [also, formerly, spelt onix} 'eniks, 

'oo-niks. 
oolite n. roe-stone [also spelt oolite} 'oo-a-lait. 
oology n. study of birds'eggs; egg-collecting [also spelt oo/o- 

gy} o'©b-d3i. 
oolong n. tea [also spelt oulong} 'uu-lei]. 
ooze V, exude [past participle and preterit oozed, ooed} ouz. 
opacity n. (darkness; opaqueness; lack of transparency) 

o'paesi-ti. 

J yCf ccure; d *He, QtKin; jarure, ds/oy; \shoe, tScfcew; 
wwhen; rjsin^; u whoever, iteacl, viluW., viAaiiooV vit^ xis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e oerial, a. but, ;)-.^oot» ^qtio, t\ie^^ ^^^««.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 373 

opal »• (quartz-like hydrous silica; geili) 'oo-pol; (improperly) 

opAlMloanoe n. (opaline or milky iridescence) opalesdns. 

opaline adj. (of opal) 'oo-ps-lin, 'oo-pd-hn, 'oo-pd-lain. 

opalize v. [also spelt opalise'\ '30-p3-}aiz. 

opaqne adj. (dark; not transparent) o'peek. 

open adj., n., v. [as verb, past participle and preterit opened, 

opendl 'oo-pan, (when unstrest) 'oo-pm. 
open-handed adj, 30-p3n'h£ndid, (assumptivly) 'oo-psn- 

hsendid. 
opening n. (action of the verb open; vacant space, etc.) 'oo- 

ps-niq, 'oop-nir), 'oo-pNiq, (sometimes) 'oo-pm-iq. 
opera n. (musical drama) 'epa-ra, (anteriorly) 'epa^a, 'ep33. 
operative adj.,n. [also spelt operativ"} 'epa-zetiv; (also) 

'opa?a-tiv, (anteriorly) 'epa-rativ, 'epsativ. • 

opliite n. (serpentine marble) 'e-fait, 'oo-fait. 
ophthalniio adj. ef'Oselmik; (less properly) ep'Gaelmik. 
opiate n, (medicin containing opium; narcotic) 'oo-pi-et, 'do- 

pi-3t. 
opinable adj. (capable of being opined or thought) o'pai-na- 

bal; (formerly) 'epina-bal. 
opine V. (express an opinion; think; suppose) 3'pain. 
opinion n. (what one thinks; belief, notion) a'pinjan. 
opodeldoc n, (liniment) eps'del-dek. 

opossnm n. marsupial [synonymous cognate possumi d'pesam. 
opponent n. (antagonist, adversary) s'pao-nant; (improper^ 

ly) 'opa-nant. 
opportune adj. (fit; timely) eps^'tQoun, (sometimes, assump- 
tivly) 'epaz-tgun. 
opportunity n. (opportuneness; chance) epa^'tQou-ni-ti. 
opposite adj, placed over against; contrary; reverst [also 

spelt opposit"] ^epa-zit, (assumptivly) 'epazit, 'epsit. 
oppositifplions adj, (situated opposit a leaf) a-peziti'fao- 

H-as. 
opprobrinm n. (disgrace, infamy, reproach) a'psoo-bn-am. 
oppngn V. (fight against; assail) a'p^oun. 
oppngnant adj, (opposing; repugnant) a'pxgnant. 
oppngner n. (one who oppugns; opponent) a'pQou-nae. 
optimise v, act as an optimist; make the best of [also spelt 

optimise^ 'epti-maiz. 
opnlent adj. (rich, wealthy; splendid) 'ep^o-lant. 
opnsole n. (opuscule) 3'pAsal, o'pAsl. 
opnscnle n. (a small work) 3'pA-skQui. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ax kite ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the pteceduift ^^omtA -ia \wv.%\ 
fitress-mark () indicates chief stress on X)^^ iel^o^vci^ ^f^ai^^R-x 



374 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

or conj. e:z, {when less strest) e?, az. 

oral adj, (spoken, verbal; of the mouth) 'oi-z^, 

orangeade n. (beverage) ezmd^'ced. 

OraiLgeism n. principle of the Orange Association, or of 

Protestant ascendancy in Ireland [also spelt Orangism] 

'erin-dsizam. 
oraiLgery n. (place for rearing orange-trees) 'ezindsa-si, 

'ezindyzi. 
orans-outang n. anthropoid ape [also spelt orang-utang, 

ourang-outang; synonymous cognate orang-utanj o'zaeqo-taei], 

o-zaeqo'taer). 
orate v. (hold forth, speechify) 'o:-zet, o'zeet. 
oratorize v, play the orator; speechify [also spelt oratorise] 

'ezata-zraiz. 
ore n. cetacean [also, formerly, spelt orki e:zk. 
oroein n. (red coloring-matter from orcin) 'o:z-si-in. 
orchestra n. (part of a theater; company of musicians, etc.) 

'oizr-ki-stja ; (less properly) ez'kestja. 
orchestral adj. (of an orchestra) cz'kest^dl. 
orchid n. (a plant of the Orchideae or orchis order; an or- 
chidaceous plant) '©:z-kid. 
orchil n. dye [synonymous cognate archW} '©:z-tSi}, 'eiz-kih 
orchilla n. orchil; also, orchilla-weed [synonymous cognate 

orchellal ez'tjila. 
orchis n. (plant of the genus Orchis or of the order Orchi- 
deae; typical orchid) 'e:r-kis. 
orcin n. colorless substance from orchilla-weed; orcinol [also 

spelt or cine'] 'e:z-sin. 
ordeal n. (trial; trying experience) 'o:r-di-al, 'e:z-dil; (less 
. properly) oz'dii-al. 
ordinal adj. (marking position in an order or series; of an 

order) 'oiz-dn-al, 'e:?-di-n}, 'oiz-di-nal. 
ordinal n, (rule-book; service-book) 'eiz-dn-^l, 'o:z-di-nl, 'e:z- 

di-nal. 
ordinance n. (regulation; decree) 'oir-dn-ans, 'oir-di-nsns. 
ordinarily adv. (usually, commonly) 'e:z-dn-ezi-h, 'o:r-di- 

nezi-h; (occasionally or vulgarly) ©zdn'ezi-h, ezdi'neziAi. 
ordinate adj. (orderly, regular) 'e:z-dn-3t. 
ordinate v. (order, regulate; ordain; <:oordinate) 'e:z:-dn-et, 

'©:z-di-net. 
ordnance n. (artillery) '©:rd-n3ns. 
ordnre n. (dung) 'eiz-d^^z, 'o:z-dJ3z. 
ore n. (metalliferous mineral) o:z. 

J yc, 5 cure; 5 the, Q thin*, -^^lsmt^, dT^foy; S j/toe, tScfcew; 
w when; ij s\ng\ u whoever, iicsicX., xiiuW, vs>\\oo\, -s.Vx, ^\%€€; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e oerial, a. but, ^-.^oot, -a^Tvo^ ^.\ic^, ^^%<i!«;\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 375 

organizatioai n. [also, spelt organisation! ezrgdni'zee-Ssn, 
ergs-nai'zee-.Jan. 

organize v. [also spelt organise'} 'e:z-g3-naiz. 

organzine n. best silk thread [also, sometimes, spelt organ- 
sin} 'ei^-gan-zin, 'e:r-g3n-zin. 

orgeat n. (syrup) 'e:?-3aet, 'oie-dsi-at, ez^^a: . 

org^nette n. (mechanical musical instrument) e^gi'nct. 

orgy n. rite; debauchery [also spelt orgie; ploral orgies} 'e:z- 
dsi; (erroneously) *e:z-gi. 

oribi n. antelope [also spelt orebi; synonymous cognates 
ordbie, ourebi, oribe} 'o?i-bi. 

oriolialo n. (some yellow ore or alloy of copper prized by 
the ancients) 'o^i-kaelk. 

oriel n. (portico, recess) 'oi-d-al. 

orient n,, adj. (east) 'oi-ri-ant. 

orient v, (place so as to face the east; find the bearings of) 
'o:-^i-ent, o:-^i'ent. 

orientalise v. [also spelt orientalise} o?i'entl-aiz. 

orientate v. (orient) 'oi-^i-an-tet, od'en-tet. 

orifice n. opening, aperture [also spelt orifis} 'ezi-iis. 

oriflamme n. [also spelt oriflamb and, formerly, oriflam} 
'e^i-ftaem. 

original adj, {pi the origin ; first) o'zridsi-nl, o'^idsi-nal ; {as- 
sumptivly) o'ridsinl, o'^idsinal; (sometimes, rapidly) 
D'zridsnl, o'zid^n^, 

orillion n. part of the defense of a bastion [synonymous cog- 
nates orillon, oreillon} o'zili^n, 

oriole n. (bird) 'o:-?i-ol. 

orison n, (prayer) 'o^i-zan, 'o^i-son. 

ormoln n. (gold-leaf; gilded bronze, etc.) 'oi^-ma-lu, 'o:?-m3- 
Iju, o:^-ma'lou. 

ornament n. (accessory; decoration) 'e:?-n3-m3nt. 

ornament v. (adorn) 'e.'^-na-mant, e^nd'ment. 

ornate adj, (ornamented; flowery) e^'neet, 'o:r-net. 

omithiclinite n. (fossil footmark) o?ni'6ik-nait ; (less prop- 
erly) o^'niOik-nait. 

Omithogean adj. (of the Ornithogaea or New Zealand re- 
gion) o^niOa'dsii-an, o^-nai-Oo'dsii-an, e^-nai-Go'gii-sn. 

ornitliology n. (science of birds) o?ni'6el3-d3i. 

ornitliomancy n. (divination by means of birds; augury) 
'oi^-niOa-maensi, e^'niGa-maensi, ©^'nai-6o-maensi. 

omithorliynclins n. (duckbill) e^niOa'^irikds, ez-nai-6o- 
'^iqkas. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao noiu, ^\ a^^ ^^V\\s:% 
length-mark (:) indicates that the pteceditvtt ^ovrcv^ ^a ^^^^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on )3cie io^o^va% «r^^^^^' 



376 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

oroide n. gold-colord alloy of copper and zink [also, some- 
times, spelt oroid'] 'o:-zeid, 'o:-zo-id, 'oi-zo-aid. 
orotund adj. (full ; rich : said of the voice) 'o:-79-tAnd, (less 

often) 'ez9-tAnd; {also sometimes, finally) o:-z9'XAnd, ez9- 

'tAnd. 
Orphean adj, (of Orpheus) 'e:?-fi-3n, ez'fii-dn. 
orplurey n. gold embroidery; border; band [also spelt or- 

fray"] 'or^-fsi, 'e:z-izc. 
orpin n» plant [also spelt orpine"] 'e:7>pin. 
orrery n. (device to show the motions of the planets) *ez9' 

zt. 
orthoolase n. (potash feldspar; orthose) 'e:2:-03-kz,es, 'e:z- 

Gd-kLez. 
orthodromy n. (sailing on a great circle) e^'Oedrs-mi, 'e:z- 

Ga-dromi, 'eir-Oa-dremi. 
orthoepio adj, of orthoepy [also spelt orthoepici e:7-0o'epik. 
orthoepist n. one verst in orthoepy [also spelt orthoepisf] 

e^'6oo-i-pist, 'o:?-Go-epist, 'e:?-Go-ipist. 
orthoepy n. phonology; correct pronunciation [also spelt 

orthoepy"} es'Goo-i-pi, 'e:?-Go-epi, 'e:^-Go-ipi. 
orthognathons adj. (straight-jawd) er^Gegns-Gss, esOag'nee- 

Gas, (rarely) erGag'naeGas. 
orthogonal adj. (right-angled) ez'Qegs-ni. 
orthographize v, follow or apply the rules of orthography; 

spell (a word) correctly [also spelt orthographise"] ez'Qegz^- 

faiz. 
orthography n. (correct or conventional spelling; spelling; 

also, orthographic projection) e^'6eg?3-fi. 
orthopaedia n. (orthopedy) e:2r-G9pi'dai-3. 
orthopedic adj, [also spelt orthopaedic"} ezGd'pii-dik, erGa- 

'pedik. 
orthopedist n. [also spelt orthopaedist} ee'Gepi-dist, ezrGd- 

'pii-dist, 'e:r-Ga-pidist. 
orthopedy n. correction of deformities in children; orthope- 
dic surgery [also spelt orthopaedy} 'eie-Ga-pidi. 
orthopterons adj. (straight-wingd) ez'Geptd-ras. 
orthotropons adj. (growing vertically or straight) ez'Getss- 

p9S. 

OS n. bone [ploral ossa} es. 
OS n. mouth [ploral ora} os. 
OS n. [ploral osar} es. same meaning as osar. 
osar n. kame, eskar, os; also, ploral of os [when used as sin- 
gular, ploral osars} 'oo-sc?. 



/ ye, g cure ; 5 the, thin •, -s slsmt^, d-s joy ; \ shoe, tS c/iew ; 
zi/hen 
o poetic 



w when ;' t) sing ; u whoever, i tcsicl, xs iu\V vk>\iooV ^\\.; ^^«; 
!c; 9 0v^r, e aerial, Kbul, ^-.doot. ^qt».o, t\ie^^ ^^^^fiyt\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 377 

osoillate v. (swing back and forth; vibrate; fluctuate) 'esi- 

let. 
oscine adu oscinine [also spelt osc\n'\ 'esin. 
Oscines n,pU (the song-birds) 'esi-niz. 
osoinine adj. (of the oscins or song-birds; oscin, oscinian) 

'esi-nain, 'esi-nin. 
osier n. willow [also spelt ozierl '00-33?, 'oo-zi-a?. 
Osmanli adj.,n. Ottoman [also spelt Osmanliel es'maenh. 
osmic adj. (of osmium) 'ezmik, 'esMik. 
osmimn n. (metal) 'ezmi-am, 'esMi-am. 
osmose n. (diffusion thru a septum) 'ez-mos, 'es-mos. 
osmosis n. (osmose) ez'moo-sis, es'm30-sis. 
osmotio adj, (of osmose) ez'metik, es'metik. 
osprey n. (fish-hawk) 'esp^i. 
ossean n. (osseous fish) 'esi-dn. 
ossein n. bone-cartilage [also spelt osseinel 'esi-in. 
Ossene n. one of a sect living east of the Dead Sea who 

adopted a form of Christianity from the Essenes [synony- 
mous cognates Ossaean, Ossen] 'e-sin. 
osseous adj. (bony; ossified; bone-like) 'esi-3s, 'es-si-3s. 
Ossianio adj, (of Ossian) e^i'senik, esi'aenik. 
ossnary n. (bone-vault; bone-urn) 'esgu-ezri. 
osteine n bony tissue [also spelt ostein'\ 'esti-in. 
osteitis n. inflammation in a bone [synonymous cognate os- 

titisi esti'ai-tis. 
ostensible adj. (formerly, presentable; conspicuous; now, 

pretended, profest) os'tensa-bal. 
ostent n. (sign, portent, wonder, prodigy) es'tent. 
ostent v,,n, (display) es'tent. 

ostentation n. (show; parade) estn'tee-Jan, estan'tee-San. 
osteologry n. (science of bones; skeletal system) ©sti'ola-dsi. 
osteopathy n. (bone-disease ; bone-cure) esti'op3-0i. 
ostler n. 'esta?. see hostler. 

ostracism n. (temporary banishment; exclusion) 'est£3-siz3m. 
ostracize v. banish; exclude from favor, etc. [also spelt 

ostracisel 'estsa-saiz. 
ostrich n. (large ratite bird) 'ostjitS. 
otalgia n. (earache) o'taeldsa, o'taeldsi-a. 
otic adj. (of the ear) 'oo-tik, 'etik. 
otiose adj. (at rest; idle; lazy; steril; futil) 'oo-Si-os. 
otinm n. (ease; leisure) 'oo-Ji-am. 
otolith n. (ear-stone, otolite) 'DO-ta-hO. 
ottar n. 'etar. same meaning as attar. 

c: law, b: iur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte; 
Isngtb-mark (:) indicates that t\\e preee^ixvtt ^cwitA ^^ ^^J"^*^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief streaa on \!iti^ \??^o^vcv% %ri\Sa2cJifc' 



378 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

otter n. (aquatic mammal) 'et^z, 

otto n. 'eto. same meaning as attar. 

>iicl& interj. (expressing pain or annoyance) aot$. 

ouch n. (clasp, buckle, fibula, brooch; setting) aot$. 

ouf interj. expressing a sense of stifling [also spelt ouff\ aof 

ought n. (cipher, zero) c:t. see naught, 

ought n. (anything) c:t. see aught, 

ought V. (preterit of owe\ be bound in duty; be fit; be- 
hoove) c:t, {when unstrcst) ct, c. 

ought n. dialectal (possession) c:t. see aught, 

ounoe n. (unit of weight) aonts, aons. 

ounce n. (lynx) aonts, aons. 

ouph «, [also spelt ouphe and, formerly, owf, ouf\ aof, ouf. 
same meaning as oaf, 

our adj,'pron, (of us) ao?, (when unstrest) az, 

ourself noun-pron. [ploral ourselves, ourselvsl ao^'sclf. 

ourselves noun-pron, (ploral of ourself) aoe'sclvz, (jvhen 
less strest) a^'selvz. 

oust V. (eject) aost; (improperly) oust. 

ont-and-ont adv. (thoroly; downright) ao-tn'aot. 

out-and-out adj, (complete; thorogoing) 'ao-tn-aot. 

out-bound adj, aot'baond, (assumptivly) 'aot-baond. 

outdoor adj\ aot'do:?, (assumptivly) 'aat-do:2. 

outdoors adv. aut'd3:7z, (when less strest) ao'd3:zz. 

outflonv n, (efflux) 'aot-ftoo. 

outf lomr V. (flow out) aot'ftoo. 

outgeneral v, [past participle and preterit outgeneraled, 
out gener ailed, outgenerald} aot'dsena-ral. 

outlier n. (one who lies, sleeps, or lodges out; outsider; out- 
lying deer; boulder; outlying part; set-line) 'aot-lai-a?. 

outlook V. (outstare; look out or forth) aut'lok. 

outlook n. (watch; prospect) 'aot-luk. 

out-of-the-'way adj. (remote, secluded; odd; devious) ao- 
tada'wee, (assumptivly) 'ao-tada-wee. 

outrageous adj, (excessiv; violent; atrocious) aot'ree-dsss. 

outrd adj. (eccentric; exaggerated) u'tjee. 

outright adj. (straight on; direct; out-and-out; complete) 
aotVait, (assumptivly) 'aot-^ait. 

outside n. aot'said, (anteriorly) 'aot-said. 

outside adj. aot'said, (assumptivly) 'aot-said. 

outside adv. aot'said. 

outspoken adj, (candid, frank; distinct; spoken out) aot- 
'spoo-kan, (assumptivly) 'aot-spoo-kan. 

j ye, g cure ; btht, 6 thin ; 3 a<srure, ds ;oy ; S shoe, t$ chcvf ; 
wzvhen; iis\ng\ u whoever, iTcsicl, viiuW, vy>3i^ooV ■5.<t, lis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, a. but, :>*.Aoot, -^qtvo, «.\ie^, ^.^%cXsl\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 37$ 

ousel n. blackbird, merle [also spelt ousell 'ou-zdl. 

ovaxy n. (organ in which ova, eggs, or ovules are produced; 
germen) 'oo-va-^i, (rapidly) 'oo-v^i. 

over prep, (above, etc.) 'oo-v9^, (when less strest) 'ov92. 

OTorall n. (covering; outer garment, as a cloak, ulster, water- 
proof; tunic, blouse; in ploral, outside trousers, etc.) 'oo- 
va?-c:l; {catachrestically, in the plural sense of outside trou- 
sers) 'oo-va^-hc:lz. 

over-all adj. (including everything between extreme points) 
oo-vae'c:!, (sometimes, assumptivly) 'oo-v3^-c:l. 

overcast adj. (cast away; clouded over; sewn by overcasting) 
0V33'ka:st, {assumptivly) 'oo-v9^-ka:st. 

overdraft n. [also spelt overdraught^ 'oo-v32-dra:ft. com- 
pare draft, 

overhaul v. (slacken, etc.; pull asunder in order to examin, 
etc.; overtake) ova^'hc:!. 

OTerhanl n. (action of overhauling) 'oo-vae-hc:!. 

OTerhead adv. [also spelt overhedl ova^'hed. 

OTerhead adj. [also spelt overhedl ovd^'hed, (assumptivly) 
'oo-v3?-hed. 

overpass v. pass over; cross [past participle and preterit 
overpassed, overpasti ov3^'pa:s. 

overreach v, (reach over; overtake; strike the hind foot 
against the fore foot; outdo) ova'^iitj. 

oversea adj, (transmarine; foreign) 'oo-vazr-sii. 

oversea adv, (across the sea; abroad; overseas) oo-vaz'sii. 

oversee v. (survey; inspect; supervise; catch sight of; for- 
get) ova^'sii. 

overseer n. (supervisor) ov3?'sii-9?, (anteriorly) 'oo-v3?-8ii- 
9z; (also) ovsz'sv.z, 'oo-va^-siizr. 

overslaugh v, (pass over, skip ; ignore ; hinder) '30-v37-slc: , 

0V3?'SLC: . 

overt adj. (open, patent, plain) o'ver^t, 'oo-vB?t. 

overture n. (formal proposal) 'oo-var-tjo^, 'oo-var-tQo?. 

overnrrought adj. (workt up; over-excited; over-labord) 
oy^z'zct. 

ovine adj. (of sheep; sheep-like) 'oo-vain, 'oo-vin. 

oviparous adj, (producing ova or eggs) o'vipa-^as. 

ovoviviparous adj, producing eggs which are hatcht within 
the body of the parent [also spelt ovo-viviparous ; synony- 
mous cognate ovi-viviparousl ovo-vai'vipa-zras. 

oive V, have to pay [past participle and preterit owed, owd"] 

00. 

c: law, b: f Mr, a cat, e hot, ex hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the prccedixv^^ ^qmtA \^ \w\."Sk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \\i^ i^>\Q^va^ ««3^'!&5vs.- 



380 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

own V. have as one's own, etc. [past participle and preterit 

owned, owndl oon. 
oz n. bovine [ploral oxen"} eks. 
ozalio adj, ek'ssehk, (assumptivly) 'ek-saetik. 
ozalis n. (plant) 'eksa-hs. 
oxide n. [also, sometimes, spelt oxid and, formerly, oxyde, 

oxydl 'ek-said, (before of) 'eksid. 
oxidize v. [also spelt oxidisel 'eksi-daiz. 
ozysen n. (element) 'eksi-dsin. 
oxygenate v. 'eksidsi-net, ek'sidsi-net. 
ozygenise v, [also, rarely, spelt oxygenisel 'eksidsi-naiz, ek- 

'sidsi-naiz. 
oyer n. (criminal trial; hearing) 'oo-ja?. 
oyee inter j. hear! [also spelt oyess; synonymous cognate 

oyesi 'oo-jes, o'jes; (less properly) 'oo-jez. 
oyster n. (bivalv mollusk) 'ei-sts?. 
osooerite n. mineral wax [synonymous cognate ozokeritel 

o'zes3-?ait, oz3'si:-7ait. 
ozokerite n. o'zoo-k3-?ait, ozalci^^ait. same meaning as 

ozocerite. 
ozone n. 'oo-zon ; (less properly) o'zoon. 
«izonio adj. (of or like ozone) o'zenik, o'zoo-nik. 
ozonize v, convert into ozone; treat with ozone [also spelt 

ozonise! 'oo-z3-naiz. 



paoa n. (spotted cavy) 'pa:-k3, 'pseka. 

pacha n. see pasha. 

pacliisi n. game [synonymous cognate parcheesil pa'tjii-zi, 

pa'tjii-si. 
paohyderni n. (thick-skind quadruped) 'paeki-dB:7m. 
pacific adj. (peace-making; calm) pa'sifik. 
pacification n. (action or fact of pacifying; treaty of peace) 

paesifi'kee-San, pa-sifi'kee-Jan. 
pacificator n. (peace-maker) ps'sifi-kets?. 
pacificatory adj. pa'sifika-to^i, pa'sifika-ta^i. 
package n. (packing of goods; packet, parcel) 'paekids. 
packed adj, [also spelt packtl paekt. 
padelion n. obsolete (lady's-mantle, a plant) 'paedi-lai-an, 

paedi'lai-9n, (rarely) pa'dii-li-an. 
padre n. (father) 'pa:-dci. 
padrone n. master [plural padroni} pd'dr30-ni. 

J ye, 5 cure; 5 *he, tH\n-, ^sicuTe, ^-si^^N \sKoe, tlchtyr; 
wwhen; T)sing\ u whoever, itcslcX., xiiuW, \5>xiooV t.\x, vs^^ee-, 
o poetic; oov^r, e oerial, Kbut, ;>-.dooT, ^ot».o, tt\ic^> ^^^oxsl-. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 381 



paean n. (hymn; joyous song) 'pii-an. 

paedology n. pi'deld-dsi. see pedology, 

paeon n. (foot of four syllables) 'pii-an. 

paganize v, [also spelt paganise"] 'pee-ga-naiz. 

pageant n. (show) 'pxdssnt, 'pee-dsant. 

pageantry n. 'pxd33n-tj;i, 'pee-d33n-t£i. 

pagination n. (paging) pxdsi'nee-Ssn. 

PaUavi n. Old Persian, etc. [also spelt Pahlavi; synonymous 

cognates Pehlevi, Pehlevi, Pehlvil 'pa:-la-vi. 
paidolog^y n. pai'deld-dsi. see pedology, 
pail n. (vessel, water-pail) peel. 

paillasse n. mattress [also spelt palliasse} psel'jaes, 'pxH-ss. 
pain n. (suffering) peen. 
pained ad;, affected with pain; hurt; grievd [also, sometimes, 

spelt paindl peend, (also, in poetry) 'pee-nid. 
pair n. (two of a kind; couple; brace) pe:z. 
pajamas n.pl. [also spelt pa jamahs; synonymous cognates 

pyjamahs, paijamas, pcijammahs, piejamahsl pa'dsai-m.az. 
palace n. (royal or official residence) 'paehs. 
paladin n. (knight; champion) 'paeld-din. 
palaestra n. pd'iestsd, ps'hi-stsd. same meaning as palestra. 
palankeen n. litter, palki [also spelt palanquin} paelsn'kiin. 
palas n. dhak-tree [synonymous cognates pulas, palash, pit- 

lashl p3la:s, 'paebs. 
palatable adj. (savory) 'pselstd-bdl, (assumptivly) 'paels-tdbsl. 
palatal adj. (of the palate) 'paeb-tl. 
palate n. (roof of the mouth) 'paeht. 
palatial adj. (of a palace) palee-Ssl. 
palatinate n. (district of a palatine) palaetn-dt, pdlaeti-nat, 

'paelati-net. 
palatine n. (of the palace of the Caesars; palatial) 'paels- 

tain, 'paela-tin. 
palatine adj., n. [also, sometimes, spelt palatini 'pseld-tain, 

'pael9-tin. 
pidaver n. (talk; jaw; soft soap) pa1a:-v33, pa'lai-va?; (vul- 
garly) palaeva?. 
palazzo n. (palace) pa'}a:t-s3. 
pale adj, (pallid, wan; light) peel. 
palea n. bract; palet [plural paleael 'pee-li-a. 
paleobotany n. science of extinct or fossil plants [also 

spelt palaeobotany'] peli-oTDOtn-i, paeli-o'betn-i. 
paleography n. ancient writing [also spelt palaeography} 

peli'egra-fi, prcH'oora-fi. 

c: laiv, b: fMr, le cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, qo tvoiu, ^\ a^V., \i.A.V.\\s.\ 
)cngth-mark (:) indicates that the precedixva ^a>rci^ -» ^?'^"* 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on Wie \€\\oH<vtv^ vjv^'^w^"^' 



382 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

paleolithio adj, of oldest stone implements [also spelt pa- 

laeolithicl peli-a'hOik, paeii-d'hOik. 
paleontology n. science of extinct life [also spelt palaeon- 

tologyl peli-en'tel3-d3i, paeli-en'tela-dsi. 
paleozoic adj. of ancient life [also spelt Paleosoic, palaeo- 

soic. Palaeozoic'^ peli-a'zoo-ik, paeli-a'zoo-ik. 
palestra n. wrestling-school; gymnasium [also spelt palaes- 

tral p9lest£9. 
palet n. (bract; palea) 'pee-ht. 
paletot n. (garment) 'paeh-to. 

palette n. painter's tablet [also spelt palletl 'paeht. 
palfrey n. (saddle-horse) 'pcil-fsi, 'paelfsi. 
pall n. (cloth; vestment) pc:l. 

palladium n. safegard [ploral palladia'} pdlee-di-sm. 
pallah n. antelope, impalla [also spelt palla; synonymous 

cognates paala, pala, phalla, phaalal 'pala. 
palled adj. flat, stale; satiated, cloyd [also spelt paid! pcild. 
pallet n. (mattress) 'paeht. 
pallet n. (tool; valve; lip on a pawl) 'paeht. 
palliate v, (excuse; mitigate) 'paeli-et. 
palliative adj. [also spelt palliativ'} 'paeii-etiv, 'paeli-3-trv. 
pall-mall n. (game) pel'mel. 
pallor n. (paleness) 'paels?. 
palm V. touch with the palm; conceal in the palm; pass off 

by trickery; bribe [past participle and preterit palmed, 

palmd"] pa:nu 
palmar adj. (of the palm of the hand) 'paelma?. 
palmate adj, (like the open palm of the hand) 'pael-met, 'psel- 

mat. 
palmer n. (pilgrim; worm) 'pa:-m3?. 
palmetto n. (dwarf fan-palm etc.) pael'meto. 
palmist n. (palmister) 'pa:-mist, 'paelmist. 
palmister n. (one who practises palmistry; chiromancer) 

'pa:-mi-st3?, 'paelmi-sta?. 
palmistry n. (chiromancy) 'pa:-mi-st£i, 'paelmi-stji. 
palmy adj. (palm-like) 'pa:-mi. 
palpable adj. (tangible; manifest) 'paelpa-bal. 
palpebral adj. (of the eyelids) 'paelpi-b^al. 
palsgrave n. (count palatine) 'pcilz-g^ev, 'pae}z-g?ev. 
palsied adj. (affected with palsy; tottering) 'pc:l-zid. 
palsy n. (paralysis) 'pc:}-zi. 
palter v. trifle; shift; equivocate [past participle and pret* 

erit paltered, palterdi 'pcl-tsz. 

J yc, ccure; b tfie, thin; ^sasure, ds/oy; ^ shoe, tS c/iew; 
wzvAen; i)s{ng; u "whoever, itcstcl, xiiuW, x5>\ioo\, -s.xv \l8«^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, KV>ut, o\ ^oot, •a^xio, ^\ie^, ^^%5^fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 383 

paltriness n. (quality of being paltry) 'pcil-tji-nis. 

paltry adj. (rubbishy; worthless) 'pc:l-tji. 

pallidal adj. (of a marsh or fen; palustral) 'paelio-dl, pa'liou- 

dl. 
palndine adj. of a marsh; paludinous; paludal [also, some- 
times, spelt paludini 'paelio-din, 'pjelio-dain. 
palnstral adj. (of marshes; paludal) pd'Ustsdl. 
palnstrine adj. palustral, paludal [also spelt palustrM p9- 

'lAstjin. 
pampas n. (ploral of pampa) 'paempsz, 'paempas. 
pampean adj, of the pampas [also spelt pampaeani pxm'pii- 

9n 'paempi-an. 
pamper v. cram with food; overindulge [past participle and 

preterit pampered, pamperdl 'paempa?. 
pampero n. (wind) pxm'pe:-zo. 
pampUet n. small treatis; fascicle [also spelt pamflet} 

'paemfi.3t. 
panace n. fabulous herb [also, formerly, spelt panaceel 

'paena-si. 
panacea n. (cure-all, catholicon) paens'sii-s. 
panache n. (plume; tuft) pd'na:^, ps'naeS. 
panada n. bread-pudding [synonymous cognates panado, pa- 

nadel pa'nar-ds. 
Panama adj. paena'ma: , (assumptivly) 'paena-ma. 
panoli «. paints, pa:ntS, pcrntS; (also, and in Britain normal- 
ly) pa:nS, pa:nS, pcinS. same meaning as paunch. 
panoheon n. bowl; pan [also spelt panchion; synonymous 

cognates panchin, panshin, panshoni 'paentjan, 'paenjan. 
panoliiiiray «. boat [synonymous cognate panswayl 'paentS-we. 
pancreas n. (sweetbread) 'paenk^i-ds, 'paegk^i-as, 'paegksi-aes. 
pancreatic adj. paenk^i'aetik, paeijk^i'aetik. 
pancreatin «. 'paenksi-a-tin, 'paeijlrei-a-tin. 
Pandean adj, of Pan [also spelt Pandaeanl paen'dii-dn, 'paen- 

di-3n. 
pandemoninm n. hell, etc. [also spelt pandaemoniumi paen- 

di'moo-ni-am. 
pandonr n. guard, etc. [also spelt pandoor, pandurl 'paen- 

do:z. 
pandox^dy n. apple pudding [synonymous cognate pandoul- 

del paen'dao-di. 
pane n. (piece; side; window-light; panel) peen. 
panegyric n. (eulogy) paeni'dsi^ik. 
panegyris n. (festal assembly) pa'nii-dsi-ris, pa'nedsi-ris. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, o hot, ox boy ; a: for, ao now, a: osk, ax ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the pteceAitv^^ ^omxv^ -v^ Vircw%\ 
stress-mark (') indicates chief stress on tVie ?€>>\cr«VR\L «1^^^^' 



384 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

panegyrist n. (encomiast, eulogist) paeni'dsi^ist, 'paeni- 

dsi^ist. 
panegyrize v. [also spelt panegyrisel 'pxnidsi-raiz. 
panegyry n. (panegyris; religious festival) 'paeni-dsin, pa- 

'nii-dsi-jTi, pa'nedsi-^i. 
panel v. [present participle paneling, panelling; past parti- 
ciple and preterit paneled, panelled, paneldl 'pxnl, 'paena!. 
pangene n. germ-cell unit [synonymous cognate pangen] 

'paen-dsin. 
pangolin n. (ant-eater) 'pxqgs-hn, pxg'goo-hn. 
panicky adj. (of panic; subject to panic) 'pxni-ki. 
panicle n. mode of inflorescence [also, formerly, spelt pan- 

nicle'l 'paeni-kal. 
pannier n. (basket) 'paeni-s?, 'paenjs?. 
panorama n. (complete or entire view; cyclorama) paena- 

'?a:-m3, paena'rai-ma ; (less properly) pxns'raemd, paena'^ee- 

ma. 
panoramic adj, (of or like a panorama) paend'raemik. ( 

pansy n. heartsease [ploral pansiesi 'paenzi. 
pant V, (breathe hard) pa:nt; (dialectally) paent, paernt. 
pantaleon n. large dulcimer [synonymous cognates panto- 

Ion, pant alone, pantaloon] paen'taeli-an. i 

pantalets n. frild drawers; bloomers [also spelt pantalettes} 

paentl'ets, paenta'lets. ' 
pantaloons n. (trousers, etc.) psentrounz, paentalounz. 
pantheism n. (doctrin of the identity of God with all things; 

also, worship of all the gods) 'paen-Oi-izam, 'paen9i-iz3ra. 
pantheon n. (temple of all the gods, etc.) 'paenOi-an, paen- 

'Oii-an. 
pantile «. curvd tile (erroneous synonymous cognate pen- 

tilel 'paen-tail. 
pantisocraoy «. (equal rule of all) paenti'sokja-si, paen-tai- 

'sek33-si. 
pantisoorat n. (advocate of pantisocracy) paen'tai-ss-k^aet. 
pantofle n. slipper [also spelt pantoffle; synonymous cog- 
nate pantoufle, pantooflel 'paenta-fal, paen'tofal. 
pantograph n. drawing-instrument [also erroneously spelt 

pantograph; erroneous synonymous cognates pantigraph, 

pentagraph, pentograph, pentegraphi 'paent3-g?a:f. 
pantomime n. (mimic actor; dumb show) 'paents-maim. 
pantomimic adj. (of a pantomime) paenta'mimik. 
pantomimist n. 'psent3-mai-mis\. 
papa n. (pope ; priest) 'pa:-p3. 

j ye, ccure; hthe, ^i\\\n\ '«,^n>vc^, ^'sw'> %shoe, tS cAew; 
w when; n sing; u whoever, itesi^iX., vi\u\\, xi>\\ooV ^\\., v^^ee; 
o poetic; a over, e oeriaV x\iul, o-.^oot, ^ot^o, ^\.c\. ^t.^yfi«.N 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 385 

papa n. father [also, formerly, spelt pappal pa'po; , 'pa:-p9 ; 
{dialectally) 'popa, 'pApa. 

papa n. (baboon; bird) 'pee-p9. 

papacy n. (office of pope; papal system) 'pee-ps-si. 

papain n. ferment [synonymous cognate papayin} pa'pee-in, 
'pee-p3-in, 'pa:-p3-in, pa'pci-in. 

papal adj. (of a pope) 'pee-psh 

papaliie r. become papal or popish; romanize [also spelt 
papalisel 'pee-p3-laiz. 

papas n. (priest, papa) 'pee-pss, 'pxpas. 

papanv n. fruit ; tree [synonymous cognate pawpawl pa'pc: , 
pc'pc: , pae'pc: . 

papier-m&olie n. paper-pulp [also spelt papier mache, pa- 
pier-mache'^ paepge-ma'See, p3Epi-e-ma'See. 

papilionaoeons adj, (like the butterfly) pd-pili-a'nee-Sds. 

papilla ft. nipple, pap [plural papillael pa'pila. 

papillar adj, (papillary) 'psepi-lar, p^'pil^z. 

papillary adj. (like papillae, etc.) 'paepi-le^i, ps'pila-^i. 

papillose adj. (full of or beset with papillae) 'paepi-los, paepi- 
'Idos; {less properly) pa'pilos. 

papistry n. (popery) 'pce-pi-stji. 

papoose n. North Amerindian baby [also spelt pappoosel pae- 
'pous, pa'pous. 

pappose adj, (papous, downy) pae'pDos, (assutnptivly) 'pae-pos. 

Papnan adj, (of Papua or New Guinea) 'paepgu-sn. 

papnla n. papule [plural papulael 'paepgo-ld. 

papyri n. (plural of papyrus) p9'pai-z:ai. 

papyrin «. parchment paper [also spelt papyrinel 'paepi-nn. 

papyrine n. of papyrus [also spelt papyrin] pa'pai-^in. 

papyrus n. plant; writing-sheets [plural papyril pa'pai-ras. 

para adj, (Turkish coin) 'pa:-?3, pae'^a: . 

Par& adj. of Para, Brazil [also spelt Paral pa'^a: . 

parabasis n. choral digression in a Greek drama [plural pa- 
rabasesl p9'?aeb9-sis. 

parabema n. in a Byzantin church, a division on either side 
of the bema [plural parabematal pae^a'bii-ma. 

parabola n. (curve) paVaeba-ld. 

parabole n. (comparison) pa'raeba-h, {older) pa'raeba-H. 

parabolic adj. (of a parable; of parabole; of or like a para- 
bola) paera'bohk. 

paracbute n. (aerial descending-device) 'pae73-$ut. 

Paraclete n. (Comforter : a title of the Holy Spirit) 'paera- 
ktit. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, oi boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the precetev^^ ^qmtA a.^ Vitmln 
str^l^mqrk (') indicates phi^f 8tr^^§ oiv \\v^ i^>\oH«Ya.\5» ^-f^si^^- 



386 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

paraome n. (point or period beyond the culmination) 
pa'raekMi, (older) p^'zxkMu 

paradigm n. (example, model) 'pae?9-dim, 'pae^d-daim. 

paradigmatic adj, (like a paradigm; exemplary) pae^adig- 
'maetik. 

paradisaic adj, paersdi'see-ik. same meaning as paradisiac. 

paradisaical adj. pse^ddi'see-i-ksl. same meaning as para- 
disiacal, 

paradisean adj. (of paradise; of the paradisea or birds of 
paradise) paezd'disi-sn. 

paradisiac adj. (of paradise) paers'disi-aek, pae?9'dizi-xk. 

paradisiacal adj. (paradisiac) pse^ddi'sai-o-kal, paezsdi'zai- 
a-kal. 

paradisial adj, (of paradise; paradisiac) pserd'disi-dl, pasz^ 
'dizi-al. 

paradox n. (statement or tenet contrary to receivd opinion; 
something apparently or really self-contradictory) 'paezd- 
deks. 

paraenesis n. exhortation, advice [also spelt parenesisl p9- 
'zii-ni-sis, p3'zeni-sis. 

paraffin n. wax-like substance, etc. [also spelt paraffinel 
'pae^a-fin. 

paragoge n. (addition of a letter or syllable to a word) 
p3eE:3'goo-d3i. 

parag^rapli v. [also spelt paragraf; past participle and pret- 
erit paragraphed, paragraf t"} 'paeza-gzarf. 

paragrapher n. paragraphist [also spelt paragraf eri 'paszs- 
gza:-f3z. 

parakeet n. parrot; small parrot [also spelt parrakeet, para- 
keet', synonymous cognates paroquet, parroquet, perroquet; 
former synonymous cognate parakitel 'paeza-kit. 

parakite n. (kite resembling a parachute) 'paezs-kait. 

paralipsis n. pretended or suggested omission [synonymous 
cognates paraleipsis, paralepsis, paralepsyl paezalipsis. 

parallax n. (apparent displacement of an object due to ac- 
tual change of the point of observation) 'paeza-laeks. 

parallel adj. (continuously equidistant) 'paez9-lel, 'paezd-lsl, 
(assumptivly) 'paezalal, (rapidly, often) 'paezlal. 

parallel v. [present participle paralleling, parallelling; past 
participle and preterit paralleled, parallelled, paralleldl 
'p3ez3-lel. 

parallelepiped n. paez9-leh'pai-ped, pseza-leh'piped, paezs- 
Id'epi-ped. same meaning as parallelopiped. 

j ye, Qcure; btHe, Q thm-, ^^isute^, ^"sio^N ^ sKoe, tS c/tew ; 
W7vhen; rjsin^; uwlioevet, ite^icX., xsiuW, \i>\iooV 'vxv 'Cx^eeN 
o poetic; 9 0v^r, e aerial, ^but, ;>*.^oot, ti^x^o, ^\ic^, ^^\y3X^\ 



) 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 387 

parallelogram, n. (four-sided figure whose opposit sides 

are parallel) paezdlels-gzaem. 
parallelopiped n. prism whose bases are parallelograms 

[synonymous cognates parallelepiped, parallelopipedon, par- 

allelepipedonl paers-leld'pai-ped, paees-lela'piped. 
paralogize v, commit a paralogism; reason falsely [also spelt 

paralogisel pa'zraela-dsaiz. 
paralysis n. (palsy) ps'^aeh-sis. 
paralytic adj, (palsied) paerolitik. 
paralyse v, [also spelt paralyse, paralisel 'paezd-laiz. 
paramese n. (music) ps'^xmi-si, pa'^semi-si. 
paramonntoy n. status of being paramount [synonymous 

cognate paramo uncy] 'paera-maont-si. 
paramonr n. (lover; mistress) 'paezs-mo:;. 
paranoea n. px?a'nii-9. same meaning as paranoia. 
paranoia n. mental derangement characterized by delusions, 

etc. [synonymous cognate paranoea} pse?9'nei-9. 
paraphernalia n. pi. (a wife's own property ; paraphema ; 

trappings) pae^afa'nee-li-a, paerafa'nee-lia. 
paraphrase n. (free rendering; paraphrasis; hymn) 'paezs- 

fzez, 
paraphrasis n. (free rendering) pa'raefsa-sis. 
paraphysis n. steril filament [synonymous cognate para- 

physe; ploral paraphysesi ps'^aefi-sis. 
paraplegia n. (paralysis of the legs and trunk) paera'pz^ii- 

dso, paera'ptii-dsi-a. 
parasoeve n. (eve of the Jewish sabbath; Good Friday) 

'pa»3-siv, pae?3'sii-vi. 
paraselene n. mock moon [ploral paraselenael pxrasilii-ni. 
parasite n. (hanger-on; sponger; toady; an organism which 

livs in or on or at the expense of another) 'pae?3-sait. 
parasitic adj. (of parasites) pse^s'sitik. 
parasitism n. (parasitic mode of life) 'psezd-sai-tizsm. 
parasol n. (sunshade) 'paera-sel, paezs'sel, {rarely) 'pxzrd-sol, 

paera'sool. 
parcel r. divide into small portions, etc. [present participle 

parceling, parcelling; past participle and preterit parceled, 

parcelled, parceldl 'pozsal, 'pai^-sal; 'pazrsi, 'pa:?-8l. 
parcener n. (coparcener, coheir) 'parsi-ns;, 'paiz-si-n^z. 
parched adj. dried by heat [also, sometimes, spelt parchtl 

parrtSt, (also, in poetry) 'pa2tSid, 'pa:z:-tSid. 
parclose n. screen; railing [synonymous cognate perclosel 

'pa3-ki.oz, 'pa:r-kz.oz. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, aiktte; 
lenfirth-mark (:) indicates that the ptece^itv^ ^orcA "v^ Viitw%\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on X\i^ Iq^QiHivr.^ ^^'^-s^svr.^ 



388 DICTI ONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pardao n. coin [synonymous cognate pardo} paz'da:-o. 
pardie inter j, {archaic) by God! verily [also spelt pardi, 

pardy; synonymous cognate perdie] paz'dii. 
pardon v, remit the penalty of; forgive [past participle and 

preterit pardoned, pardondl 'pa:3-dn, 'paiz-dan. 
pare v, (trim; cut down) pt:z. 
pareable adj. (that may be pared) 'pei-z^-hol. 
paresorio adj. (soothing) paees'gezik. 
parenolijm n. parenchyma [synonymous cognate paren- 

chyme} ps'zegkim. 
parenohyma n. tissue [ploral parenchymata'\ ps'zeQki-ms. 
parenolijmatoiui adj, (of parenchyma) px^sn'kima-tds. 
parenolijme n. pd'zegkim, ps'^eg-kaim. same meaning as 

parenchym. 
parent n. (father or mother; source) 'pei-eant, 'paezant; {dia- 

lectally) 'pee-^ant. 
parentaso m. 'paeesn-tids, 'pe:-73n-tid3. 
parentheses n. (plural of parenthesis) ps'^enOi-siz. 
parenthesis n. an aside; round bracket [ploral parentheses^ 

pd'zenGi-sis, ps'^entOi-sis. 
paresis n. (partial paralysis; also, word-negleCt) 'paezi-sis; 

{improperly) ps'^ii-sis. 
paretic adj. (of paresis) pa'^etik. 
parhelion n. mock sun [ploral parhelial pa^'hii-li-sn, pa;- 

'hii-lisn. 
pariah n. (one of low Hindu caste; outcast, vagabond) 'pe:- 

'^i-3, 'pa:-3i-9, 'pae^i-a. 
Parian adj, (of Paros) 'pe:-d-9n. 
paries n, wall [ploral parietesi 'pe:-?i-i:z. 
parietal adj. (of a wall) pa'^ai-i-tl. 
pari passn adv. (with equal pace; side by side; pro rata) 

pe:-^ai'paesQu. 
Parisian adj. (of Paris, France) pa'^issn, pa'eisi-an, pa'^izi- 

dn. 
parity n. (equality) 'p3e2i-ti. 
park n. pa:?k, pa:k; (locally) pa:k, pe:k. 
parlecue n. 'pa:?-h-kQu. same meaning as purlecue. 
parlance n. (speech, debate, parley) 'paiz-ldns. 
parley v. talk; discourse; argument [also, formerly, spelt 

parly; past participle and preterit parleyed, parley d'\ 'pa:z- 

\i. 
parliament «. (council; legislativ body) 'parr-la-mant ; {er- 

roneously) 'poir-li-a-mant, 'paizr-Ha-mant. 

J .ve, 5 cure ; 5 ffie, Q tHin ; ^ 3 arrure, ds /oy ; S ^Aoe, tS c/iew; 
wzv'hen; r)sing\ u whoever, \tc3lC\., wiuW, \i>\ioo\, \it, i\see\ 
o poetic; 9 ov^r, c aeria\, A.WX., ;>; ^oot, ^q\\o, ^\ie^x ^^%oxv> 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 389 

parliamentary adj, (of parliament) pazWmcnt^-zi, (aj- 
sutnptivly) pada'menta^i ; (rapidly) paela'tncntji. 

parlor n. sitting-room, drawing-room, etc. [also spelt par- 
lour"} 'paizA^z. 

Parmesan adj. (of Parma, Italy) pazrmi'zaen, (assumptivly) 
'pa:?-mi-zaen ; (improperly) pa^'mii-zan. 

parooUal adj. (of a parish) pa'^oo-ki-al ; (improperly) pa- 
'zeki-oh 

parooliialize v. [also spelt parochialisel p9'730-ki-3-}aiz. 

parodio adj. (of parody) ps'zedik. 

parody n. (burlesque imitation; travesty) 'pae?3-di. 

parol n. (in by *parol, by word of mouth) 'pae^sl. 

parole n. (word; word of honor; password) p9'73o}. 

paronomasia n. (word-play; pun) paezsns'mee-sd, pserans- 
'mee-zi-9, pae^ana'mee-si-a. 

paronym n. derivativ or cognate word [also spelt paronyme} 
'pae?o-nim. 

parotid adj. (near the ear) ps'zetid. 

paroxysm n. (fit) 'psersk-sizdm. 

parpen n. bond-stone [also, formerly, spelt parpan; synony- 
mous cognates parpend, parpent and, formerly, perpend, par- 
pin, parpoint, perpen, perpin, perpent, perpeynl 'pazp^n. 

parqnet n. flooring; part of a theater; branch of government 
[also, sometimes, in the sense of a part of a theater, spelt 
parquettel pa2'ket, pa^'kee. 

parr n. young salmon [also spelt pari pa:?. 

parrel n. band or collar by which a yard is fastend to a 
mast [also spelt parrall 'paerah 

parricidal n. (of parricide) pae?i'sai-dl, 'paeri-sai-dl. 

pars n. part [ploral partes} pa:?z. 

parse v. describe grammatically [past participle and preterit 
parsed, parst} pQizs, pQ'.zz. 

Parsee n. Guebre; language [also spelt Parsi} 'par-si, 'pa:r- 
si; par'sii. 

parsley «. (garden-herb) 'pa?si.i, 'pa:zs-h, 'pa:?-sti. 

parsley-piert n. breakstone, an herb [synonymous cognate 
parsley-pert} 'parsti-piirt. 

parsnip n. (plant; root) 'pa?sN-p, 'pa:rs-nip, 'pa:r-sNip. 

partake v. (take part in; share in) pdr'teek. 

parterre «. (level space with flower-beds; pit of a theater) 
l>az'te:z. 

parthenogenesis n. (virginal reproduction) parOdnd'dsenz- 
sis. 

c: law, b: f f«r, ae cat, o hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao now, a*. a«k, ^\VA\ft,\ 
length-mork (:) indicates that the preceAitvtt ^c^mtv^ a.^ V>wv% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress oti tVi^ i^>\o^\xi^ vf^-s^^R" 



390 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

partiality n. (quality of being partial; predilection) poz* 

'Jaeli-ti, pazSi'aeh-ti. 
partialise v. [also spelt partialise} 'pazja-laiz. 
partible adj, (divisible) 'po^ts-bdl, 'pa:r-t9-b3t. 
participate v, (partake, share) paz'tisi-pet. 
participial adj. (of the nature of a participle) poTti'sipi-sl. 
participle n. (verbal adjectiv) 'poztisi-pdl, (rapidly) 'poztsi- 

pdh 
parti-colored adj. variegated [also spelt parti-coloured, par- 
ty-colored, parti-color d1 'pa^ti-kAla^d. 
partionlar adj. (special) ps^'tikgo-ldz ; {dialec tally) ps'tiks- 

\^z, (vulgarly) p97'tikz.9z, ps'tikz.??. 
particnlarize v. [also spelt particularise'^ pdz'tikgota-zaiz; 

{in Scotland) pdz-tikgols'raiz. 
particnlarly adv. pa^'tikgo-lar-h, (anteriorly) psr'tik^o- 

}9?h; (rapidly, sometimes) p3?'tikgol:-h. 
partile adj. exact: opposed to platic [also, sometimes, spelt 

partill 'poT-tail, 'pastil. 
partition v. divide [past participle and preterit partitioned, 

partitiondl ps^'tiSsn. 
partisan n. one who takes part or sides with another; zeal- 
ous supporter; guerilla [also spelt partisan} 'por-ti-zan, poe- 

ti'zaen. 
partisan n. long-handled spear; soldier or gard armd with 

a partizan [also spelt partisanl 'parti-zan, 'pa:?-ti-z3n. 
partner n. partaker, sharer; associate [vulgar synonymous 

cognate pardnerl 'paetNa^, 'pa:?t-n3r, 'pa:?-tN3r; (dialectal- 

ly or vulgarly) 'pa:z:-dn3r. 
partridge n. (bird) 'pa^tjids, 'pa:z:-tjid3 ; (dialectally or vul- 
garly) 'paetEids. 
pamre n. (set of jewels, etc.) pa'?o:r. 
parvenu ft. upstart [feminin synonymous cognate parvenue} 

'pa:r-vi-nju. 
pasch n. Passover [also spelt pasque and, formerly, pask] 

pa:sk, pa:sk, pse:sk. 
paschal adj. (of Passover or Easter) 'psesksl. 
pasha n. sovereign, prince : a Turkish title [also spelt pa- 

cha; synonymous cognate pashaw} pa'Sa: , (sometimes) 'pa:- 

$3 ; (also) 'pae-Sc, 'paeja, pa'Sc: . 
pashalic n. jurisdiction of a pasha [also spelt pachalicl 'pa> 

Sa-hk, 'pa:-Sa-hk, 'paeSc-hk, p3'Sa:-hk. 
pasqnilant n. writer of a pasquil ; lampooner [also spelt pas- 

quillantl 'paeskuji-lant. 

J y^t C cure ; 5 */ie, th\n ; ^ 3 arure, ds /oy ; \ shoe, tS chew; 
w when; ijsin^; uwlioevet, \tca.c\., \ilu\V ^MfooU i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; 3 over, eoeriaV, a.\>uX, :*•. ^oot, •;iQxio, ^,\ie\, ^^^a\s.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 391 

pasquiler n. pasquilant, lampooner [also spelt pasquiller} 

pasquinade n. (lampoon, pasquin) paeskwi'need. 

pass V, go, etc. [past participle and preterit passed, pastl 
pa:s, pa:s, p£:s; {when unstrest) pas, pas, pses. 

passable adj. (capable of being past; tolerable) 'pa:-s3-b3l. 

passage n. (passing, transit; way) 'paesids. 

pass6 adj, past; faded; out of date [feminin synonymous cog- 
nate passeel pae'see. 

passed v. past participle and preterit of pass [also, some- 
times, spelt pasti pa:st, pa:st, pxist; (when unstrest) past, 
past, paest; {also, in poetry) 'pa:-sid, etc. 

passenger n. (traveler) 'paesin-dsa?, (anteriorly) 'paesindsar. 

passerine adj, of the passeres or perchers [also, sometimes, 
spelt passerini 'paess-^ain, 'paesa-jrin. 

passibility n. (quality of being passible; capability of suf- 
fering) pas3'bih-ti, p3es3'bih-ti. 

passible adj, (capable of feeling or suffering) 'pa:-s9-b3?, 
'paesa-bal. 

passim adv, (here and there) 'psesim. 

passion n. (suffering; affection of body or mind; emotion; 
anger) 'paejan. 

passive adj., n. [also spelt passivl 'paesiv, 'pa:-siv. 

past adj. (gone by; done with; bygone, over, ended, spent; 
preterit; retired; proficient) pa:st, pa:st, paeist. 

past prep, (beyond ; after ; further on than ; beyond the scope 
of) pa:st, pa:st, pae:st; (when unstrest) past, past, paest. 

past n. (bygone time; past life; past tense) pa:st, pa:st, pae:st. 

past adv. (so as to pass or go by; by; on one side; aside) 
pa:st, pa:st, pae:st. 

pastel n. (crayon; drawing; fabric) 'pae-stel, 'paestal. 

pastelist n. artist who uses pastels [also spelt pastellistl 
'pae-stehst, 'paesta-list. 

pasteurization n. [also spelt pasteurisationi paestd^i'zee-Ssn, 
paesta-^ai'zee-San. 

pasteurize v. sterilize by Pasteur's method [also spelt pas- 
teurise! 'p3est8-?aiz. 

pastiooio n. (hodgepodge; olio) paes'titji-o, pas'tii-tSo. 

pastil n. roll of aromatic paste; lozenge [also spelt pastillel 
'paestil, paes'tiil, pae'stiil. 

pastor «. (shepherd; minister) 'pa:-st3?, (anteriorly, as a 
title) 'pasta?. 

pastoraJ adj. (of shepherds; of flocks) 'pai-sta-^al. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indjcates that the preceAiivs, scj>rcv^ \^ Vsrcv'SLN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on xYve IqWo-^axv^ sf^-sM^^ 



392 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pastorale n. piece of pastoral or rustic music [ploral pasto- 

rali, pastorales} pasta'zai-h; (less properly) paests'^eeAi. 
pastnre n. (action of feeding; herbage; grass-land) 'pa:8-t$9z, 

'pa:s-t93?; {dialectally) 'paestSae, 'pais-tjar. 
patasium n. wing-membrane, parachute [ploral paifigia[ 

paeta'dsai-am. 
Patarin. n. follower of Arialdi [also spelt Paierin\ synony- 
mous cognates Patarene, Paterinel 'paet3-?in. 
patas n. (red monkey) pa'ta: . 
patolied adj. mended or markt with patches [also, sometimes, 

spelt patcht} paetSt, {also, in poetry) 'paetjid. 
patohonli n. plant ; perfume [also spelt patchouly2 pd'tjou-li, 

pae'tjou-li, 'paetSo-h. 
pate n. (head, skull, noddle) peet. 
patenn. (plate; bowl) 'paetn. 
patent n. (monopolistic privilege; invention) 'paetnt, 'paetsnt, 

'pee-tant, 'pee-tnt. 
patent adj. (open; evident; manifest) 'pee-tant, 'pee-tnt, i 

'paetant, 'paetnt. 
patentee n. (one to whom letters patent have been granted; 

one who takes out a patent) paetn'tii, pee-tn'tii. 
patenter n. (one who grants a patent : the correlativ of 

patentee) paetn'te:?, pee-tn'te:^. 
patenter n. (one who takes out a patent) 'paetn-ta?, 'pec-tn- 

ta?. 
paterfamilias n. (head of a family) pee-tar-fd'miH-ds, 

paet32-f3'mili-3S. 
paternoster n. (Lord's Prayer, etc.) peta^'nestar, paetsz- 

'nest9z. j 

path n. beaten track; footway [ploral pathsl pa:0, pa;9, pae:0. J 
pathos n. (quality which excites pity, etc.) 'pee-9es. I 

paths n. (ploral of path) pa:dz, pa:5z, paeibz. i 

patience n. (quality of being patient; dock; card-game) 'pee- 

Sans. J 

patient adj., n. 'pee-Jant. 1 

patina n. (bowl; incrustation on bronze) 'paeti-na. 
patio n. (inner court ; ore-yard) 'pa:-ti-o, 'paeti-o. 
patois n. (dialect) 'pae-ttue, 'paetiue; 'pae-tu)c, 'paetu)c; pae'twe. i 
patriarch «. (father and ruler of a family or tribe, etc.) 

'pee-tji-ar^k. 
patriarchal adj, petEi'a^k^l, 'pee-tEi-orkal. 
patrimony «. (heritage) 'paetji-moni, 'paetjima-ni, {anterior- 
ly) 'paetji-mani. 

j ye, 5 cure; 5 the, Qthin-, ^acure, ds/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
w when; i) sing; u whoever, itcsicX., \3iu\\ \i>\\ooV ^^t^ lis^^; 
o poetic; sov^r, e aerial, xbuY, o.^oot, -aQx^o, ^\ie\, ^^^y38«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 393 

patriot ft. (one who loves or zealously supports his country) 

'pce-tji-3t, 'paetji-at. 
patriotic adj. petp'etik, paetsi'etik. 
patriotism n. 'pee-tji-a-tizam, 'paetji-a-tizam. 
Patripassian. n. (one who held that God the Father sufferd 

with or in the Son) petji'paesi-an, petji'paS^n, paetji'paesi-an, 

paetsi'pae$9n. 
patrol V. go the rounds [past participle and preterit pa- 
' trolled, patrold) pa'tjDol; (improperly) 'pae-tjol. 
patron. «. (protector; supporter; customer) 'pee-tjan, 'paetjan. 
patronage n. 'pee-t£3-nid3, 'paetss-nids. 
patroness n. (female patron) 'pee-tj3-nis, 'paetja-nis. 
patronize v. [also spelt patronise'^ 'pee-tj3-naiz, 'paetja-naiz. 
patronjmio n. (family name) psetsd'nimik. 
patten n. (shoe) 'psetn. 

panoity n. (smallness; fewness; scantiness) 'pc:-si-ti. 
pang^ie n. 'pc:-gi. same meaning as porgy. 
Panline adj. of Paul [also, sometimes, spelt Paulini 'po 

hn, 'pc:-lain. 
pannoh n. rope mat; wooden shield [synonymous cognate 

panchi pcintS, pa:ntS, paintS; (also, and in Britain normally) 

pc:nS, pa:nS, pa:nS. 
pauperise v. [also spelt pauperisel 'pci-ps-^aiz. 
paver n. one who paves; paving-stone; bed-stone [synony- 
mous cognate paviorl 'pee-va?. 
pavilioned adj, furnisht with pavilions or tents [also spelt 

paviliond] pa'viHand. 
pavilion n. (bell-shaped mouth of a trumpet, etc.) paevirjeq. 
pavior n. paver; rammer; paving-stone [also spelt paviour, 

pavierl 'pee-vi-az:. see paver. 
pavis n. shield; pavisade [also spelt pavise"] 'paevis. 
paviser n. man armd with a pavis [also spelt pavisorl 'paevi- 

pavonine adj, (of a peacock) 'paeva-nain, 'paev3-nin. 
paivnbroker n. (lender on pledged articles) 'pcm-bzoo-ks?. 
pay V, (give what is due, etc.) pee, (when unstrest) pe. 
payer n. one who pays [also spelt payor"} 'pee-a^. 
paynint n. pagan, heathen [also, formerly, spelt paynym, 

painimi 'pee-nim. * 

pea n. seed ; vine [ploral peas'] pii. compare pease. 
peaceable adj. (disposed to peace; peaceful) 'pii-sd-bsl. . 
peacock n. (bird) 'pii-kek. 
peaked adj, having a peak; pointed; also, sharp-featured or 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, e hot, ei boy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceAitv^ somxv^ a.^ \^w.V> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie i€>\\o^\^% ?j«3>\iaX5v^. 



394 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 



thin from illness or want [also, sometimes, spelt peakt} 

'piikt, 'pii-kid. 
peakins adj. sneaking; emaciated, peaky [also spelt peek- 
ing} 'pii-kiq. 
peaky adj, (having peaks; peaked, pointed, peak-like) 'pii-ki. 
poaky adj. sickly; puny [also spelt peeky} 'pii-ki. 
peal n. (loud sound) piil. 
peal n. grilse; salmon [also spelt peell piil. 
pear n. (fruit; tree) pe:r. 
pearl n. (gem, etc.) pBizh compare purL* 
pearmain. n. (apple) 'pe.T-men. 
peasant n. small farmer; rustic; countryman [also spelt 

pesanti 'pezant. 
peasood n. pea-pod [also spelt peasecod"] 'piiz-ked. 
pease n. {archaic) pea-plant; pea; peas collectivly [ploral 

pease and, formerly, peasen, peason] piiz. 
pecan «. (nut) pi'kaen, pi'kaen. 
peccable adj. (liable to sin) 'peks-bsl. 
peccadillo n. (petty sin) peka'dib. 
peccant adj, (sinning, morbid) 'pekant. 
peccary n. swine-like quadruped [also, formerly, spelt pec- 

ary, peccari, pecari; synonymous cegnate picaree^ 'pcka-n. 
peccavi V. (I have sind; it is my fault) pe'kee-vai, pekTca:- 

vi. 
pecky adj, showing first symptoms of decay : said of timber 

and trees [synonymous cognates peeky, peaky'\ 'peki. 
pecky adj. (pitching; apt to stumble; peck-like) 'peki. 
pecten n. the pubes; comb-like part; scallop [ploral pecti- 

nes, pectensi 'pektan, 'pek-ten. 
pectin n. substance from pectose [also, rarely, spelt pectinel 

'pektin. 
pectinens n. muscle [also spelt pectinaeus; ploral pectineil 

pekti'nii-3s. 
pectinons adj. (of pectin) 'pekti-nas. 
pectize v. congeal [also spelt pectisel 'pek-taiz. 
pectons adj. (congeald; of pectin) 'pektas, 
pectus n. breast; thoracic region [ploral pectoral 'pektas. 
peculiar adj. (particular, special; queer) pi'kQou-Har. 
peculiarity n. (quality of being peculiar; oddity) pi-kgul- 

'jae^i-ti, pi-kguH'aezri-ti. 
pcculiarize v. [also spelt peculiarisel pi'kgou-lia-^aiz. 
pecuniary adj. (of money) pi'kQou-ni-e?i, (also) pi'kgou-ni-a- 

?i, (assumpiivly) pi'kQou-ni-3?i, (rapidly) pi'kgou-nja-ri. 

/ ye, q cure ; (i th^, B thin*, ^ ■«, 3in\vceL, ^-i^ ^o^ \ ^ sKoe, t\ chew ; 
w when; r) sin^; u whoever, iiesLcX, vi\u\\, vs>x\oo\, ^\V ^x%ee\ 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e oer\a\, xV>uV, o*.^oot, ^oxvo, ^\ic^, iE.^^cX't\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS '395 

pedasogio n. (of a pedagog; of pedagogy) pedd'gedsik; 
(vulgarly) peds'gDO-dsik. 

pedagog^ism n. [also spelt pedagoguism} 'pedd-geg-izam, 
'pedd-ge-gizam, 'peda-geds-izam. 

pedagogist n. (one verst in pedagogics) 'pedd-gedsist. 

pedagogue n. teacher [also spelt pedagogi 'peds-geg. 

pedagoguery n. (pedagogic establishment; occupation of a 
pedagog) 'peda-gegzi. 

pedagoguing n. (the acting as a pedagog) 'peds-gegii]. 

pedagog^sh adj. (characteristic of a pedagog) 'peda-gegiS. 

pedagogy n. (function of a pedagog; instruction) 'peda- 
godsi, 'peda-gedsi, 'peda-gegi, (rarely) 'peda-gogi. 

pedal n. (foot-lever; treadle; note; curve) 'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedal adj. (of the foot) 'pedl, 'pedal, 'pii-dal; (of a pedal) 
'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedal V. work the pedals of [present participle pedaling, ped- 
alling; past participle and preterit pedaled, pedalled, ped- 
aid} 'pedl, 'pedal. 

pedale n. foot-cloth; collection of creeds [ploral pedalia} 
pi'dee-h, (older) pi'dee-li. 

pedale w. (pedal; pedal keyboard) pi'da:-h. 

pedaler n. one who pedals [also spelt pedallerl 'pedl-az, 
'peda-la?. 

pedant «. (formerly, teacher, pedagog; now, one who over- 
rates book-learning, etc.) 'pcdnt, 'pedant. 

pedantic adj. (like a pedant; absurdly learned) pi'dxntik. 

pedantism n. 'pedn-tizam, 'pedan-tizam. 

pedate adj. (like a foot) 'pedet, 'pedat. 

peddle v. hawk; retail from house to house [present parti- 
ciple peddling} 'pedl. 

peddling n. (action of the verb peddle; occupation of a ped- 
ler; hawking; also, trifling; piddling) 'pedliq. 

pedestal n. (base for a statue) 'peda-stl, 'peda-stal; (im- 
properly) pi'destl. 

pedestal v. [present participle pedestaling, pedestalling; past 
participle and preterit pedestaled, pedestalled, pedestald} 
'peda-stl, 'peda-stal. 

pedestrianize v. act the pedestrian; walk [also spelt pedes- 
trianise} pi'destji-a-naiz. 

pediatric adj, of the diseases of children [also spelt paedi- 
atric} pidi'setj^k. 

pedicel n. (footstalk, pedicle) 'pedi-sal. 

pedicle «. (footstalk, pedicel, peduncle) 'pedi-kal. 

c: law, b: fMr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai.kite.\ 
]ength-mark (:) indicates that the ptece^itv^ ^oivrcA -l-^ VkWSkN 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on X\it i€\\QV4Ycv^ ^^^-si^^^* 



396 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pedigree n. (lineage, etc.) 'pedi-gn. 

pedler n. one who peddles; hawker [also spelt pedlar, ped- 
dler} 'pedlar. 
pedleress n. female pedler [also spelt pedlaress, peddleress] 

'pedld-zis. 
pedlery n. business of a pedler; pedler's wares; tra«h [also 

spelt pedlary, peddler yl 'pedla-ri. 
pedling adj. busying one's self with trifles; trifling; trashy; 

piddling [also spelt peddling} 'pedlii]. 
pedobaptist n. advocate of the baptism of infants [also spelt 

paedobaptist} peda'baeptist, pids'bseptist. 
pedology n. science of children [also 'spelt paedology, pai- 

dology} pi'dela-dsi. 
pedometer n. (step-recording device) pi'demi-tar. 
pednncle n. (flower-stalk; pedicel) pi'dArjkdl; {improperly) 

'pii-dAijkal. 
pee V, (urinate) pii. 
peek V. (peep) piik. 
peel n. (stronghold) piil. 
peel ft. (wooden shovel or pole) pii). 
peel n. (skin, rind) piil. 
peel V. rob; strip; pare [past participle and preterit peeled, 

peeld} piil. 
peer n. (equal; duke, etc.) pi:r. 
peer v. look narrowly [past participle and preterit peered, 

peerd} pi:?. 
peignoir n. (dressing-sack) pe'nwe:?. 
pejorative adj, tending to make worse; depreciatory [also 

spelt pejorativ} pi'd^ez^-tiv, 'pii-dsa-eetiv. 
pekan. n. (fisher, a weasel-like beast; Pennant's marten) 

'pekan. 
pekea n. tree [also spelt pikia; synonymous cognate piqui] 

pi'kii-3. 
pekin n. (silk fabric) pilcin, pi'kii]. 
pekoe n. (tea) 'pii-ko, 'pe-ko. 
pelage n. (the fur) 'pehds. 
pelagic adj. (of the open sea, oceanic; of the surface of the 

ocean) pilaedsik. 
pelamyd n. fish [also spelt pelamid; synonymous cognates 

pelamys, pelamis} 'pela-mid. 
Pelaagian adj. (of the Pelasgi) pi'laezdsi-an, pi^aesdsi-an. 
pelerine n. cape; tippet [also, sometimes, spelt pelerin} 'peb- 

zin, 'pela-rin, pela'^iin. 

J ye, gcure; 6 the, QtKitv^^^^sMte, d^ioy; I shoe, tJcAew; 
wzvhen; t) sing; u whoever, iTea.c\., ^sl-iC^., waL\oo\, -vVn., v^^ee; 
o poetic; a over, eoeriaV, a. but, o*.^oot, -aoxvo, ^\ie\, t^^yj!«:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 397 

pelican n. (bird) 'peh-kdn. 

pelisse n. (garment) piliis. 

pell-mell adv, (in disorder; headlong) pel'me). 

pell-mell adj. (disorderly and violent; confused) 'pcl-mel. 

pellucid adj. (translucent; transparent) piliou-sid. 

pemmican n. meat food [also spelt pemican'l 'pemi-kan. 

penalise r. [also spelt penalisel 'pii-n}-aiz, 'pii-ns-laiz. 

penance n. (act of penitence) 'pensns. 

pen-and-ink adj. (using pen and ink; clerkly; written; also, 

done with a pen and ink) penan'iqk, 'pen-n-iqk. 
penates ft. pi. (household gods) pi'nee-tiz. 
pence n. (ploral of prenny) pents, {also, and in Britain nor- 
mally) pens. 
pencel n. small pennon; streamer [also spelt pensel, pensil, 

pencil, pensair\ 'penssl. 
penchant n. (bias; bent) 'pentSsnt. 
pencil V. paint with a pencil or fine brush; draw or treat 

with a lead-pencil [present participle penciling, pencilling; 

past participle and preterit penciled, pencilled, pencild] 

'pentsil, {also, especially in Britain) 'pensil. 
penoiler n. [also spelt pencillerl 'pentsi-lar, 'pensi-la?. 
pendant n. something that hangs [also spelt pendente 

'pendant. 
pendent adj, hanging [also spelt pendant! 'pendant. 
pendnlnm n. freely swinging body [ploral pendulums and, 

formerly, rarely, pendulal 'pendso-lam, 'pendjo-lam. 
penguin n. (bird) 'pengwin, 'peqgwin. 
penible adj. obsolete (painstaking) 'pcna-bal, pe'nii-ba!. 
peninsula n. a piece of land which is almost an island [plor- 
al peninsulas and, formerly, peninsulael pi'mnjo-la, pi- 

'ninsgo-la, pi'nintSo-la. 
penis n. male copulatory organ [ploral penes'! 'pii-nis. 
penitentiary adj. (of penance or penitence) peni'tenja-ri, 

peni'tentSa-n ; {erroneously) peni'tenSi-en. 
penknife n. [plural penknives'] 'pen-naif; {less properly) 

'pe-naif. 
penned adj. written (with a pen) [also spelt pendl pend. 
pennill n. a form of verse [plural pennillioni 'penil. 
pennoncel n. small pennon; pencel [also spelt pennoncelle, 

penoncell, penoncel, penouncel] 'penan-sel. 
penny n. coin [ploral pennies^ collectivly pence] 'peni. 
penny-XTise adj, (wise or prudent in regard to pence) peni- 

'waiz, {assumptivly) 'peni-waiz. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy\ a: far, qo noiu, ^•. a^, ^"vV\\r.\ 
Ungth-mark (:) indicates that the pteceAitv^ ^wycA -«» ^«^^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress ou Vhe i«>>\o^«vR:?» %^'^^2««., 

ft 



398 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS ' 

penology n. study of punishment [also spelt poenology] pi- 
'neld-dsi. 

peniile ad}, hanging, pendent [also, sometimes, spelt pen- 
sill 'pensi}, 'pen-sail. 

pension n. (payment) 'penSsn, 'pent^sn. 

pension n. (boarding-house) 'pei}si-ei). 

pensioned adj, in receipt of a pension; retired on a pension 
[also spelt pensiondl 'penjand. 

pentadaotyl adj. having five digits; quinquedigitate [also 
spelt pentadactyle] pentd'dxktil. 

pentamarise v. [also spelt pentamarise] pen'taems-zraiz. 

pentastioh n. (group of five lines of *verse) 'penta-stik. 

Pentateuoh n. (first five books of the Old Testament) 
'pent3-tguk^ 

penthouse n. lean-to building; shed with a sloping roof 
[synonymous cognates appentice, pentice, pentisj 'pent-haos. 

pentstemon n. herb [synonymous cognate penstemoni pent- 
'stii-man. 

penuokle n. card-game [also spelt penuchle; synensrmous 
cognates pinocle, pinochle, binoclel 'pii-nAkal. 

penult ad}, (next to last; last but one) 'pii-nxlt, pi'nAlt. 

penumbra n. (partially shaded region around a shadow) pi- 
'nAmb^a. 

peon n. (soldier; constable; day-laborer) 'pii-an. 

peony n. plant [also spelt paeony; former synonymous cog- 
nate, now dialectal, piony; ploral peonies} 'pii-a-ni, 

people n. [ploral peoples, and collectivly, in the sense of 
persons of a particular place or class, people} 'pii-pal. 

pepperidge n. pipperage, barberry; tupelo, black-gum [also 
spelt pepperage} 'pepa-^ids. 

pepsin n. ferment [also spelt pepsine} 'pepsin. 

peptonize v. [also* spelt peptonise} 'pepts-naiz. 

pep prep, (by, by means of; thru) pa:?, (when unstrest) psz, 

p3?. 

peradirenture adv* (by chance; haply; belike) psrdd'ven- 

tSa?. 
perai n. fish [also spelt pirai, peri; synonymous cognates pi- 

raya, piranha} pi'^ai. 
perambulation n. (a walking thru; journey on foot; tour) 

pezrambjo'lee-San, pa-raembjo'lee-Jan. 
percale n. (fabric) pa^'keel. 
perceive v, take in; apprehend [past participle and preterit 

perceived, perceivd} per'siiv. 

J ye, gcure; 5 f/ie, thin*, ^stsvLte, ^T^io^\ ^skoe, tScfcew; 
wwhen; n sing; u whoever, \Tcac\, oluW, viMiooV ^Vc, ^"^^^X 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, xbut, o-doox, :iot.o, ^.\^c«l, %.^^^. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 399 

perceptible adj. (formerly, percipient; now, capable of be- 
ing perceivd) paz'septa-bal, {assutnptivly) pae'septabah 
peroloie n. 'ps^-kLOz, pez'kLooz. same meaning as par close, 
perdicine adj, (of a partridge or quail) 'pB'.s-di-sain, 'ps:?- 

di-sin. 
perdu adj. lost; sent on a desperate enterprise; [also spelt 

perdue'\ pa^'djou, (assumptivly) 'psiz-djvu 
perdnrable adj. (lasting) par'djoi-^a-bal, 'pBi^-djo^a-bal. 
pereg^ne adj, foreign, etc. [also, sometimes, spelt peregrini 

'pe^i-grin, {rarely) 'pe^i-g^ain. 
peremptorily adv. pae'empta^i-h, pa'^emptan-h, (rapidly) 

pa'^emptji-h, (anteriorly) paVemptjih; (also) 'pe?amp-ta?i- 

h. 
peremptory adj, (that precludes debate; decisiv; final) pa?- 

'cmpta-ri, pa'z:empta-z:i, (assumptivly) pa'zemptaei; (rapidly) 

paVemptji; (also) 'pe^amp-ta^i, 
perennial adj. (lasting thruout the year) pa'^eni-al. 
perfect adj.,n. (complete, etc.) 'perfikt, 'perr-fikt. 
perfect v, (complete, finish) pazr'fekt, 'p83fikt, 'peizr-fikt. 
perfected adj. par'fektid, 'pB?fik-tid. 
perfecter n. (one who perfects) paz'fekta?, 'p8?fik-ta?. 
perfectible adj, [also spelt perfectablel paz'fekta-bal, 

'p8z:fikta-bal. 
perf idiom adj, (characterized by perfidy; faithless) pa?- 

'fidi-as, (rarely) pazr'fidjas. 
perfnme n. (odorous fumes; sweet scent) 'peefium, 'ps:?- 

fium, par'fioum. 
perfnme v. (impart sweet odor to) par'fioum. 
perfnniy adj. (fragrant) 'pezrfiu-mi, pa3'fiou-mi. 
perfunctory adj. (done without zeal; formal) par'fAijkta-ffi, 

(rapidly) paz:'fAr)kt£i. 
perhapi adv, (may be, perchance) pa^'hseps, (when less 

strest) pa'haeps, psaeps, paeps. 
peri n. (elf, fairy) 'pi:-?i. 
perianth n. (floral envelop) 'peri-aenG. 
pericarditii n. (inflammation of the pericardium) pezri-ka?- 

'dai-tis, pezri-ka3'dii-tis. 
peridot n. (olivin) 'pe^i-det, 
perigee n. (point nearest the earth : epposit of apogee) 

'pe3i-d3i. 
perihelion n. position nearest the sun : epposit of aphelion 

[plural perihelia; synonymous cognate perheliuin\ pezri'hii- 

H-an, pe^i'hii-Han. 

c: low, b: iur, ae cat, o hot, oi boy; a: iot, QknuoiM, ^\ a^, vi.-vV\\R.\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that t\ie i^teee^in^ ^o^axA. "v^ ^x"^^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on vVt l^Yvo^vcv^ «<3vvsi«^^. 



400 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

peril V, hazard, risk [present participle periling, perilling] 
past participle and preterit periled, perilled, perildl 'pezil. 

periloni adj. (full of peril; dangerous) 'pezi-lss. 

perimeter n. (circumference, periphery, outline; vision- 
measuring device) pa'eimi-taz:. 

perinenm n. region between the anus and the scrotum or vul- 
va [also spelt perinaeum} pezi'mi-sm 

periodic adj. (of periods) pizri'edik. 

periodic adj, containing more oxygen than iodic acid [also 
spelt per-iodici psiz-ai'edik. 

perioititii n. (inflammation of the periosteum) pezi-es'tai- 
tis, peei-es'tii-tis. 

peripetia n. sudden change of fortune or reversal of circum- 
stances; denouement [also spelt peripeteia; synonymous 
cognate peripetyl peripi'tai-3, peeipi'tii-a. 

periphery n. (boundary-line; circumference; perimeter) pa- 
'rifa-n, 'penfa-zi. 

periplirasii n. circumlocution [ploral periphrases'^ pd'zifsd- 
sis. 

periiiad n. (an element or radical of odd valency) ps'zisaed, 
pd'zisdd; {less properly) 'peri-sad. 

periityle n. (colonnade surrounding a temple, court, etc) 
'pezri-stail. 

peritonenm n. membrane -which lines the abdominal cavi- 
ty [also spelt peritonaeum} pezrita'nii-am. 

peritonitii n. (inflammation of the peritoneum) pezrits'nai- 
tis, perit3'nii-tis. 

peritropal adj. (of an embryo or ovule; amphitropal; 
hemitropous) p3'z:itj3-p3l, (rarely) pezri'tjoo-pal. 

perjnry n. (wilful falsehood under oath; breach of oath) 
'p8rd33-ri, 'pB'.z-d^^-zi, {rapidly) ^pBzd^zu 

permeate v. (pass thru, penetrate, pervade) 'perz-mi-et. 

permisiible adj, (that can be permitted; allowable) psz- 
'mis3-b3l, 

permiiiory adj, (permitted; allowd) psz'misd-zi. 

permit v, (allow, suffer) par'mit. 

permit n. (written permission; leave) 'p8:r-mit, paz'mit. 

permit n. (fish) psz'mit. 

permittable adj. (obsolete) permissible [also spelt permit- 
tible} pa3'mit9-bal. 

pernicioni adj. (destructiv, fatal; wicked) pa^'nijas. 

perorate v, (deliver an oration; declaim; utter the perora- 
tion) 'pezro-zret. 

J ye, 9 cure; d */ie, Otitinv ^a2>iTe, d^iov; ^ ^/loe, tS cAew ; 
wzvhen; i)sing\ u whoever, iteatct., xiiu\\, \i>3k.ioo\, -lxV <v^*e\ 
o poetic; 9 over, e aerial, a. but, y.^oot, -a^xvo, ^>ac^, %.^^a\fc\ 



I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 401 

peroration n. (conclusion of an oration; discourse) pzzo- 

'eee-San. 
peroxide n. oxide containing the maximum of oxygen [also, 

sometimes, spelt peroxid'l pBzr'ek-said, (before of) pee- 

'eksid. 
perpend v. archaic (ponder) ps^'pend. 
perpend n. 'psir-pend. same meaning as parpen. 
perpetual adj, (unceasing) p3?'petSu-al, pazr'petQU-al. 
perpetnity n. (state of being perpetual) perpi'tgou-i-ti. 
perplexedly adv. (in a perplext manner) p9?'pz<eksi-dh. 
perqniiite n. casual profit [also spelt perquisitl 'po^kiuj-zit. 
piermquier n. (wig-maker) p3-?uki'ee, p^'zoki-sz^ ps-zv'kqee. 
Persian adj. (of Persia) 'pBzrSan, 'pBie-jan, 'pei^-son. 
persioot n. cordial [also spelt persico, persecoti 'persi-ko, 

'pB?si-ket. 
persiflage n. (light banter, etc.) pBzrsi'f 2.0:3, pezsi'fz.a:3. 
peninimon n. date-plum [also spelt persimon, persiman, 

persimmeti] paj'siman. 
persist v. (continue firmly; be insistent; last) pdzr'sist; {less 

properly) pd^'zist. 
persistent adj. paj'sistnt, pazr'sistant ; {less properly) p3?- 

'zistnt. 
personality n. (personal character or being) psrsa'naeh-ti. 
personalize v. [also spelt personalise'^ 'pBzrssnl-aiz, 'pBzrsNd- 

laiz. 
personalty n. (personal property) 'psrsanl-ti, 'pB?sN3l-ti. 
personnel n. (body of persons employd; human equipment) 

pB^sd'nel. 
perspicacity adj. (clearness of insight; penetration) pBZ- 

spi'kaesi-ti. 
perspicuity n. (clearness of statement; lucidity) pBzspi' 

IcQOU-I-tl. 

perspirate v, (perspire, sweat) 'psrspi-ret. 

perspiration n. (sweat) pBrspi'^ee-Jan, pazr'sp^ee-Jan. 

perspirative adj. perspiratory [also spelt perspirativl par- 
'spai-^9-tiv, p33'spai3-?3-tiv, 'pB3spi-z:etiv. 

persuasible adj. (persuadable) p3z:'swee-S9-bd}. 

persuasive adj. tending to persuade; winning [also spelt 
persuasivl pazr'stree-siv, par'stree-ziv. 

pertinacious adj. (persistent; stubborn) pa^ti'nee-Sds. * 

pertinent adj. (relevant; apposit) 'pBrtn-ant, 'parti-nant. 

perturb v. disturb greatly [past participle and preterit per- 
turbed, perturbdl p^z'ts'.zh. 

c: law, b: f wr, ae cat, e hot, ei boy ; a: far, go now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the pteeeAiti^ ^<i>\TA. as* Vstsns^n 
stress-mark C) indicates chief slresa on l^vt i^^X^^va."^ ^^a^-sia^.. 



402 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

- _!■—■-■ ' 

pemke n. periwig, wig [also spelt peruquel fto'zovk, 'pe-suk. 

pemse v. (go thru; survey; read) ps'zouz. 

perverse adj. (perverted; wrong; wayward) p^z^Biza. 

perrenion n. (act of perverting) p9z'v87$3n, psz^Biz-l^tu 

pervert v. (lead astray; corrupt) p^z'vBizt. 

pervert n. (one who has been perverted; apostate) 'ps:?- 

VBZt. 

pervertible adj. (capable of being perverted) pds'vBTtd-bdt 
pelade n. (rearing) pi'seed, pi'zeed, pi'sa:d. 
peseta n. (Spanish coin) pi'see-ts. 
pesky adj, (plaguy; hateful) 'peski. 
peso n. (Spanish dollar) 'pee-so. 

PestaloBsian. adj, (of Pestalozzi) pestdletsi-sn ; (less prop- 
erly) pestalezi-an. 
pestle n. (bruising- or pounding-tool) 'pesdl, 'pes), 'pestl. 
petal n. (corolla-leaf) 'petl, 'petal, (rarely) 'pii-tl. 
petaled adj. [also spelt petalled, petald} 'petld. 
petaline adj, of a petal ; petaloid [also, sometimes, spelt pet- 

a/tn] 'peti-in, 'petl-ain. 
petard n. (door-battering device; cracker) pi'ta:?d, pi'ta:?. 
petardeer n. soldier who fires a petard [also spelt petardierl 

petar'dire. 
petiole n. (leaf -stalk) 'peti-ol. 
petit adj, (small, minor, trifling, petty) 'peti, (formerly) 

'petit. 
petit-banme n. liquor [also spelt petit baumel 'peti-b3om. 
petite adj. (little, tiny; minor) pa'tiit. 
petitio n. (asking, begging) pi'tiSi-o, pi'tii-ti-o. 
petition n. (begging; entreaty; request) pi'tijan. 
petrel n. (sea-bird) 'petjal, (rarely) 'pii-tgal. 
petrol n. (petroleum; gasoline) 'petjal, (rarely) pi'tjool. 
petroleum n. (rock-oil) pi't£oo-H-3m. 
petrolin n. paraffin; also, an oil from petroleum [also spelt 

petrolinel 'petja-hn. 
petrous adj. (stony; rocky) 'pii-tgas, 'petgas. 
petticoat n. (coat; skirt; underskirt) 'peti-kot. 
pettifogger n. (low-down attorney; rascally lawyer) 'peti- 

fegar. 
pettitoes n. pi. (pigs* feet) 'peti-tooz. 
petty adj. (small; little; minor) 'peti. 
petulance n. (sauciness; peevishness) 'petSo-lsns, 'petQo- 

lans. 
petunia n, (plant) pi'tgou-ni-a ; (dialectally) pi'tou-ni-a. 

i y^f 5 cure; 5 the, G thm\^ 3 a^rure, d3 ;oy ; J shot, tj cAew; 
wzvhen; i)sing; u whoever, itcact, vviull, ovifool, i it, lis^^; 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, a.\)u\., o*. ^oot, -a^t^o, ^.\ic^» ^^^q.\r.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 403 

pe'W n. (seated place or enclosure in a church) pgou. 

pe'wee n. (flycatcher) 'pii-wi. 

pe'wit n. lapwing; tyrant flycatcher [also, sometimes, spelt 
peewit, puit} 'pii-wit, 'pgou-it. 

pe'wter n. (gray alloy of tin and led) 'pqou-tsz. 

pfennis n. coin [synonymous cognate pfenning"] 'fenig, 
(rarely) 'pfcnig, 'pfeniq, 

pluiooohoere n. wart-hog [also spelt phacochere} 'faek3-ki:r. 

phaeton n. carriage [also spelt phaetoni 'fee-i-tn, 'fee-i-tdn, 
'fee-tan. 

phagedenio adj. of phagedaena or spreading ulcer [also 
spelt phagedaenicl faedsi'denik, f xd3i'dii-nik ; fagi'denik, 
faegi'dii-nik. 

phagooyte n. (leucocjrte) 'fxgs-sait. 

phalange n. phalanx of a digit; joint of an insect's tarsus; 
bundle of stamens joind by their filaments [plural phal- 
anges'! 'fa-laends, fdlxnds, fa^eqs. 

phalangeal adj, fd^xndsi-sl. 

phalanger n. (quadruped) fslaendsdzr. 

phalange! n. (ploral of phalanx and phalange) fslaen-dsiz. 

phalanstery n. (building occupied by a phalanx; socialist- 
ic community) 'faelan-steei. 

phalanx n. battle array; compact body of troops [ploral pha- 
lanxes, but in biologic senses usually phalanges] 'fee-laeqks, 
'fae-laeqks. 

phallns n. symbolic penis; also, stinkhorn, a fungus [plor- 
al phalli] 'fxlds. 

phanerogam n. (flowering plant) 'fxns^d-gxm. 

phanerogamons adj. (flowering) fsnaVegs-mss. 

phantasm, n. illusion; figment; fantom [also spelt fantasm] 
'faen-taezam. 

phantasma n. fantasm [also spelt fantasma; ploral phantas- 
mas, phantasmata] fxn'tszmd. 

phantasmal adj. [also spelt fantasmal] fxn'txzmdl. 

phantasy n. same meaning as fantasy. 

phantom n. specter, spirit, ghost [also spelt fantom] 'fxn- 
tam. 

pharaoh n. (beer) 'fe:-70. 

Pharisaic adj. (of the Pharisees; self-righteous) facri'see-ik. 

Pharisaism n. (doctrin of the Pharisees, etc.) 'faen-se-izsm. 

pharisean adj. pharisaic [also spelt pharisaean] fae;i'sii-an. 

pharmaoentio adj, (of pharmacy) fozrmd'scou-tik, fa?m3- 
TcQou-tik. 

c: law, b: f«r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy, a: far, go now, a: ask, at kite; 
length-mnrk (:) indicates that the pTecedm^ ?iQ\rcv\ \^ \^tvn^\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress otv \h^ ie>>\Q^VR.^ ^f^-sSw^ 



404 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

phamLaoeatist n. (pharmacist) formd'sQou-tist, fasmalcgott- 

tist. 
pluurmaoist n. (druggist) 'fa:7-m9-sist. 
pharmaoopoeia n. (drug-book; stock of drugs) fa^msks- 

'pii-3. 
pharo n. (obsolete) 'iti-zo, same meaning as faro. 
pharoi n. (lighthouse) 'fei-zes. 

pharyngeal adj. (of the pharynx) fd'rindsi-d}, fae^in'dsii-^ 
pharyngei n. (ploral of pharynx) fs'zin-dsiz. 
pharyngeni n. muscle [ploral pharyngeil isezin'dsii-^s. 
pliarynsitii n. (inflammation of the pharynx) faesin'dsai- 

tis, fae3in'd3ii-tis. 
pharyngotomy n. (a cutting into the pharynx) faerin'geta- 

mi, faejiq'geta-mi. 
pharynx n. throat-cavity [ploral pharynges, pharynxes] 

'faeeiqks. 
phaie n, (aspect; value) feez. 

phaiii n. phase, aspect [ploral phases'] 'fee-zis, ^fee-sis. 
pheasant n. bird [also spelt fesant] 'fezsnt, 'f eznt. 
phenaoetin n. (acetyl derivativ) f I'naesi-tin. 
Phenioian n. nativ of Phenicia [also spelt Phoenician] fi« 

'nijan. 
phenicine n. indigo carmin [also, sometimes, spelt phenicin, 

phoenicin] 'feni-sin, 'feni-sain. 
pheniz w. mythic bird [also spelt phoenix and, formerly, fe- 

nix] 'fii-niks. 
phenol n. (carbolic acid) 'fii-nel, 'fii-nol. 
phenolog^y n. study of recurring biologic phenomena [also 

spelt phaenology] fi'nela-dsi. 
phenomena n. (ploral of phenomenon) fi'nemi-ns. 
phenomenal adj. of phenomena; exceptional [also spelt 

phaenomenal] fi'nemi-nJ. 
phenomenalize v. [also spelt phenomenalise] fi'neminl-aiz. 
phenomenon n. appearance, event, occurrence; prodigy 

[also, formerly, spelt phaenomenon; ploral phenomena] fi- 

'nemi-nen. 
phenyl n. radical [also spelt phenyle] 'fii-nil, 'fenil. 
phe'W interj. expressing impatience, disgust, discomfort, 

weariness [also spelt phugh and, formerly, phu] fiou: • 
phial n. 'fai-sl. same meaning as vial. 
phiale n. patera, a vase; cantharus [ploral phialae] 'fai-a-h. 
phialine adj. phial-like [also, sometimes, spelt phialin] 'fai- 

a-hn, 'fai-3-lain. 

J yc, 9 cure; 5 tfie, 8(Mn; jaxrure, ds/oy; I shoe, t^chew; 
wwhen; i)sing\ u whoever, iteaicX., \jluu, \i>3k.iooV, i.\t, iis^^; 
o poetic; ©over, e aerial, \bu^, o*.^oot, -^i^xvo, ^>ac^, ^.^^<^fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 405 

Plildiao adj, of the Greek sculptor Phidias [also spelt Phei- 
diac} 'fidi-aek, 'fai-di-aek. 

Plildian adj. Phidiac [also spelt Pheidian'i 'fidi-dn, 'fai-di- 
dn. 

philander n. (lover; wallaby, filander; opossum; bandicoot) 
fi'laenda?. compare filander. 

philander v, make love; flirt [also spelt filander} fi'laendd?. 

philanthropic adj. (humane) filsn'Osepik. 

philanthropy n. (love of mankind, benevolence toward 
one's fellow men) fi'laent9s3-pi, fi'lanGsa-pi. 

philately n. (stamp-collecting) filaeti-h. 

philharmonio adj, (loving harmony) fila?'menik, iil-haz- 
'menik. 

philippic n. (denunciatory discourse) filipik. 

Philippin n. (member of a Russian denomination founded 
by Philip Pustoviat) 'fih-pin. 

Philippine n. 'fih-pin. same meaning as philopena. 

Philippine adj. (of the Philippine Islands) fih'piin, (as- 
sumptivly) 'fih-pin. 

Philippiit n. follower of Philip Melanchthon [also spelt 
Philipist} 'fih-pist. 

Philiitine n. one of a warlike people of ancient Philistia 
on the Palestine coast; enemy; philister; matter-of-fact per- 
son [also, sometimes, spelt Philistin'] filistin, 'fih-stain, 
'fih-stin, (rarely) fili-stain. 

Philiitiniim. n. (opinions, aims, and habits of social Philis- 
tins) fi'hsti-nizam, 'fihsti-nizam. 

philiitinize v, [also spelt philistinisel filisti-naiz, 'fihsti- 
naiz. 

Phillii n. (poetic) comely rustic maiden; sweetheart [also 
spelt Phyllis! 'fihs. 

phillyrea n. (jasmin box, mock privet) fi1rei-3, fih'zrii-a. 

philologne n. philologist [also spelt philolog} 'fils-leg. 

philology n. (love of learning and literature; science of lan- 
guage) filela-dsi; (less properly) failela-dsi. 

philopena n. game of forfeit^ [also spelt philopoena, filope- 

na; synonymous cognates philipena, phtlippina, phillipina, 

phillipena, philopena, Philippine, philopoene, philopene, phil- 

lipine, filipeen, fillipeen} fila'pii-na. 

philoprQgenitiTcncM adj. love of offspring [also spelt 

philoprogenitivnessl filap^a'dsenitiv-nis. 
philoioph n. philosopher [also spelt philosopher 'fild-sef, 
fila'zef. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a*. a«k, ^-vVaXr-n 
length-mark (:) indicates that tVie precediTii^ ^o^axi^ -v.-^ "^^"^^ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress otv Vh^ i«»VL^^i.Tk% ^-^jv^^jC^R- 



406 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pliiloioplilo adj, (of philosophers or philosophy) fiis'sefik, 
fild'zefik. 

pMloiopliise V. [also spelt philosophise^ filesd-faiz. 

philter n. love-potion [also spelt philtre'i 'iilt^z, 

pMs n. (face) fiz. 

phlebotomise v. practis phlebotomy; bleed; undergo phle- 
botomy; be bled [-also spelt phlehotomise'\ fz^i'betd-maiz. 

phlegethontic adj. (of Phlegethon; fiery) fz.egi'8entxk, 
ftedsi'Gentik. 

phlegm n. mucus; phlegmatic character; dulness [also, for- 
merly, spelt flegtftf etc.] Hem. 

phiegmatio adj, (of the nature of or abounding in phlegm; 
sluggish, dull) fteg'maetik, 'fi-egma-tik. 

phlogiiton n. (supposed principle of inflammability) iv> 
'd3istn, f to'dsi-sten ; fto'gistan, fto'gi-sten. 

phlox n. (plant) f z^eks. 

phocaenine adj, porpoise-like; of the Phocaenina [also, 
sometimes, spelt phocaeninl fo'sii-nin, fo'sii-nain. 

phonetic adj. representing vocal sounds; of articulate 
sounds; phonic [also spelt fonetic} fa'netik, fo'netik. 

phonetization n. (representation of vocal sounds by fo- 

, netic characters) foniti'zee-San, foni-tai'zee-San, fa-neti- 
'zee-San. 

phonic adj, acoustic; fonetic [also spelt fonici 'fenik, 'fao- 
nik. 

phonograph n. fonetic letter or symbol; fonautograf; in- 
strument for recording and reproducing sounds [also spelt 
fonograf} 'foo-n3-gz:a:f. 

phonographer n. fonetist; shorthand-writer [also spelt fo- 
nografer} fa'negra-fa?. 

phonogpraphic adj. [also spelt fonografici fona'gzraefik. 

phonogpraphy n. writing fonetically; fonetic shorthand, use 
of the fonograf [also spelt fonografyl fa'negzra-fi. 

phonotsrpy n. fonetic printing [also spelt fonotypyl 'foo-na- 
tai-pi, fa'neti-pi. 

phosgene n. carbon oxychlorid [synonymous cognate phos- 
gen\ 'fes-dsin. 

phosphate n. (salt of phosphoric acid) 'fe-sfet. 

phosphorescence n. (the quality of shining in the dark 
without sensible heat) fesfa'^esans. 

phosphorize v. [also spelt phosphorisel 'fesfd-zraiz. 

phosphorons adj. (phosphorescent; full of phosphorus) 
'fesfa-ras. 

J yc, 9 cure; 5tKe, Q th\tv,^^aL2\ire, dj/oy; ^ shoe, tl chew; 
wwhen; x)sing; uwhoevet, \tc^c\., xiiu\V v^'^^ooV \xt, lis^^; 
o poetic; dov^r, eoerial, A.^iut, ;i*.^oot, -^iCi^o, ^\ie^, ^^^<fts:\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 407 

phoiphomi n. (element) 'fesfd-zrss. 

phoiphnreted adj, [also spelt phosphuretted} 'fesfio-^etid. 

photooliToiiiy n. (coloring fotografs; color-fotografy) 'ioo- 
t3-ksomi, fd'tek^d-mi. 

photograph v, [also spelt fotograf; past participle and pret- 
erit photographed, fotograft'\ 'foo-ta-gzaif. 

photographer n. [also spelt fotograf er'\ fa'tegea-fa?. 

photographio adj. [also spelt fotografici fots'g^xfik. 

photography n. [also spelt fotograf y'i fa'teg^s-fi. 

photogravure n. fDO-ta'geee-vjae, foo-tag^a'vjo:?. 

photometer n. (light-measuring device) fa'temi-ts?. 

phraie n. (written expression) fseez. 

phraseolog^y n. (diction, style) f3ezi'el3-d3i. 

phrenetic adj. fsi'netik. see frenetic. 

phrenitio adj. (affected with phrenitis) fsi'nitik. 

phrenitii n. (brain fever) fsi'nai-tis. 

phrenologio adj. (of phrenology) f3en9led3ik; {less proper- 
ly) fsinsledsik. 

phrenology n. (study of mental faculties, etc.) f^i'neld-dsi. 

phthizio n. consumption [also spelt tisic'\ 'tizik. 

phthliis n. consumption [also, ,«ometimes, spelt tisis'\ '6ai> 
SIS, 'f9ai-sis, 'tai-sis, 'tisis, 'tii-sis, 'f9isis. 

phyle n. clan; political unit; brigade [ploral phylae^ 'fai-h. 

phylloxera n. (plant-louse) fibk'si:-79. 

phylogeny n. (genesis of a tribe) fi'led3i-ni. 

phylum n. tribe, race [ploral phyla] 'fai-lam. 

phyialite n. (variety of topaz) 'fisa-lait, (less properly) 
'fiz9-}ait, 'fai-S3-}ait. 

phyiio V. dose with physic, etc. [present participle physick- 
ing, past participle and pi'etent physicked, physict} 'fizik. 

phyiician n. (medical man; doctor) fi'ziSan. 

phyiiciit n. (one verst in physics; believer in physicism) 
'fizi-sist. 

phyiicky adj, (of or like physic or drugs) 'fizi-ki. 

phyiiognomic adj. (of physiognomy; characteristic) fizi-eg- 
'nemik, fizi-a'nemik. 

phyiiognomist n. (one skild in physiognomy) fizi'egnd- 
mist, fizi'ena-mist, 

phyiiognomy n. (art of judging character from facial or 
bodily features; face; countenance) fizi'egna-mi, fizi'ena-mi. 

phyiiology n. (science of organic functions) fizi'ela-dsi. 

phyiiqne n. (physical or bodily structure) fi'ziik. 

phytology n. (botany) fai'tela-dsi, fi'tela-dsi. 

c: low, b: f «r, ae cot, e hot, ei hoy ; a: for, ao now, a*. a?k, -ax V\\.^\ 
length-mark (:) indicates that the ptecediw^ ^o\ycv\ a."?* V»x\sk\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \5cl^ i^^XoHavcv^ ^-f^^S^^- 



408 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pi n., V. in printing^ disorderd type [also spelt pie, pyel pai. 
piaffe V. move somewhat as in trotting [past participle and 

preterit piaffed, piqffi pi'aef. 
pia mater n, (inmost membrane investing the brain and 

spinal cord) pai-d'mee-ts?. 
pianisiimo adj. (very soft) pi-d'nisi-mo. 
piaiiiit n. (player on the piano) pi'senist, 'pii-9-nist. 
pianiito n. (a pianist, especially a female pianist) pi-a'niist. 
piano adj. (soft) pi'a:-n3. 

piano n. (a soft or gentle passage or tone) pi'a:-iK>. 
piano n. (pianoforte) pi'aenD, pi'a:-n3. 
pianoforte n. (musical instrument; piano) pi-dtno'io'.z-tit pi- 

'aeno-f o:3-ti ; pi'aeno-f o:3t ; pi-a:-no'fo:3-ti, pi'a:-no-fo:r-ti. 
piaiiaba n. -woody fiber [synonymous cognates piassava, pia- 

cabal pi-3'sa:-b3, pi'aes3-b3. 
piaster n. Spanish dollar; Turkish coin [also spelt piastre} 

pi'aestazr, 
piazza n. (public square; plaza; veranda) pi'aezd. 
pibroch n. (Scotch music) 'pii-bz:ek; (less properly) 'pai- 

hzek, 
pie n. Turkish measure [also spelt pike, pik and, formerly, 

peek, pick"] piik, pik. 
pica n. (in all senses) 'pai-kd. 
picador n. (mounted man who pricks the bull at the opening 

of a bull-fight) pika'do:?. 
picareiqne adj, of picaroons or roques [also spelt pickares- 

quel pika'resk. 
picayune n. (half real; five-cent piece; petty coin) pika- 

'juun. 
piccadill n. (obsolete) border, ruff, collar [also spelt picka- 

dill; synonymous cognates peccadillo, pickydilly^ etc.] 'pika- 

dil. 
piccaninny n. little one; child; baby, especially of any ne- 
groid race [also spelt pickaninny, picaninny"] 'pika-nini. 
piccolo n. (flute) 'pika-lo. 

pice n. coin of India [also sfteh pyse; ploral picel pais. 
piceoni adj. (of or like pitch; pitch-black) 'pisi-as, 'piji-as, 

'pijas, (rarely) 'pai-si-3s. 
pichiciago n. (truncate armadillo) pitSisi'ee-go, pitSisi'a:-go. 
piciform adj. (pitch-like) 'pisi-fo:rm. 
piciform. adj, (formd like a woodpecker) 'pai-si-fe:em, 'pisi- 

feizm, 
picine adj. (of woodpeckers) 'pai-sain, 'pai-sin. 

J yCf ccure; 5 the, Q thitv-, ^asure, ds/oy; I shoe, tl chew; 
wwhen; t) s\ng\ uwVioever, iTesitV, \iiu\V vi>a.iooV -i^t, lis^^; 
o poetic; oov^r, eoerial, xWl, ^-.dooT, ^i^x^o, ^.>ae^, ^.^%a\fc\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 409 

piokabaok adj. on the shoulders or back like a pack [syn> 
enymous cognates pickback, pickapack, pickpack, pighack, 
piggyback'^ 'piks-bsek. 

piokase n. toll [also spelt piccage} 'pikids. 

piokax n. tool [also spelt pickaxe; ploral pickaxesi 'pik-xks. 

pioked adj. (pointed, peaked; prickly) 'pikid. 

picked adj. selected; choice [also spelt picktl pikt. 

pickerel n. (young pike, etc.) 'pika-ral, 'pik^sl. 

picnic n. party, etc [also spelt pic-nic and, formerly; pick- 
nick, pique-nique} 'pik-nik, 'pikNik. 

picnic V* [present participle picnicking^ past participle and 
preterit picnicked, picnict} 'pik-nik. 

picnicker n. 'pik-niks?. 

picra n. (bitter cathartic) 'piksa, 'pai-k^a. 

picric adj. (carbazotic) 'piksik, {rarely) 'pai-k^ik. 

picture n. (painting, portrait, etc.) 'pikt$9z:, 'pikt^sz:. 

pictnreiqne adj. (picture-like) piktjd'^esk, pikt^d'resk. 

picnl n. oriental measure [also spelt picol, pekul, pikul} 
'pi-kxl, 'pikAl. 

pie n. pastry dish [also, formerly, spelt pyel pai. 

pie n, set of rules; index [also spelt pye} pai. 

pie n. coin of India [also spelt pai, pi; ploral pie, piesi pai. 

piebald adj. (having patches of different colors; parti-col- 
ord) 'pai-bc:ld. 

piece n. (portion; fragment; thing) piis. 

pied adj. (parti-colord) paid. 

piepo'wder n. wayfarer [also spelt piepoudre^ 'pai-pao-dd?. 

pier n. (support of a bridge or arch; mole; jetty) pi:?. 

pierce v, (thrust thru; penetrate) pi:zs. 

pieroins n,, adj. 'pi:2r-sii}. 

piet n. magpie; water-ouzel [also spelt pyct, pyoO 'pai-at. 

Pieiisni. n. (principles of the German Pietists) 'pai-i-tizdm. 

pietiit n. (pious person) 'pai-i-tist. 

piety n. (quality of being pious) 'pai-i-ti. 

pigeon n. dove [also, formerly, spelt pidgeoni 'pidsan. 

pigeon-Englisk n. lingua franca of ports of the Far East 
[synonymous cognate pidgin-EnglishI pidsan'iqghj, (assump- 
iivly) 'pid33n-ir)ghS. 

pisgy n. little pig [also spelt piggiel 'pigi. 

pigheaded adj. obstinate, stupid, perverse [also spelt pig- 
heded] pigTiedid, (assumptivly) 'pig-hedid. 

piked adj. (having a pike; sharp-pointed) 'pai-kid, paikt. 

pilaiter n. (rectangular pillar; anta) pilxsts?. 

c: law, b: f«r, x cat, o hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, ao ncou, ^\ a-^V., ^-vVaXs-n 
\Bngth-mark (:) indicates that t\ie pteee^itv?^ ^<i>\xv\ a.% "^^'^*"» 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on ^iiit i^Vvo^vcv^ ^^a^-^w^^. 



410 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pilau n. oriental dish [also spelt pillau, pilaw, pillow, pelaiw; 

synonymous cognates pilao, pilaff} pile: , piloo, pilao. 
pileate adj. (capt; crested) 'pili-et, 'pai-)i-9t. 
pilgarlic n. (poor creature; wretch) pirga:z-4ik. 
pilg^mase n. (journey of a pilgrim) 'pilgzi-mids. 
pilgrimize v. play the pilgrim [also spelt pilgrimisel 'pitgn- 

maiz. 
pillar n. (column) 'pildz. 

pillo'w n. (head-rest; cushion) 'pdo; {vulgarly) 'pild. 
piloie adj. (hairy) pailoos, {assumptivly) 'pai-los; (also, 

rarely) piloos. 
pilui n. hair-like body [ploral pilil 'pai-Jss. 
pimento n. dried berries; tree [synonymous cognate pitnen- 

tal pi'mento. 
pinacoid adj. slab-like [also spelt pinakoid} 'pins-keid. 
pinaootheoa n. (pinacothek) pinskd'Oii-ks. 
pinacothek n. art museum [also spelt pinacotheckl 'pind- 

kd-Oek. 
pinafore n. (child's apron) 'pind-foz. 
pinaster n. (cluster-pine) pi'nxstsz, pai'naestdr. 
pinaz n. tablet; register; catalog; platter [ploral pinaces, 

pinakesl 'pi-naeks, 'pinaeks, 'pai-nxks. 
pince-nes n. (eyeglasses) 'p£i]s-ne. 
pincers n. nippers [dialectal synonymous substitute pinchers} 

'pinsa^z. 
pinch V. nip, squeeze [past participle and preterit pinched, 

pincht} pints, (also, in Britain, often) pinj. 
pinchbeck n. (alloy) 'pintj-bek. 
pinchers n. 'pint^drz. same meaning as pincers, 
Pindaric adj. (of Pindar) pin'daezik. 
pineal adj. (shaped like a pine-cone) 'pai-ni-dl, 'pini-si, 

(rarely) pai'nii-3l. 
pinic adj. (of pine) 'pai-nik. 

pinioned adj. winged [also spelt piniondl 'pinjvind. 
pinite n. (saccharin substance from pine-tree sap) 'pi-nait, 

'pai-nait. 
pinnacle n. (turret) ^pins-ksl. 

pinnatifid adj. pinnately cleft at least half-way to the mid- 
dle; pinnisected [synonymous cognate pennatifid} pi'naeti- 

fid, (rarely) 'pinati-fid. 
pinnatipartite adj. pi-neti'paz-tait, pi-naeti'pa?-tait. 
pinocle n. 'pina-kal. same meaning as penuckle. 
pinon n. (nut-pine) 'pinjan, pi'njei]. 

} yc, gcure; 5 the, tkiiv, ^aisute, ^-sio^*, ^sKoe, tjr/iew; 
wwhen; r) sing; uwVioevet, itcacV, viiuW, vk>\\ooV -lVx, \\%.ee% 
o poetic; a ov^r, e aerial, xbut, o\^oot, ^^txo, ^\ic^, ^^^a\sL\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 411 

piny adj, of pine [also spelt piney} 'pai-ni. 

pipa n. (toad) 'pai-ps, pi'pa: . 

pipage n. [also, formerly, spelt pipeage} 'pai-pids. 

pipiitrel n. bat [also spelt pipistrelWi pipi'stset 

piqnanoy n. (appetizing flavor; tartness; quality of being 
piquant) 'pii-kan-si, 'pikan-si. 

piquant adj, (sharp; keen; lively) 'pii-kdnt, 'piksnt, 'pii- 
kant, 'pii-kaent, 'pi-kant, 'pi-kaent, piTcaent, 'pii-kcnt, 'pii- 
keq. 

piquante adj, (piquant : used especially as a f eminin ; live- 
ly; taking) pi'kamt. 

pique n. (ill-feeling; offense taken) piik. 

piquet n. (card-game) pi'ket, 'pikit, {rarely) piTcee. 

piqn^-'work n. decorativ needlework; tortoise-shell work 
[also spelt piquet-work, picqui-work^ pi'kee-WB:z:k. 

piracy n. (robbery at sea, etc.) 'pai-zra-si. 

pirag^ua n. canoe [synonymous cognates periagua, pirogue"} 
pi'raegwa. 

pixatical adj. (pirate-like; pirated) pai'zrxti-kdl. 

pirl V, twist, wind, spin, purl; revolv; curl, ripple [past par- 
ticiple and preterit pirled, pirld} pBizh compare purlj 

pirouette n. (whirling toe-dance) piru'et. 

pirr n. tern, pirr-mau; black-heded gull [also spelt pirre, 
purrel pBiz. compare purr^ 

piscatory adj, (of fishers or fishing) 'piskd-to^i. 

pisciculture n. (fish-culture) 'pisi-kAltSa?. 

piscina n. fishpond [plural piscinae, piscinas] pi'sii-ns, pi- 
'sai-na. 

piscine n. pool, pond [also, sometimes, spelt piscin] 'pisin, 
pi'siin. 

piscine adj, (of fish) 'pi-sain, 'pisin. 

pismire n. (ant) 'pis-mai?, 'piz-mai?. 

pistacliio n. (nut; tree; color) pis'ta:-So, pi'star-Jo; pis'ta:- 
Si-o, pis'tee-Si-o, pis'tee-Jo, pis'taejo, pis'taeSi-o. 

pistil n. (seed-bearing organ) 'pistil. 

pistol V, shoot with a pistol [present participle pistoling, pis- 
tolling', past participle and preterit pistoled, pistolled, pis- 
told] 'pistl, 'pistal. 

pistol n. (firearm) 'pistl, 'pistal. 

pistole n. (Spanish gold coin) pi'stool. 

pistoleer n. one who uses a pistol [former synonymous cog- 
nate pistolier] pistali:?. 

piston n. (plunger) 'pistn, 'pistan. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, ei boy ; a: far, ao note;, a: ask, ai k«te ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the ptectd\T\^ ^Q.>a?cv\ ^s. "^^"^^N 
stress-marir C) indicates chief stress oti ^Dcit i^>\ci^vcv%» ^>jvc^vfc. 



412 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

pitapat adv. patteringly; flutteringly ; with light step [also 

spelt pit-a-pat; synonymous cognates pitpat, pittypat, pitty- 

pattyl 'pit3-paet. 
piteoni adj. (full of pity) 'piti-ss. 
pith n. (spongy tissue; marrow; essence; vigor) piO. 
pithecoid adj. (ape-like, simian) pi'Oii-koid, 'piOi-keid. 
pitiable adj. (exciting pity; pityful) 'piti-a-bal. 
pitiful adj. (full of pity; pitiable) 'piti-fal. 
pitileii adj. (without pity; merciless) 'piti-Jds. 
pittance n. (pious donation; dole; small amount) ^pitns, 

'pitans, 
pitticite n, pit-chy iron-ore [synonymous cognate pittisite] 

'piti-sait. 
pituita n. (phlegm; mucus) pitgu'ai-td. 
pituitary adj. (of pituita; mucous) pi'tgou-i-tC3i, 'pitgu-i- 

tczri. 
pixy n. fairy [also spelt pixie; ploral pixiesi 'piksi. 
pizzicato adj. (pluckt) pitsi'ka:-t3. 
placable adj. (appeasable) 'p^ee-kd-bdl, 'pz^ks-bdh 
placard n. (notice, bill, poster) 'pz^-ka^d, 'pz^kd^d; pz^ 

'karzrd, ptae'kaird. 
placard v. (set up placards on or in ; post as a placard) 'pLse- 

ka^d, 'ptaeka^d; pta'kaizrd, ptae'karrd. 
placate v. (pacify) 'ptee-ket, 'ptaeket; pta'keet. 
placatory adj. (propitiatory) 'ptee-ka-tozi, 'pi-aeka-tozri. 
placcate n. (armor) 'ptae-kct, 'pz-aeket. 

place n. (space; locality; residence) ptees. | 

placeable adj. (capable of being placed) 'pz^ee-sd-bsl. 
placebo n. pacifying medicin [plural placebos, placeboes} 

pz.3'sii-bD. 
placoid adj. (plate-like) 'ptae-koid. 
plagiarisiu n. (literary theft, etc.) 'ptee-dsi-a-rizam, 'ptee- 

d33-?iz3m ; (less properly) 'ptaedsi-a-rizam. 
plagiarist n. (one guilty of plagiarism) 'pz-ee-dsi-a-zrist, 

'pLee-d33-rist. 
plagiarize v. [also spelt plagiarise} 'pz-ee-dsi-a-^aiz, 'ptce- 

d33-7aiz. 
plagiary n. (formerly, kidnapper; now, plagiarist; plagia- 
rism) 'pz-ee-dsi-e^i, 'ptee-dsa-^i. 
plag^ne n. (affliction, scourge, pestilence) pteeg. 
plag^nily adv. (in a plaguy manner) 'pz.ee-gi-h. 
plaguy adj. pestiferous; that is a plague; vexatious [also, 

formerly, spelt plaguey} 'pz-ee-gi, (often) 'ptegi. 

j yCf ccure; 5 tfie, 6(fiin; sa^ure, ds/oy; I shoe, tjcliew; 
wwhen; t]sing; u whoever, itcslcX., xiiuW, \i>\\oo\, ^\t, lis^^, 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e aerial, ^but, o*. ^oot, ^qt^o, ^.\ic^, ^^%a\&\ 






DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 413 



plaice n. flatfish [also, fermerly, spelt plaise} pLees. 

plaid n. (garment; fabric) pLxd, pLeed. 

plaided adj. (drest in a plaid; made of plaid) 'ptaedid, 'ptee- 

did. 
plain n. (tract of flat land; level country region; prairie) 

pLeen. 
plain adj. (flat, level, smooth, even; open; easy; frank; 

clear, manifest; simple) pLeen. 
plainness n. (evenness; candor; clearness) 'pteen-nis. 
plaintiff n. (person who begins a suit : correlativ of de- 
fendant 'pi.een-tif. 
plaintive adj. mournful [also spelt plaintivl 'pteen-tiv. 
plait V, (fold flat ; gather in pleats ; pleat) pteet, pii-iit ; (braid 

or intertwine so as to form a plait, band or rope; plat) 

piLeet, pLset. 
plait n. (fold of cloth; pleat) pteet, ptiit; (fold, crease, 

wrinkle, sinuosity in a natural structure; quirk, trick) pz^eet; 

(contexture of interlaced strands; braid, cord, plat) pteet, 

ptaet. 
planar adj. (of a plane; flat) 'pi:.ee-n9?. 
planchet n. (coin-blank) 'pi:.xnt$it. 
planchette n. (board for automatic writing) pz^n'Set, pteq- 

'$et. 
plane n. (smoothing-tool) pteen. 
plane n. (flat, even, or level surface) pteen. 
planeshear n. covering-board [synonymous cognate plank- 

sheerl 'pteen-Si:r. 
planish v. level; flatten; polish [past participle and preterit 

planished, planishtl 'ptaeniS. 
planoTblast n. (wandering germ; free-swimming hydrozoan 

bud) 'ptaena-bfa:st, 'pi:.ee-n3-bla:st. 
plant n. (tree, herb, vegetal organism; fixtures, machinery, 

etc.) pLa:nt, pi-aent. 
plantain n. (herb of the genus Plantago, etc.) 'ptaentin, 

'ptaen-ten. 
plantain n. plane-tree, platan, plane [former synonymous 

cognate platani 'ptaentin, 'ptaen-ten. 
plantar adj. (of the sole of the foot) 'ptaentar. 
plaqne n. (ornamental plate; eruption; blood-plate) pLa:k, 

pta:k, pz.aek. 
plasma n. (shape; quartz; liquid; plasm) 'ptaezma, 'pLsesMs. 
plaster v, overlay; bedaub [past participle and preterit plas- 
tered, plasterdi 'pLa:-st3?. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, © hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: osk, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the preceditv^ ^omxv^ \^ VkTk."st\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on tVi^ i^Wo^vci^j, «^^^a5c^&» 



414 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

■ — m 

plaatio adj, (capable of being molded; formativ, etc) 

'pz.ae8tik. 
plat n. flat part; foot-bridge; flat country [also, formerly, 

spelt platt} pLaet. 
plat n. (plot) pLxt. 
plat n. (a contexture of interlaced straw, hair, etc.; braid; 

plait) pLSt. 
plat V, (intertwine, plait) pz^t. 
platan n. oriental plane-tree [synonymous cognate platane] 

'pLStsn. 
plate n. (flat sheet of metal; shallow dish; silver or gold 

ware) pz.eet. 
plate v» (overlay or coat with metal) pteet. 
plateau n. table-land; tray for the table [ploral plateaux, 

plateaus! pta'too, ptae'too. 
plateaux n. (ploral of plateau) pz^s'tDoz. 
platen n. impression-plate of a printing-press [also spelt 

platten; synonymous cognates platin, plattin\ 'pz^tn, < 

'ptaetan. 
platina n. archaic (platinum) 'pi:.aetn-3, 'pz^aeti-ns, pz^s'tii-nd. 
platinize v, [also spelt platinisel 'pz^tn-aiz. 
platinotype n. (fotografy in platinum-black) 'pz^tn-9-taip. 
platinnm n. (metal) 'pLsetn-sm, 'pLXti-ndm, (rarely) pz^'tii- 

nam. 
Platonist n. (follower of Plato) 'ptee-ta-nist ; (less properly) 

'pz.aet3-nist. 
platyrliine adj. broad-nosed [also spelt platyrrhine and, 

sometimes, platyrhin} 'ptaeti-^in, 'ptaeti-^ain. 
plansible adj. formerly, praiseworthy; now, fair-seeming, 

specious) 'pi:.c:-z3-bal. 
plansive adj. applausiv [also spelt plausivl 'ptc:-siv, 'pi.c:- 

ziv. 
play V. exercise, etc [past participle and preterit played, 

playd"] ptee, (when unstrest) pte. 
plaza n. (market-place, square) 'pLa:-z3, 'pi.a:-z3. 
pleasance n. pleasure, joy; pleasantry; pleasure-ground [al- 
so, sometimes, spelt plaisance, plesance"] 'ptezons, 'pLii-zsns, 

pLe'zeqs. 
pleasant adj. pleasing, agreeable [also spelt plesantl 

'ptezant, 'pLeznt. 
pleasantry n. fun; jest [also spelt plesantry; plural pleas- 
antries'! 'ptezan-tEi, 'pLezn-tji. 
please v, (gratify; be pleased) pz.iiz, (when unstrest) piAz. 

J y^t ccure; 5 the, Q(fiin; 5 arure, ds/oy; I shot, t^ chew, 
wwhen; 13 sin^; u whoever, iTea,c\., vi\u\\, v»>\iool, \it, lis^^; 
o poetic; 3 ov^r, e oerial, xWt, ;i*.^oot, ^aouo, ^\iee^, ^^^cxv. 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 415 

pleasure n. enjoyment, gratification [also spelt plesurel 

'pz.e33?; (dialectally) 'pLee-33?. 
pleat V, (fold into pleats; plait) pLiit. 
plebeian n. (one of the plebs; commoner) pLi'bii-sn, pLi- 

'bii-3n, pti'bii-jan. 
plebeianize v. make plebeian; vulgarize [also spelt plebei- 

anisel pti'bii-a-naiz. 
plebiscite n. plebiscitum; direct vote of all the electors [also, 

sometimes, spelt plebicit'] 'ptebi-sait, 'ptebi-sit, 'ptebi-sit; 

(improperly) pi-i'bisit. 
pledge V. (pawn; bind; assure the performance of) pteds. 
pledgeable adj. 'pLedss-bs}. 
pledgee n. (one with whom a pledge is deposited; pawnee) 

pLcds'ii, pte'dsii. 
pledger n. (one who deposits a pledge, pawner; one who 

pledges himself) 'ptedsa?. 
pledgor n. in law, correlativ of pledgee [also spelt pledgeor'i 

pz-eds'e:?. 
pleiad w. (brilliant cluster of persons or things) 'pz.ai-aed, 

'ptai-3d. 
plein-air adj, open-air : said of schools of painting, etc. 

[also spelt plain-airl 'pi:.een-e:?. 
Pleistocene adj. (Newer Pliocene; Post-Pliocene) 'pi:.ai-st3- 

sin. 
plenary n, (complete) 'pi^ii-n^-zi ; (less properly) 'ptena-^i. 
plenipotentiary adj. (invested with full power; absolute) 

ptenipa'tenSa-zi, pi-enipo'tenSi-eri, ptenipa'tcnSi-a-?!. 
plenitnde n. (fulness) 'pi:.eni-tcud. 
plenteous adj. (plentiful, copious; fertil) 'ptenti-ds. 
pleonasm n. (redundancy) 'pLii-s-nsezdm. 
plethora n. (over-fulness, etc.) 'pteGa-za, pi.i'Qo:-z9. 
plethoric adj. (of full habit of body; swollen) pLi'Oe^ik, 

'pteOa-jik. 
pleurisy n. (inflammation of the pleura) 'pto:-?i-si. 
plicate adj, (folded, pleated) 'pi:.ai-ket. 
plicate V. (fold, pleat) 'ptai-ket, pti'keet. 
pliers n. pi, (pincers) 'ptai-a^z. 
plight n. (pledge, engagement) ptait. 
plight n. (condition, state) pLait. 
Pliocene adj» Upper Tertiary [also spelt Pleiocenel 'p^ai-a- 

sin. 
plot n. piece of ground; plan, map, scheme [synonymous 

cognate platl ptet. 

c: law, b: fwr, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-marlf (:) indicates that the ptece^itv^ ^ciwxv^ a% Vjrok.V'. 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on Wve i^Wo^va% ^-"f^a^;^^^ 



I 



416 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

plover n. (bird) 'ptAvar; (erroneously) 'ptoo-var. 

ploxr n.,v. [also spelt plough; as verb, past participle and 
preterit plowed, plowd\ pz.ao. 

ploiTman n. [also spelt ploughman; ploral plowmenl 'pLQo- 
man. 

ploxrshare n. [also spelt ploughshare^ 'pLao-Se:?- 

plnm n. (fruit; tree) pLAm. 

plnmage n. (feathers collectivly) 'pLou-mids. 

plumb n. ball of led; plummet; the vertical [also spelt 
pluml pLAm. 

plumb adj, vertical; downright [also spelt plum"} pz^Am. 

plumb adv. vertically; exactly; quite [also spelt plumj pujn. 

plumber n. (artizan who works in led, etc.) 'pLAmssr. 

plumose adj, (featherd) pLu'moos, (assumptivly) 'pz.ou-mos. 

plumule n. (rudimentary shoot; little feather; plume-like 
part) 'pz.ou-mjul. 

pluperfect adj, completed prior to some past time [synony- 
mous cognate plusperfectl 'ptou-pozfikt, ptu'pB?fikt. 

plnralixe v. make plural; become plural [also spelt pluraiise] 
'pLo:-r3-laiz. 

plutocracy n. rule of wealth [also spelt ploutocracyl pLQ- 
'tek33-si. 

pneumatic n. (of, or acting by means of, wind or air; of 
gases) nju'matik. 

pnenmatize v. pass air thru; render pneumatic [also spelt 
pneumatisel 'njou-ma-taiz, (rarely) 'pNJou-ma-taiz. 

pneumonia n. (inflammation of the lungs) nju'moo-ni-s, 
njo'moo-nja. 

podagra n, (gout) 'pedd-g??, po'daeg^s. 

podag^c adj. (of podagra; gouty) po'daeg^ik. 

poe-bird n. parson-bird, tui [also spelt poe-birdi 'poo-i-bsr^d. 

poem n, (work in verse) 'poo-im; (improperly) 'poo-am, paom. 

poesy n. (poetry; poet's art) 'poo-i-si; (less properly) 'poo- 
i-zi. 

poet n. (writer of poems) 'poo-it; (improperly) 'pDo-at, poot 

poetaster n. (rimester) 'poo-i-tasta^, po-i'taestaz. 

poetess n. (female poet) 'poo-i-tis. 

poetic adj. (of or like poetry) po'etik. 

poetize v. [also spelt poetise'^ 'poo-i-taiz. 

poetry n. (art or work of a poet; verse) 'poo-i-tji; (improp- 
erly) 'poo-a-tji, 'poo-tji. 

pogge n. (fish) peg. 

poignancy n. (quality of being poignant) 'pei-nan-si. 

j ye, ccure; "^Xh^y QtKrn; -s^satc^, ^"SW; ^shoe, tj cAew; 
wwhtn: nsina; uv/Vioevet, Vte^LCt, vi\u\\, vi>\\ooV ^Vx, <x^t,.\ 
opoc^ci oov^r, eaena\, kWX., ^'.^oot, ^^.tvo, ^\.e$., ^^^^^\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 417 

poisiuuLt adj, (piercing, keen, sharp, pungent, piquant) 'pei- 

nsnt; {improperly) 'piuei-nant, 'pei-njant. 
poison V, administer poison to; corrupt [past participle and 

preterit poisoned, poisondl 'pei-zan, 'pei-zn. 
polaore n. vessel [synonymous cognate polaccal pslar-kd?. 
polarixatioiL n. [also spelt polarisation\ poldzi'zee-^dn, pold- 

rai'zee-San. 
polarize v. cause to exhibit polar or axial differences; give 

polarity to [also spelt polarise'^ 'poo-la-raiz. 
poldavy n. sailcloth [synonymous cognate poldavisl pol'dee- 

VI. 

poleaz n. battle-ax; halbert; butcher's ax [also spelt pole-ax, 
poleaxe, pole-axe, pollax; plural poleaxesl 'pool-aeks. 

police n. (public order; police force) pa'his, po'his; (vul- 
garly) 'poo-lis. 

polish v., n. (shine, gloss) 'peh$. 

Polish adj. (of Poland) 'poo-hS. 

polished adj. [also spelt polisM 'pehSt. 

politician n. (one skild in politics) peh'tiSsn. 

politicise V. act the politician; render political [also spelt 
politicise'^ pa'hti-saiz. 

poll n. (head, vote, etc.) pool. 

poll V. crop; pollard; bring to the poll as voters; vote at a 
poll [past participle and preterit polled, poldl pool. 

pollack n. fish [also spelt pollockl 'pel^k. 

poUan n. (fish) 'pebn. 

pollen n. (flower-dust) 'pelsn. 

pollixvog n. tadpole [also spelt pollywog; synonymous cog- 
nates polliwig, pollywigl 'poh-wog. 

polonaise n. (garment; dance) peld'neez, pol9'neez. 

polverin n. ashes [also spelt polverinel 'polva-^in. 

polygamic adj. (of polygamy; polygamous) pefi'gaemik. 

polygamy n. (marriage with several at once) po'liga-mi. 

polyglot adj. speaking several languages; of or in many lan- 
guages [also spelt polyglotti 'peh-glet. 

polygon n. (many-angled figure) 'poh-gen, 'peh-gan. 

polyhedron n. many-sided solid [synonymous cognate poly- 
edron; ploral polyhedra, polyhedronsi poh'hii-dran, poh- 
'hedran. 

Polynesian adj. (of Polynesia) poh'nii-San, poh'nii-san; 
peh'nii-Si-an, poh'nii-si-an, poli'nii-si-on. 

polyp n. many-footed animal; hydra; polypide; isopod [also 
spelt polype"] 'pohp. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, o hot, ©i boy ; a: far, ao now, a: ask, ai ktte ; 
length-mark (;) indicates that the pteced\T\?> ?,o\\xv^ \% \wv5l\ 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on t\ie 1q>\q^v^% «f\";^^^ 



418 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

polypliony n. (multiplicity of sounds; counterpoiiit; poly- 

fonic writing) pslifs-ni, 'peh-foni. 
polyphyllons adj. (many-leaft) peli'fitss; (less properly) 

pdlifd-las. 
polypidnm n. (supporting-structure of a polyp-colony; poly- 

pary) pa'hpi-dam, 'pehpi-dam. 
polypier n. (polypary) 'peh-pi:?. 
polypody n. (fern) 'peh-podi, 'peh-pedi. 
polyporons adj. (having many pores) pslips-rds. 
polypus n. (cuttle-fish; polyp; tumor) 'pe!i-p9s. 
polysyllabic adj, (of many syllables; characterized by poly- 
syllables) peh-silaebik, pehsi'laebik. 
polysyllable n. (word of many syllables) peh'sitd-bd!, 'peli- 

sild-bdl. 
polytheism n. (belief in many gods) 'peh-6i-iz9m, 'peliOi- 

izdm. 
pomace n. crusht apples; pulp; fish-scrap; cake [also spelt 

pomice, pommice, pummice, pummace} 'pAmis; (improperly) 

'pemis. 
pomade n. (scented ointment; pomatum) ps'meed, po'meed, 

po'mard, pe'ma:d. 
pomatum n. (pomade) ps'mee-tdm. 
pomegranate n. (tree) 'pem-g^aenit, pem'g?aenit, 'pAm- 

g^aenit, pAm'gzaenit. 
pomelo n. grapefruit [synonymous cognates pomello, pom- 

melo, pomolo, putnelo, pummelo'i 'pemi-lo, 'pAmi-lo. 
pommel n. knob, ball; saddle-bow [also spelt pummel] 

'pAmal. 
pommel v, beat; bruise [also spelt pummel; present parti- 
ciple pommeling, pommelling; past participle and preterit 

pommeled, pommelled, pommeldl 'pAmal. 
pomLmielled adj. having a pommel of a specified tincture : 

said of a sword [also spelt pomelled, pommeld, pomeld] 

'pAmald. 
pompadour n. (mode of hair-dressing; color; fabric; pat- 
tern; bird) 'pemp3-do?, 'pempai-do^. 
pomipaiio n. fish [also, sometimes, spelt pomponol 'pemps- 

no, pem'pa:-no. 
Pompeian adj, (of Pompeii) pem'pii-an, pem'pii-jan, pem- 

'pee-an. 
pomipelmLOOse n. shaddock [synonymous cognate pampel- 

mousel 'pempal-mus. 
pomLpion. n. pumpkin [also spelt pumpionl 'pAmpi-an. 

j .re, g cure ; 5 the, 8 *ftin ; 3 axrure. ds /oy ; 5 shoe, tS chey/ ; 
wwhen; rising; u whoever, VtcacI, wiuW., 'o>\ioo\, \\i, \\%ee\ 
o poetic, 3 over, eoeriaV xWt, ti-.^oot, -ao^o, ^\ie\, ^.^^yj^^N 



P 

P 

P 

I 
I 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 419 

pomposity n. (pompous conduct; ostentation) pem'pesi-ti. 
pompons adj, (full of pomp; lofty; boastful) 'pemp^s. 
poiLcho n. (cloak) 'pent^o, 'penlo. 
ponderous adj, (heavy; clumsy; dull) 'pends-rss, (rapidly) 

'pendrss. 
pone n. (in /aw, writ) 'poo-ni. 
pone n. (in vingt-et-un, the player to the left of the dealer; 

eldest hand) 'poo-ni. 
pone n. (cornbread) poon. 
pongee n. (silk) pen'dsii, {assumptivly) 'pendsi; {also) pxn- 

'dsii. 

poniard n. (dagger) 'penjd^d. 

pontifez n. high priest; pontiff; pope; bridge-builder [plor- 
al pontificesl 'penti-feks. 

pontiff n. (chief priest, high priest; bishop; pope) 'pentif. 

pontifical adj. (of a pontiff; high-priestly) pen'tifi-ksl. 

pontifioes n. (plural of pontifex) pen'tifi-siz. 

pontoon n. (flat-bottomd boat) pen'toun, (assumptivly) 'pen- 
tun. 

pony n, small horse [also spelt poney; plural ponies, poneysl 
'poo-ni. 

pooh interj. expressing impatience, disdain, disregard [for- 
mer synonymous cognates pugh, puh\ pou, {sometimes) po. 

pooh-pooh V. (express disdain for; make light of) pu'pou. 

pook n. puk. same meaning as puck} 

poor adj, (destitute, needy; bad) po:?, {when less strest) poz; 
{also) pu3. 

poorhonse n. 'pu:?-hGus, 'po:?-aus. 

pope-joan n. card-game [also spelt pope-Joan, Pope Joan"] 
poop'dsoon. 

popinjay n. (parrot ; woodpecker) 'pepin-dsee. 

poplar n. (tree) 'peptae. 

poplin n. (fabric) 'pepi-in. 

popliteal adj. (of the ham or hollow at the back of the knee) 
pe'pi:.iti-3l, pepti'tii-af. 

poppy n. plant; flower [plural poppies! 'pepi. 

popnlaoe n. (the common people; the multitude) 'pep?o-les, 
'pepgo-hs. 

popnlarization n. [also spelt popularisationi pepgo-lsri'zee- 
San, pepQula-^ai'zee-San. 

popularize v. make popular [also spelt popularise"! 'pepQo- 
l3-?aiz. 

porcelain n. (fine earthenware; china; piece of china-ware) 

c: \aw, b: f «r, ae cat, e hot, ei hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite ; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the ptece^iiv?, ?»ci\rcv\ -«. \«^%% 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on \Ji^ i^k^Xo'vvcv^, ^s'^-aJ^^- 



420 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

'pe:2s-lin, 'pe:?-sLin; 'po:rs-hn, 'po:?-si-in; 'p3:r-sx4en, 
'pe:rs-len, 'pe:?-si-hn, 'po:?-si-lon, 'pe:?-si-len. 

poroelainize v, convert into porcelain [also spelt porcelaUt- 
ise, porcellanise} 'poizs-h-naiz, 'po:rs-li-naiz, 

poroellaiLeons adj. of the nature of or like porcelain [syn- 
enymous cognates porcellanous, porcelanousi pessilee-ni-ds, 
po?si'Jee-ni-3S. 

porcellanio adj. like porcelain [also spelt porcelanici pessi- 
'laenik, po^si'laenik. 

porcellanite n. porcelain jasper [also spelt parceloHtte] 
'pe:?-sih-nait, por'seli-nait. 

porcellanous adj, 'pe:7-si-}en9s, p3z'seh-n9s. same mean- 
ing as porcellaneous. 

porcine adj. (of swine) 'per^-sain, 'pe:2-sin, 'poiz-sBin, 

pore V, (gaze; ponder) po:z. 

pore n. (hole, orifis) poiz. 

porgy n. fish [also spelt porgee, porghee and, fermerly, por- 
gie; synonymous cognates paugic, paughie; ploral porgies] 
'pe:?-gi. 

porose adj. (full of pores; porous) po'^oos, (assumptivly) 
'po:-ros. 

porous adj. (full of pores) 'poi-zss. ) 

porphyry n. (hard rock) 'pe:^-fi-ri. 

porpoise n. (cetacean) 'peiz-pas, 'peiz-peis. 

porridge n. (pottage, soup; oatmeal food) ^pezids* 

porringer n. (porridge-dish) 'pe^in-dsd?. 

port n. (harbor; haven; seaport) poizt. 

port n. (gate; porthole; aperture) poizt. 

port n. (deportment; mean; style of life) poizt. 

port n. (left; larboard) poizt. 

port n. (Oporto wine) poizt. 

port V. (carry or hold, as a rifle) poizt. 

portaled adj. having a portal [also spelt portalledl 'po:r-tald. 

portas n. breviary; roll [synonymous cognates porteous, par- 
tes, portess, porthos} 'poiz-tos. 

portonllis n. (vertically-sliding gate-grating) pozt'kAhs. 

Porte n. (Ottoman court) poizt. 

porte-cochdre n. (carriage-entrance) poizt-ko'lziz, 

porte-monnaie n. (purse) 'poizt-mo-ne. 

portent n. (omen, sign, token) 'po:?-tent, poz'tent; (less prop- 
erly) 'po:r-tent, pez'tent. 

porteress n. 'poiz-to-zis, (rapidly) 'po:r-tjis. same meaning 
as portress. 

) ye, ? cure; 5 the, 6 thin;^ 3 axrure, ds joy; S shoe, tS cheyr; 
IV when; ijsing', u whoever, itc^lcV, wiulv, QMfooU i tt, lis^^; 
o poetic; oov^r, e oeiiaV, A.\iu\., ;**, ^oox, ';iQXio, ^\ie\, ^.^^cfiyt\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 421 

portfolio n. portable receptacle for sheets of paper; min* 
ister's office [plural portfolios} port'foo-li-o. 

portico n. porch-like ambulatory; colonnade [plural porticos, 
porticoes} 'po:?-ti-ko. 

portidre n. (doorway curtain) 'po:z-tqez, 'po:?-ti-e:?, poj't^c:?. 

portmanteau n. traveling-case [plural portmanteaus, port- 
manteaux'} p37t'maent3. 

portrait n. (drawing; likeness) 'p3:?-t£it. 

portray v. represent, depict [past participle and preterit por- 
trayed, porirayd} po^'tjee. 

portress n. female porter or doorkeeper [synonymous cog- 
nate porteress} 'po:r-tjis. 

Portuguese adj. (of Portugal) 'po:?-tSo-giz, 'po:?-tSu-gis. 

portnlaca n. (plant) po^tSu'laekd, po^tQolaekd, portQu'lee-kd. 

posanne n. trombone; reed-stop [synonymous cognate po- 
saun} ps'zQu-nd, pd'sao-nd. 

positively adv. in a positiv manner; downright [also spelt 
positivly} 'pezitiv-h, {rapidly) 'peztiv-h; {occasionally or 
vulgarly) pezi'tivh. 

posse n. (sheriff's armd squad; possibility) 'pesi. 

possess V. (have; own) pa'zes; {less properly) pa'ses. 

possessed adj. controlled by a demon; crazy [also spelt pos- 
sest} pa'zest. 

possession n. (fact of possessing, etc.) ps'zeSdn. 

possessive adj. denoting possession; of possession [also spelt 
possessiv} pa'zesiv. 

possessor n. (one who possesses; owner) ps'zesd?. 

possible adj. (that may be; that can be done) 'pesd-bdl, {as- 
sumptivly) 'pessb^l; {also, often) 'pesi-bal. 

postage n. (amount charged for transmission by post or 
mail) 'poo-stids- 

postal adj. (of the post or mail) 'poo-stl, 'poo-stal. 

posterior adj. (later ; hinder) p©s'ti:-d-a? ; ^ {less properly) 
pos'ti:-^i-3zr. 

posthnmons adj. born after the death of its father; publisht 
after the death of the author; occurring after death [also, 
formerly, spelt postumous} 'pestSu-mas, 'peStJo-mas, 'pestgo- 
mas; {less properly) 'pest-hgo-mas, 'pest-ha-mas. 

postiche adj. (counterfeit, artificial, superadded) pes'tiij, 
pos'tiiS. 

posticnm n. (back door; back porch) pos'tai-kam. 

postil n. marginal note; commentary [also, formerly, spelt 
postill, postille; synonymous cognate postle} 'postil. 

c: law, b: fur, ae cat, © hot, ©i hoy ; a: far, au now, a: ask, ai kite; 
length-mark (:) indicates that the prece^itvtt ^c^mt^^ a^ \^TiV> 
stress-mark C) indicates chief stress on Xiv^ \q>\q^v5v^ «f^3J«^^. 



422 DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 

postil V, annotate [also spelt postel; past participle and pret- 
erit postilled, postild] 'pestil. 

postiler n. one who makes a postil; expositor [also spelt 
postillerl 'pesti-la?. 

postilion n. forerunner; post-boy; rider of the near leader, 
etc. [also spelt postillion} po'stilisn. 

post-obit adj. (taking effect after the death of some one; 
also, post-mortem) poost'oo-bit, poost'ebit. 

post-paid adj, paost'peed, {assumptivly) 'p30St-peed. 

postpone V. (put off; also, subordinate) pos'poon, post'paon. 

postscript n. (paragraph after the signature of a letter) 
'poos-sksipt, 'poost-sk3ipt. 

posy n. bouquet; flower [also, formerly, spelt posey, posie; 
ploral posiesl 'poo-zi. 

potable adj. (drinkable) 'poo-ts-bdl. 

potassium n. (metal) pd'taesi-sm; (less properly) ps'txl^va. 

potato n. tuber; batata, the plant [ploral potatoes'} ps'tee-ta; 
(improperly) ba'tee-to; (dialectally, vulgarly) pa'tee-ta, 1»- 
'tee-t3. 

potentate n. (prince, ruler; power) 'poo-tn-tet, 'pDO-tan-teL 

potentiality n. (quality of having power; possibility of ac- 
tion) p3-tenSi'aeh-ti. 

pother V. (fluster; trouble) 'po53?, 'pAdar. 

potpourri n. (stew; medley) po-pu'rii, pet'po:-ri. 

potsherd n. (fragment of earthenware) 'petSa^d, 'pet-Jazd. 

ponldron n. shoulder-plate [synonymous cognate pauldron] 
'pool-dran. 

poultice V, apply a poultice or cataplasm to [also spelt pod- 
tis; past participle and preterit poulticed, poultisti 'pool-tis. 

ponr V, cause to flow [past participle and preterit poured, 
pourd} po:z, (when unstrest) pozr. 

ponrboire n. (drink-money, douceur, tip, fee) 'paiz-hweiz, 
'po:^-bwc:?, 'po:?-bwa:?. 

ponter v. poke, stir, rummage [also spelt powterl 'pao-tar. 

power n. 'pau-a?, paoz; (also, in Britain) 'pau-ar, pao7. 

powwow n. priest, medicin-man; meeting; medicin [also 
spelt pow-wow\ synonymous cognate pawawl 'pao-wao. 

powwow V. (practis sorcery; hold a powwow; discuss) 'pao- 
wao, pao'wao. 

pozzolana n. volcanic ash [synonymous cognates possuola- 
na, puzzolano, puszuolana, puozzolanal petsa'lo'.-na. 

practicable adj. (feasible; usable) 'p^aektikd-bdl. 

practical adj. (of practis or action; useful) 'psaekti-kal. 

i y^, 5 cure ; 5 (He, Q tfiin ; 3 axrure, ds joy ; S sho^, tS ckcyr', 
wwhen; rising] uv/Vvoever, \tc2lcX, wiuW., \5>3LiooV itt, lise^; 
o poetic; oover, e aenaV, kVjuV, ti\^oot, -zi^uo, t.\ie^, ^^^<afi«.\ 



DICTIONARY OF HARD WORDS 423 

practically adv. 'psaektika-h, {often) 'pssekik^-h; {anterior- 
ly) 'psaekti-kali, 'psaektikti. 

practice n. performance, conduct; mode of acting; exercise, 
etc. [also spelt practise, practis} 'psaektis. 

practise v. perform, do, exercise, etc, [also spelt practice, 
practis; past participle and preterit practised, practist"] 
'psaektis. 

practised adj. skild, expert [also spelt practiced, practist} 
'psaektist. 

practiser n. [also spelt practicerl 'p3aekti-S37. 

praecipe n. writ; note [also spelt precipe} 'p3ii-si-pi, 'psii- 
si-pi; 'psesi-pi, 'psesi-pi. 

praemnmire n. writ [also, formerly, spelt premumire} psi- 
mjo'mai-?!, psimjo'mai-^i. 

prairie n. (grassy plain; savanna; steppe) ^psei-zi; {dialec- 
tally) 'p3ee-2i. 

praline n. confection [also spelt praleen; synonymous cog- 
nate prawlini 'p3a:-Hn. 

pram. n. flat-bottomd boat [also spelt praam, prahmej p3a:m. 

prance v. (spring and bound) p3a:ns, plains, p3ae:ns; {also) 
p3a:nts, etc. 

pratique n. license of a ship to hold intercourse with a port 
[also spelt pratici 'psaetik, 'psae-tik, psa'tiik. 

pray v. supplicate; beg [past participle and preterit prayed, 
praydl psee. 

prayer n. (supplication) pse:?; {less properly) 'psee-a?. 

prayer n. (one who prays) 'psee-az. 

preallable adj. {rare) preceding, previous, preliminary [also 
spelt praeallable] psi'aela-bal. 

preamble n. (preface, prolog) 'psii-aembal, psi'aembal. 

prebend n. (portion of revenue granted to a canon, etc.; 
prebendary) 'pse-bend, 'pseband. 

prebendal adj. (of a prebend) psi'bendl, 'pseban-dl. 

prebendary n. (holder of a prebend) p3i'benda-?i, 'pseban- 
de^i. 

precative adj. supplicatory [also spelt precativ} 'pseka-tiv. 

precede v, (go before; occur earlier tha